Presentation on theme: "Sexual Expression: Arousal and Response"— Presentation transcript:
1Sexual Expression: Arousal and Response Chapter TenSexual Expression: Arousal and Response
2Agenda Discuss Influences on Sexuality Review Sexual Response Discuss Solitary Sexual BehaviorDiscuss Sexual Behavior with OthersDiscuss Sexual Behavior Later in LifeDiscuss Safer-Sex Behaviors
3Class Discussion: Sexual Compatibility How would you define sexual compatibility? What could a couple do to assess it?Should a couple try to have an orgasm at the same time?What are the benefits?What are the disadvantages?
4Influences on Sexuality HormonesEthnicityReligion
5HormonesBoth sexes produce estrogen & testosterone, though in different amounts that decrease in ageEstrogen decline in older women slows growth of vaginal cells, which thins the wall, increases dryness, & decreases vaginal sensitivityTestosterone levels remain constant in aging women, which may increase sexual desireAging men experience decreases in testosterone, which can decrease sexual desire and quality & quantity of erections
6EthnicityIn male dominant cultures, women tend to be less knowledgeable & less likely to discuss sexEthnicity can affect our sexual behaviors, frequency, attitudes, communicationsAfrican American men & women have the most partnersWhite & Hispanic women are more likely than black women to be involved in a variety of sexual behaviorsWhite women are more likely than black or Hispanic women to give & receive oral sex
7Religion In general, the more religious a person is: the more conservative their sexual attitudes and behaviorthe less they have premarital intercoursethe less they engage in risky sexual behaviorthe less they approve of oral sexthe more guilt they experience about sexual behavior
8Sexual Response Masters & Johnson’s Four-Phase Sexual Response Cycle The Sexual Response Cycle in WomenThe Sexual Response Cycle in Men
9Studying Sexual Response Sexual response – series of physiological & psychological changes during sexual behavior
10Masters & Johnson’s Four-Phase Sexual Response Cycle Four-phase model of physiological changes that occur during sexual behavior, regardless of sexual orientationFour phases:ExcitementPlateauOrgasmResolution
11The Sexual Response Cycle in Women Sexual response varies in time spent in each phase among women, & with menstrual cycle
12Women: Excitement Phase Excitement: Many stimuli induce excitementThis phase may last minutes to hoursVasocongestion – increased blood flow to the genitals and/or breastsTransudation (vaginal lubrication) occurs within 30 seconds, longer if lying downTenting effect – vaginal walls expandContinued …
13Women: Excitement Phase Breasts & areolas enlarge, nipples erectFor childless women:Labia majora thin & flatten outLabia minora turn bright pink & swellFor women with children:Quick vasocongestion & enlargement of labia majora & minora, clitoris may erectSex flush on chest first, then spreads
14Women: Plateu Phase May last between 30 seconds & 3 minutes Breast size continues to increaseClitoris retracts behind hood shortly before orgasmClitoral hood rubbing & pulling causes the orgasm during sexual intercourseFor childless women:Flattened labia majora & red labia minoraFor women with childrenLabia majora engorge & turn dark redOrgasm can release the pressure from increased vasocongestion
15Women: Orgasm PhaseOrgasmic platform due to vasocongestion in pelvic areaWhen the vasocongestive pressure reaches a threshold, a reflex of surrounding muscles is triggeredThese contractions (primarily uterine muscles) expel the pooled blood & causes pleasurable orgasmic sensations
16Women: Orgasm Phase Orgasmic contractions occur every 0.8 seconds There are 8-15 contractions in women, the first 5-6 are felt most stronglyThis phase has the peak blood pressure and respiration ratesMay reduce menstrual cramps by expelling blood from the region
17Women: Resolution Phase Takes about 5-10 minutesBody returns to preexcitement conditionsBlood leaves the genitals, erections dissipate, muscles relax, heart & breathing rates decreaseSome women can experience multiple orgasms with further stimulationClitoris may still be sensitive
18The Sexual Response Cycle in Men The four-phases are less defined in men
