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IV. Optics Wavelength decreases  Frequency increases  Note: 1 nanometer = 10 -9 meter Nature of light. Spectrum of electromagnetic waves. 1.

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Presentation on theme: "IV. Optics Wavelength decreases  Frequency increases  Note: 1 nanometer = 10 -9 meter Nature of light. Spectrum of electromagnetic waves. 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 IV. Optics Wavelength decreases  Frequency increases  Note: 1 nanometer = meter Nature of light. Spectrum of electromagnetic waves. 1

2 A. Geometric optics 2. Reflection 1. Wave front and rays 3. Refraction: Snell’s Law index of refraction: rays wave fronts Example: n1n1 n2n2 n3n3 inout normal to surface diffuse reflection 2

3 Example: 3

4 Example: Equilateral triangle n=1.52 4

5 4. Total internal reflection Example: 5

6 Example: A ray of light is incident in air on a block of a transparent solid whose index of refraction is n. If n =1.38, what is the largest angle θ 1 for which total internal reflection will occur at the vertical face (point A)? n=1.38 A Example: α α α n=1.52 6

7 1) Binoculars often use total internal reflection; this gives true 100% reflection, which even the best mirror cannot do. 4a. Applications of total internal reflection 2) Fiber optics. The typical value of the index of refraction for optical fibers: for the core n=1.48 for the cladding n= An image can be formed using multiple small fibers Light will be transmitted along the fiber even if it is not straight

8 5. Plane mirror O I dodo didi O I dodo didi Image in plane mirror: virtual erect the same size d o = d i 6. Comments about objects and images created by different optical instruments: curved mirrors, lenses and their combinations Image: real or virtual erect or inverted lager, smaller, or the same size as the object h o = h i 8


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