Presentation on theme: "Chapter Ten Sexual Expression: Arousal and Response."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter Ten Sexual Expression: Arousal and Response
Agenda Discuss Influences on Sexuality Review Sexual Response Discuss Solitary Sexual Behavior Discuss Sexual Behavior with Others Discuss Sexual Behavior Later in Life Discuss Safer-Sex Behaviors
Class Discussion: Sexual Compatibility How would you define sexual compatibility? What could a couple do to assess it? Should a couple try to have an orgasm at the same time? What are the benefits? What are the disadvantages?
Influences on Sexuality Hormones Ethnicity Religion
Hormones Both sexes produce estrogen & testosterone, though in different amounts that decrease in age Estrogen decline in older women slows growth of vaginal cells, which thins the wall, increases dryness, & decreases vaginal sensitivity Testosterone levels remain constant in aging women, which may increase sexual desire Aging men experience decreases in testosterone, which can decrease sexual desire and quality & quantity of erections
Ethnicity In male dominant cultures, women tend to be less knowledgeable & less likely to discuss sex Ethnicity can affect our sexual behaviors, frequency, attitudes, communications African American men & women have the most partners White & Hispanic women are more likely than black women to be involved in a variety of sexual behaviors White women are more likely than black or Hispanic women to give & receive oral sex
Religion In general, the more religious a person is: the more conservative their sexual attitudes and behavior the less they have premarital intercourse the less they engage in risky sexual behavior the less they approve of oral sex the more guilt they experience about sexual behavior
Sexual Response Masters & Johnson’s Four-Phase Sexual Response Cycle The Sexual Response Cycle in Women The Sexual Response Cycle in Men
Studying Sexual Response Sexual response – series of physiological & psychological changes during sexual behavior
Masters & Johnson’s Four-Phase Sexual Response Cycle Four-phase model of physiological changes that occur during sexual behavior, regardless of sexual orientation Four phases: Excitement Plateau Orgasm Resolution
The Sexual Response Cycle in Women Sexual response varies in time spent in each phase among women, & with menstrual cycle
Women: Excitement Phase Excitement: Many stimuli induce excitement This phase may last minutes to hours Vasocongestion – increased blood flow to the genitals and/or breasts Transudation (vaginal lubrication) occurs within 30 seconds, longer if lying down Tenting effect – vaginal walls expand Continued …
Women: Excitement Phase Breasts & areolas enlarge, nipples erect For childless women: Labia majora thin & flatten out Labia minora turn bright pink & swell For women with children: Quick vasocongestion & enlargement of labia majora & minora, clitoris may erect Sex flush on chest first, then spreads
Women: Plateu Phase May last between 30 seconds & 3 minutes Breast size continues to increase Clitoris retracts behind hood shortly before orgasm Clitoral hood rubbing & pulling causes the orgasm during sexual intercourse For childless women: Flattened labia majora & red labia minora For women with children Labia majora engorge & turn dark red Orgasm can release the pressure from increased vasocongestion
Women: Orgasm Phase Orgasmic platform due to vasocongestion in pelvic area When the vasocongestive pressure reaches a threshold, a reflex of surrounding muscles is triggered These contractions (primarily uterine muscles) expel the pooled blood & causes pleasurable orgasmic sensations
Women: Orgasm Phase Orgasmic contractions occur every 0.8 seconds There are 8-15 contractions in women, the first 5-6 are felt most strongly This phase has the peak blood pressure and respiration rates May reduce menstrual cramps by expelling blood from the region
Women: Resolution Phase Takes about 5-10 minutes Body returns to preexcitement conditions Blood leaves the genitals, erections dissipate, muscles relax, heart & breathing rates decrease Some women can experience multiple orgasms with further stimulation Clitoris may still be sensitive
The Sexual Response Cycle in Men The four-phases are less defined in men
Men: Excitement Phase Often very short phase Tumescence – vasocongestive swelling of the penis Erection is unstable Testicles increase by about 50% in size Testicles are pulled closer to the body
Men: Plateu Phase May develop a sex flush Nipple erections Glans penis engorges with blood Erection is more stable Preejaculatory fluid may appear on the head of the penis
Men: Orgasm Phase Ejaculation does not always accompany orgasm; men can learn to control it If ejaculation occurs with orgasm, there are 2 stages: In a few seconds, the vas deferens, seminal vesicles, & prostate gland contract These contractions will to ejaculatory inevitability These initial contractions, though, can be controlled. semen is forced out of the urethra by muscle contractions that occur every 0.8 seconds, the first 3-4 are felt most strongly
Men: Resolution Phase Resolution Glans penis decreases in size Refractory stage – period in which men cannot be re-stimulated to orgasm Time period increases as men age
Class Discussion: Controversy about Masters and Johnson Response Cycle Some disagree with Masters & Johnson’s model because it focuses on orgasm It lacks relational and emotional qualities It is based on a male model of sexuality How do relational/emotional qualities influence satisfaction? How can couples be encouraged to enjoy all phases of the sexual response cycle?