19Men: Excitement Phase Often very short phase Tumescence – vasocongestive swelling of the penisErection is unstableTesticles increase by about 50% in sizeTesticles are pulled closer to the body
20Men: Plateu Phase May develop a sex flush Nipple erections Glans penis engorges with bloodErection is more stablePreejaculatory fluid may appear on the head of the penis
21Men: Orgasm PhaseEjaculation does not always accompany orgasm; men can learn to control itIf ejaculation occurs with orgasm, there are 2 stages:In a few seconds, the vas deferens, seminal vesicles, & prostate gland contractThese contractions will to ejaculatory inevitabilityThese initial contractions, though, can be controlled.semen is forced out of the urethra by muscle contractions that occur every 0.8 seconds, the first 3-4 are felt most strongly
22Men: Resolution Phase Resolution Glans penis decreases in size Refractory stage – period in which men cannot be re-stimulated to orgasmTime period increases as men age
24Class Discussion: Controversy about Masters and Johnson Response Cycle Some disagree with Masters & Johnson’s model because it focuses on orgasmIt lacks relational and emotional qualitiesIt is based on a male model of sexualityHow do relational/emotional qualities influence satisfaction?How can couples be encouraged to enjoy all phases of the sexual response cycle?
25Kaplan’s Triphasic Model Helen Singer Kaplan’s three-stage model of sexual response includes the psychological phase of sexual desire and two physiological stages of excitement and orgasm.Sexual desire was of paramount importance to Kaplan because, without it, the other two physiological functions would not occur.
27Other Models of Sexual Response Reed’s Erotic Stimulus Pathway (ESP)4 phases:Seduction & sensation phases are psychosocial, surrender (orgasm), reflection (reflect on the experience)
28David Reed’s Erotic Stimulus Pathway (ESP) model blends features of Masters and Johnson’s and Kaplan’s models using four phases: seduction, sensation, surrender, and reflection.
29Other Models of Sexual Response Tiefer’s New View modelMany important aspects of sexuality: pleasure, emotionality, sensuality, cultural differences, power issues, communicationWomen’s sexual experiences don’t neatly coincide with Master’s & Johnson’s model
30Solitary Sexual Behavior Sexual FantasyMasturbation
31Sexual Fantasy – Enhancement or Unfaithfulness? Sexual fantasies are normal and healthyThey may be a driving force in human sexualityMen tend to have sexual fantasies and cognitions more often than womenSimilar fantasies regardless of sexual orientation, with the exception of the gender of the fantasized partnerMost people have a select few fantasies
32College Students and Sexual Fantasy The majority use sexual fantasy and feel little guiltSome experience a lot of guilt and this may decrease their engagement in intimate behaviorsSome college student reported jealousy over their partner’s fantasies and equated it with unfaithfulness in a relationship
33Women’s Sexual Fantasies Sexual fantasy is used to increase arousal, self-esteem, & sexual interest, as well as cope with past hurts and relieve stressAge is unrelated to types of sexual fantasiesCompared to men’s fantasies, women’s fantasies tend to:be more passive, submissive, romanticinclude more touching, feeling, partner response, and ambiance
34Women’s Sexual Fantasies 5 most common:sex with current partnerreliving a past sexual experienceengaging in different positionshaving sex in rooms other than the bedroomsex on a carpeted floor
35Women’s Sexual Fantasies Many report using sexual force fantasiesMay reduce guilt for having desiresMay indicate openness to experiencesMay be from past sexual abuseWomen are in control in their fantasies
36Men’s Sexual Fantasies Compared to women’s fantasies, men’s fantasies tend to:Be more active and aggressiveAre more frequent, impersonal, and visualInvolve explicit sex acts and focus on partner as a sex objectInvolve someone other than the current partner
37Men’s Sexual Fantasies 5 most common:different positionshaving an aggressive partnerreceiving oral sexhaving sex with a new partnerhaving sex on the beach
39Class Discussion: Masturbation Why do you think it is more common for men than for women to masturbate?The text suggests that there is a “masturbation taboo” for women. What would contribute to this taboo?
