Goddesses and daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne (goddess of memory) Muses presided over the arts and sciences and inspired all artists, especially poets, philosophers, and musicians
What do you think was Bradstreet’s most poignant inner conflict in her life?
Vocabulary Quiz Friday, 9-16 Piteous—adj. Arousing or deserving of pity. Bereft--v. to deprive of happiness by loss or death. Chide—v. To scold or blame
Repine—v. To complain or fret; to feel discontent Recount—v. To narrate, tell or describe in detail Vanity—n. A thing or act that is worthless or futile. Succor—n. Assistance, aid
Pelf—n. Ill-gotten goods; things acquired by reprehensible means store—n. Accumulated goods Adieu—n. Goodbye; farewell
Abide—v. remain, continue, stay, put up with, tolerate Dunghill n.—pile of manure Mouldering (archaic)—adj. Smoldering
Do you have an interest in Advertising Marketing Song Writing Rapping Creative Writing Writing Journalism…
All of these fields of interest use literary devices to make an impact on their audiences
Poetic Devices Rhyming couplets Pairs of rhyming lines End rhyme pattern for rhyming couplets: AA, BB, CC, DD, etc.
Marking end rhyme pattern Once upon a midnight drearyA While I pondered weak and weary A Over many a quaint and curious volume of forgotten lore B While I nodded nearly napping C Suddenly there came a tappingC As of someone gently rapping, rapping at my chamber door B
Inversion SSwitching the normal syntax (sentence arrangement) IIn silent night when rest I took WWhen I took a rest one silent night
Meter The pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables— rhythm ∕ ∕ ∕ ∕ In silent night when rest I took ∕ = iambic tetrameter
Fixed Form Poetry that adheres to a specific pattern Ex.: meter, rhyme, stanzas
Metaphor The comparison of two seemingly dissimilar things without using the terms like or as. The road is a ribbon wrapped around the mountainside.
Implied metaphor TThe ribbon wrapped around the mountainside. TTwo parts of a metaphor: TTENOR—the actual item, person, idea being discussed VVEHICLE—the item, person, idea used to deliver the imagery
When the tenor is missing, an implied metaphor is created. (Rebecca Nurse is a saint…) (Metaphor) Remove the tenor, Rebecca, and only the vehicle remains This saint refused to confess to a lie. Implied metaphor is created.
Locate the implied (implicit) metaphor in the poem. II have a house on high erect l.43 BBradstreet means to say that heaven is her house on high erect, but she omits the mention of heaven and leaves the word house. SShe has removed heaven, or the real item that she is describing RRemove the tenor--heaven
How many parallels does Bradstreet make between heaven and a real house? It is erected It has an architect It is furnished It is permanent It is purchased and paid for
Extended Metaphor A metaphor that continues to draw parallels and make comparisons between the tenor and the vehicle
Epic Simile Same as extended metaphor but uses the words like or as Heaven is like a house All of the same parallels are drawn between the house and heaven
Parallelism or parallel structure Words or phrases that are similarly constructed and in close proximity to one another. Lines 30-34 Nor at thy table eat a bit No pleasant tale shall e’er be told Nor things recounted done of old No candle… Nor bridegroom’s…
Parallel structure at the beginning of lines Anaphora Nor at thy table eat a bit No pleasant tale shall e’er be told Nor things recounted done of old No candle… Nor bridegroom’s…
Parallel structure at the end of lines Epistrophe -- repetition of a word or phrase at the end of consecutive phrases or lines Lines 7, 8 …light did spy …heart did cry
Another example of Epistrophe Line 25 Here stood that trunk, and there that chest.
Alliteration Repetition of initial consonant sounds in words that are in close proximity to one another That fearful sound of “Fire!” and “Fire!” Locate other examples in the poem
Consonance The repetition of consonant sounds within and at the ends of words. Line 52 Farewell, my pelf, farewell my store Line 12 The flame consume my dwelling place
Assonance The repetition of vowel sounds in closely positioned words—at the beginning, end, or within the words Line 1 In silent night when rest I took Line 42 That dunghill mists away may fly.
Rhetorical Question A question asked without expecting an answer but for the sake of emphasis or effect. (The answer is already known.) Lines 38, 39, 40 “And did thy wealth on earth abide?” (NO)
Rhetorical Fragment A sentence fragment used deliberately for a persuasive purpose or to create a desired effect: “Something to consider.” “Nice job.” It moved forward a step. Then another step.
Oxymoron A rhetorical device in which two seemingly contradictory or incongruous terms are combined for effect: Deafening silence Sweet sorrow Female Puritan poet Oxy—sharp, acute, keen (Greek) Moron—stupid, foolish (Greek)
Personification A figure of speech in which inanimate objects or abstractions are endowed with human qualities or are represented as possessing human form Line 8 And to my God my heart did cry Line 42 That dunghill mists away may fly.
Onomatopoeia The formation or use of words such as buzz or murmur that imitate the sounds associated with the objects or actions they refer to. Line 4 And piteous shrieks of “Fire…”
Synechdoche A figure of speech in which a part is used for the whole (as hand for sailor) OR the whole for a part (as the law for police officer) Keep an eye out for the mailman I bought a new set of wheels
Synecdoche --A part refers to the whole Blue hair = elderly person Mouths to feed = hungry people Threads = clothes
Synecdoche--Whole refers to a part Use your head = brain Pennsylvania passed a bill= the gov’t of PA Kleenex brand = tissue Coke = soda
Synecdoche Line 40 “The arm of flesh didst make thy trust?” Refers to an arm of flesh represents the entire man or person or mankind
Metonymy A figure of speech in which an attribute of a thing or something closely related to it is substituted for the thing itself. Sweat = hard work Dish = meal Hollywood = entertainment industry
Zeugma The use of a verb that has two different meanings with objects that complement both meanings: He lost his keys and his dignity She gained a husband and self-respect
Zeugma "He carried a strobe light and the responsibility for the lives of his men." (Tim O'Brien, The Things They Carried) "You held your breath and the door for me." (Alanis Morissette, "Head over Feet")
Chiasmus A sentence strategy in which the arrangement of ideas in the second clause is a reversal of the first. “Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country.”
Chiasmus "You forget what you want to remember, and you remember what you want to forget." (Cormac McCarthy, The Road, 2006) "I had a teacher I liked who used to say good fiction's job was to comfort the disturbed and disturb the comfortable." (David Foster Wallace)
Asyndeton A deliberate omission of conjunctions in a series of related words, clauses, or phrases. "see no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil.“ "...and that government of the people, by the people, for the people shall not perish from the earth." Abraham Lincoln, Gettysburg Address.Abraham LincolnGettysburg Address
Asyndeton She walked, talked, danced, laughed, cried.
Polysyndeton The deliberate use of many conjunctions Shakespeare’s The Merchant of Venice: “…Peering in maps for ports and piers and roads…”
Polysydeton Walt Whitman “Me toward the Mexican Sea, or in the Mannahatta, or the Tennessee, or far north, or inland…A river man, or a man of the woods, or of any farm-life in These States, or of the coast, or the lakes, or Kanada…”
Periodic Sentence A sentence that makes sense fully only when the end of the sentence is reached. Usually there is a build-up of critical information leading to the final thought: "And though I have the gift of prophecy, and understand all mysteries, and all knowledge; and though I have all faith, so that I could remove mountains, and have not charity, I am nothing."