Kaplan’s Triphasic Model Helen Singer Kaplan’s three-stage model of sexual response includes the psychological phase of sexual desire and two physiological stages of excitement and orgasm. Sexual desire was of paramount importance to Kaplan because, without it, the other two physiological functions would not occur.
Other Models of Sexual Response Reed’s Erotic Stimulus Pathway (ESP) 4 phases: Seduction & sensation phases are psychosocial, surrender (orgasm), reflection (reflect on the experience)
David Reed’s Erotic Stimulus Pathway (ESP) model blends features of Masters and Johnson’s and Kaplan’s models using four phases: seduction, sensation, surrender, and reflection.
Other Models of Sexual Response Tiefer’s New View model Many important aspects of sexuality: pleasure, emotionality, sensuality, cultural differences, power issues, communication Women’s sexual experiences don’t neatly coincide with Master’s & Johnson’s model
Solitary Sexual Behavior Sexual Fantasy Masturbation
Sexual Fantasy – Enhancement or Unfaithfulness? Sexual fantasies are normal and healthy They may be a driving force in human sexuality Men tend to have sexual fantasies and cognitions more often than women Similar fantasies regardless of sexual orientation, with the exception of the gender of the fantasized partner Most people have a select few fantasies
College Students and Sexual Fantasy The majority use sexual fantasy and feel little guilt Some experience a lot of guilt and this may decrease their engagement in intimate behaviors Some college student reported jealousy over their partner’s fantasies and equated it with unfaithfulness in a relationship
Women’s Sexual Fantasies Sexual fantasy is used to increase arousal, self-esteem, & sexual interest, as well as cope with past hurts and relieve stress Age is unrelated to types of sexual fantasies Compared to men’s fantasies, women’s fantasies tend to: be more passive, submissive, romantic include more touching, feeling, partner response, and ambiance
Women’s Sexual Fantasies 5 most common: sex with current partner reliving a past sexual experience engaging in different positions having sex in rooms other than the bedroom sex on a carpeted floor
Women’s Sexual Fantasies Many report using sexual force fantasies May reduce guilt for having desires May indicate openness to experiences May be from past sexual abuse Women are in control in their fantasies
Men’s Sexual Fantasies Compared to women’s fantasies, men’s fantasies tend to: Be more active and aggressive Are more frequent, impersonal, and visual Involve explicit sex acts and focus on partner as a sex object Involve someone other than the current partner
Men’s Sexual Fantasies 5 most common: different positions having an aggressive partner receiving oral sex having sex with a new partner having sex on the beach
Class Discussion: Masturbation Why do you think it is more common for men than for women to masturbate? The text suggests that there is a “masturbation taboo” for women. What would contribute to this taboo?
Masturbation – A Very Individual Choice In the past, masturbation was feared as a cause of mental & physical problems Currently it is viewed as a way to promote healthy sexuality It can decrease sexual tension & anxiety It can be an outlet for sexual fantasy It allows a person to test their own body Couples can use it during intercourse (mutual masturbation)
Masturbation – A Very Individual Choice Masturbation is the main sexual outlet in adolescence In some cultures it is openly accepted, in some religions it is forbidden People with regular sex masturbate more than those without regular sex
Female Masturbation The average women has an orgasm in 95%+ of her masturbatory attempts Masturbation tends to produce the most intense orgasms in women Masturbation taboo for women, based on the double standard that women are not sexual May use vibrators or dildos Some concentrate on the clitoris, vulva, vagina, or anus
Male Masturbation The largest gender difference in sexual behavior is in masturbation frequency Masturbatory men do so 3x more than women 48% of single men & 28% of women masturbate weekly or more Not all men feel comfortable masturbating
Sexual Behavior with Others Foreplay Manual Sex Oral Sex Heterosexual Sexual Intercourse Same-Sex Sexual Techniques
Class Discussion: Safer Sex There are no sexual behaviors that protect a person 100% of the time—with the exception of solo masturbation and sexual fantasy. “Safer sex” refers to specific sexual behaviors that are safer to engage in because they protect against the risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections. Identify as many specific activities as possible that offer some protection against STIs. What factors influence safer sexual practices?