40Masturbation – A Very Individual Choice In the past, masturbation was feared as a cause of mental & physical problemsCurrently it is viewed as a way to promote healthy sexualityIt can decrease sexual tension & anxietyIt can be an outlet for sexual fantasyIt allows a person to test their own bodyCouples can use it during intercourse (mutual masturbation)
41Masturbation – A Very Individual Choice Masturbation is the main sexual outlet in adolescenceIn some cultures it is openly accepted, in some religions it is forbiddenPeople with regular sex masturbate more than those without regular sex
42Female MasturbationThe average women has an orgasm in 95%+ of her masturbatory attemptsMasturbation tends to produce the most intense orgasms in womenMasturbation taboo for women, based on the double standard that women are not sexualMay use vibrators or dildosSome concentrate on the clitoris, vulva, vagina, or anus
43Male MasturbationThe largest gender difference in sexual behavior is in masturbation frequencyMasturbatory men do so 3x more than women48% of single men & 28% of women masturbate weekly or moreNot all men feel comfortable masturbating
44Sexual Behavior with Others ForeplayManual SexOral SexHeterosexual Sexual IntercourseSame-Sex Sexual Techniques
45Class Discussion: Safer Sex There are no sexual behaviors that protect a person 100% of the time—with the exception of solo masturbation and sexual fantasy.“Safer sex” refers to specific sexual behaviors that are safer to engage in because they protect against the risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections.Identify as many specific activities as possible that offer some protection against STIs.What factors influence safer sexual practices?
46Foreplay – The Prelude?Typically defined as everything that happens before penetrationA male dominated viewMany lesbians do not use the term foreplay as all sexual behavior is “sex”
47Manual Sex – A Safer-Sex Behavior “Hand jobs”Physical caressing of the genitals in solo or partner masturbationBodily fluids are not exchanged; safer sexWomen differ in clitoral touching preferencesMany men like strong, consistent strokes of the penis, some light strokes of the scrotum; do not restrict the urethra (underside of penis)More nerve endings at the tip of the penis
48Oral Sex – Not So Taboo Cunnilingus – oral sex on a woman Fellatio – oral sex on a manMajority of Americans have oral sexMany engage in oral sex before they had their first intercourse experienceBlack women engage in less oral sex than white womenPeople with higher education levels tend to engage in more oral sex
49Oral Sex – Not So TabooOral sex is often used as part of foreplay, or instead of other sexual behaviors69 – mutual oral sexAnilingus (rimming) – oral stimulation of the anusHygiene practices are important to reduce possible spread of infectionsMost would rather receive, than give, oral sexCold sores can transmit infections in oral sex
50Cunnilingus Some women have cleanliness concerns Anxieties may prevent women’s enjoymentMany men find it eroticMost women prefer it begin slowly, graduallySome enjoy simultaneous digital stimulation of the vagina or anusAir embolisms may form and be fatal if air is blown into a pregnant woman’s vaginaMost popular lesbian sexual behavior
51Fellatio Most popular sexual behavior for gay men Some men enjoy having one testicle in their partner’s mouth with the tongue stroking itMany enjoy simultaneous hand stimulation of the penile shaft, while the head is sucked onTeeth can cause pain if not covered by the lips
52Fellatio If the male is not infected, swallowing ejaculate is fine Ejaculate is usually larger if a long time has passed since the last ejaculation1-2 teaspoons of semen are ejaculatedEjaculate contains 5 calories of fructose, enzymes, vitaminsEjaculate taste can vary depending on the man’s diet & stress level
53Heterosexual Sexual Intercourse 3 American categories1/3 have intercourse at least 2x/week1/3 have intercourse a few times a month1/3 have intercourse a few times a year or not at allNational average is once a week
54Class DiscussionIf a person can’t reach orgasm during a sexual interaction but doesn’t want to hurt his or her partners’ feelings, do you think it would be OK to fake the orgasm just once? Why or why not?