Foreplay – The Prelude? Typically defined as everything that happens before penetration A male dominated view Many lesbians do not use the term foreplay as all sexual behavior is “sex”
Manual Sex – A Safer-Sex Behavior “Hand jobs” Physical caressing of the genitals in solo or partner masturbation Bodily fluids are not exchanged; safer sex Women differ in clitoral touching preferences Many men like strong, consistent strokes of the penis, some light strokes of the scrotum; do not restrict the urethra (underside of penis) More nerve endings at the tip of the penis
Oral Sex – Not So Taboo Cunnilingus – oral sex on a woman Fellatio – oral sex on a man Majority of Americans have oral sex Many engage in oral sex before they had their first intercourse experience Black women engage in less oral sex than white women People with higher education levels tend to engage in more oral sex
Oral Sex – Not So Taboo Oral sex is often used as part of foreplay, or instead of other sexual behaviors 69 – mutual oral sex Anilingus (rimming) – oral stimulation of the anus Hygiene practices are important to reduce possible spread of infections Most would rather receive, than give, oral sex Cold sores can transmit infections in oral sex
Cunnilingus Some women have cleanliness concerns Anxieties may prevent women’s enjoyment Many men find it erotic Most women prefer it begin slowly, gradually Some enjoy simultaneous digital stimulation of the vagina or anus Air embolisms may form and be fatal if air is blown into a pregnant woman’s vagina Most popular lesbian sexual behavior
Fellatio Most popular sexual behavior for gay men Some men enjoy having one testicle in their partner’s mouth with the tongue stroking it Many enjoy simultaneous hand stimulation of the penile shaft, while the head is sucked on Teeth can cause pain if not covered by the lips
Fellatio If the male is not infected, swallowing ejaculate is fine Ejaculate is usually larger if a long time has passed since the last ejaculation 1-2 teaspoons of semen are ejaculated Ejaculate contains 5 calories of fructose, enzymes, vitamins Ejaculate taste can vary depending on the man’s diet & stress level
Heterosexual Sexual Intercourse 3 American categories 1/3 have intercourse at least 2x/week 1/3 have intercourse a few times a month 1/3 have intercourse a few times a year or not at all National average is once a week
Class Discussion If a person can’t reach orgasm during a sexual interaction but doesn’t want to hurt his or her partners’ feelings, do you think it would be OK to fake the orgasm just once? Why or why not?
Number of sexual partners reported by females and males, 18-59 years old. Source: National Health and Social Life Survey, as reported in Laumann et al., 1994.
Heterosexual Sexual Intercourse Pornography reinforces idea that women like fast & rough thrusting Longer thrusting does not mean a woman is closer to an orgasm Most people do not make eye contact in intimate situations
Positions for Sexual Intercourse There are many positions for intercourse Each has advantages and disadvantages Four main positions are: Male-on-top Female-on-top Side-by-side Rear entry
Male-on-Top “Missionary” “male superior” Male controls the thrusting Advantages: eye contact, kissing, hugging, most effective for procreation Disadvantages: uncomfortable if obese or pregnant, large penis can bump the cervix, difficult to stimulate the clitoris, man must support his weight, difficulties in controlling erection & ejaculation
Female-on-Top “Female superior” Advantages: woman has greater control, more clitoral stimulation, her partner’s hands are free for further stimulation, eye contact, kissing, hugging Disadvantages: intromission (insertion of penis), some women may be uncomfortable being in an active role, some men may be uncomfortable with their partner in control
Side-by-Side Advantages: can take it slow & extend intercourse, hands free for caressing each other, eye contact, kissing, talking Disadvantages: difficulties with penetration, keeping momentum going, and deep penetration
Rear-Entry One variation is “doggie-style” Advantages: this can be fast or slow, provide opportunity for clitoral stimulation by either partner, may directly stimulate the G-spot, helps those who are overweight or obese
Class Discussion Male-on-top position seems to be the most common position for heterosexual couples despite the fact that there are some significant disadvantages (e.g., muscle strain may led to earlier ejaculation). Why do you think it remains so common? What could help couples try more positions?
Anal Intercourse Practiced by men & women of all sexual orientations May lead to orgasm, especially with simultaneous clitoral or penile stimulation 1/4 of adults have had anal sex at least once Lubrication is required; the tissue is fragile and does not self-lubricate Anal sphincter needs to be relaxed One of the riskiest sexual behaviors
Same-Sex Sexual Techniques Gay men use many sexual techniques Most common is fellatio, followed by mutual masturbation, anal sex, & body rubbing Also enjoy hugging, kissing, caressing Fisting/Hand-balling - the insertion of the fist & sometimes part of the forearm into the anus Interfemoral intercourse – thrust penis between the partner’s thighs Buttockry – penile rubbing in the buttocks
Same-Sex Sexual Techniques Lesbians enjoy many sexual behaviors: kissing, body contact, caressing Manual stimulation is the most common practice for lesbians, followed by cunnilingus Tribadism – women rub their genitals together May also use fisting, dildos, vibrators Lesbian erotic role identification – “butch” & “femme”; biological & social explanations
Sexual Behavior Later in Life Physical Changes Changes in Sexual Behavior
Physical Changes Many decreases in sexual functioning are exacerbated by sexual inactivity Good nutrition, physical fitness, adequate rest & sleep, reduced alcohol intake, & positive self-esteem can enhance sexuality throughout life
Changes in Sexual Behavior 2 most frequent complaints of elderly men: Decrease in sexual desire Decreased ability to perform Therefore, intercourse decreases, but masturbation increases Physical problems can interfere with sexual functioning: arthritis, diabetes, osteoporosis
Safer-Sex Behaviors Some sexual behaviors are safer to engage in because they protects against the risk of acquiring a STI Only abstinence, solo masturbation, & fantasy protect 100% of the time Some safer practices: decrease number of partners, know backgrounds of partners, have protected sex, use barrier contraception, limit alcohol intake