55Number of sexual partners reported by females and males, years old. Source: National Health and Social Life Survey, as reported in Laumann et al., 1994.
56Heterosexual Sexual Intercourse Pornography reinforces idea that women like fast & rough thrustingLonger thrusting does not mean a woman is closer to an orgasmMost people do not make eye contact in intimate situations
57Positions for Sexual Intercourse There are many positions for intercourseEach has advantages and disadvantagesFour main positions are:Male-on-topFemale-on-topSide-by-sideRear entry
58Male-on-Top “Missionary” “male superior” Male controls the thrusting Advantages: eye contact, kissing, hugging, most effective for procreationDisadvantages: uncomfortable if obese or pregnant, large penis can bump the cervix, difficult to stimulate the clitoris, man must support his weight, difficulties in controlling erection & ejaculation
59Female-on-Top “Female superior” Advantages: woman has greater control, more clitoral stimulation, her partner’s hands are free for further stimulation, eye contact, kissing, huggingDisadvantages: intromission (insertion of penis), some women may be uncomfortable being in an active role, some men may be uncomfortable with their partner in control
60Side-by-SideAdvantages: can take it slow & extend intercourse, hands free for caressing each other, eye contact, kissing, talkingDisadvantages: difficulties with penetration, keeping momentum going, and deep penetration
61Rear-Entry One variation is “doggie-style” Advantages: this can be fast or slow, provide opportunity for clitoral stimulation by either partner, may directly stimulate the G-spot, helps those who are overweight or obese
62Class DiscussionMale-on-top position seems to be the most common position for heterosexual couples despite the fact that there are some significant disadvantages (e.g., muscle strain may led to earlier ejaculation).Why do you think it remains so common?What could help couples try more positions?
63Anal Intercourse Practiced by men & women of all sexual orientations May lead to orgasm, especially with simultaneous clitoral or penile stimulation1/4 of adults have had anal sex at least onceLubrication is required; the tissue is fragile and does not self-lubricateAnal sphincter needs to be relaxedOne of the riskiest sexual behaviors
64Same-Sex Sexual Techniques Gay men use many sexual techniquesMost common is fellatio, followed by mutual masturbation, anal sex, & body rubbingAlso enjoy hugging, kissing, caressingFisting/Hand-balling - the insertion of the fist & sometimes part of the forearm into the anusInterfemoral intercourse – thrust penis between the partner’s thighsButtockry – penile rubbing in the buttocks
65Same-Sex Sexual Techniques Lesbians enjoy many sexual behaviors: kissing, body contact, caressingManual stimulation is the most common practice for lesbians, followed by cunnilingusTribadism – women rub their genitals togetherMay also use fisting, dildos, vibratorsLesbian erotic role identification – “butch” & “femme”; biological & social explanations
66Sexual Behavior Later in Life Physical ChangesChanges in Sexual Behavior
67Physical ChangesMany decreases in sexual functioning are exacerbated by sexual inactivityGood nutrition, physical fitness, adequate rest & sleep, reduced alcohol intake, & positive self-esteem can enhance sexuality throughout life
68Changes in Sexual Behavior 2 most frequent complaints of elderly men:Decrease in sexual desireDecreased ability to performTherefore, intercourse decreases, but masturbation increasesPhysical problems can interfere with sexual functioning: arthritis, diabetes, osteoporosis
69Safer-Sex BehaviorsSome sexual behaviors are safer to engage in because they protects against the risk of acquiring a STIOnly abstinence, solo masturbation, & fantasy protect 100% of the timeSome safer practices: decrease number of partners, know backgrounds of partners, have protected sex, use barrier contraception, limit alcohol intake