Presentation on theme: "Chapter 10 Sexual Expression. Figure 10.1 Lifetime Sexual Behavior in the U.S. – 2006-2008."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 10 Sexual Expression
Figure 10.1 Lifetime Sexual Behavior in the U.S. –
Hormones and Neurotransmitters Both sexes produce estrogen & testosterone, although in different amounts that decrease with age Estrogen decline in older women slows growth of vaginal cells, which thins the wall, increases dryness, & decreases vaginal sensitivity Testosterone levels remain constant in aging women, which may increase sexual desire
Hormones and Neurotransmitters Aging men experience decreases in testosterone; can lead to decreased sexual desire, decreased quality and quantity of erections Neurotransmitters oxytocin, serotonin, dopamine, and vasopressin affect desire, arousal and orgasm
Family Background We internalize norms about sexual attitudes and behaviors from family of origin Children with married parents have more conservative attitudes about sex; are more likely to have witnessed displays of affection between parents and to have talked to parents about sex; have fewer lifetime sexual partners Black teens have vaginal intercourse earlier, lower rates of contraceptive use; higher pregnancy and birth rates; highest rates of adult sexual behavior
Ethnicity Ethnicity can affect our sexual behaviors, frequency, attitudes, communications Race is one of most influential variables affecting sexual attitudes and behaviors Racial and ethnic identities closely tied to religion
Figure 10.2 Number of other sex partners in lifetime for female and males yrs by ethnicity/race U.S.,
Religion In general, the more religious people are: – the more conservative their sexual attitudes and behavior – the less they have premarital intercourse – the less they engage in risky sexual behavior – the less they approve of oral sex – the more guilt they experience about sexual behavior
Studying Sexual Response Sexual response – series of physiological and psychological changes during sexual behavior Masters & Johnson’s Four-Phase Sexual Response Cycle – The Sexual Response Cycle in Women – The Sexual Response Cycle in Men Helen Singer Kaplan’s Triphasic Model David Reed’s Erotic Stimulus Pathway Future Directions in Sexual Response Models
Masters and Johnson’s Four-Phase Sexual Response Cycle Four-phase model of physiological changes that occur during sexual behavior, regardless of sexual orientation Four phases: – Excitement – Plateau – Orgasm – Resolution
Figure 10.3 Variations within male and female response cycles.
The Sexual Response Cycle in Women Time in each phase of sexual response varies among women and with menstrual cycle Excitement: Many stimuli induce excitement – Can last minutes to hours – Vasocongestion – increased blood flow to the genitals and/or breasts – Transudation (vaginal lubrication) occurs within 30 seconds, longer if lying down – Tenting effect – vaginal walls expand
The Sexual Response Cycle in Women (Cont.) Excitement (Cont.) – Breasts and areolas enlarge, nipples erect – For childless women: Labia majora thin and flatten out Labia minora turn bright pink and swell – For women who have delivered children: Quick vasocongestion & enlargement of labia majora & minora, clitoris may erect – Sex flush on chest first, then spreads
The Sexual Response Cycle in Women (Cont.) Plateau Phase – May last between 30 seconds and 3 minutes – Breast size continues to increase – Clitoris retracts behind hood shortly before orgasm – Clitoral hood rubbing and pulling causes the orgasm during sexual intercourse
The Sexual Response Cycle in Women (Cont.) Plateau (Cont.) – For childless women: Flattened labia majora and red labia minora – For women who have delivered children: Labia majora engorge, turn dark red – Orgasm releases pressure from vasocongestion
The Sexual Response Cycle in Women (Cont.) Orgasm Phase – Orgasmic platform due to vasocongestion in pelvic area – When the vasocongestive pressure reaches a threshold, a reflex of surrounding muscles is triggered – Contractions (primarily uterine muscles) expel the pooled blood and causes pleasurable orgasmic sensations
The Sexual Response Cycle in Women (Cont.) Orgasm (Cont.) – Orgasmic contractions occur every 0.8 seconds – Are 8 to 15 contractions in women, the first 5 to 6 are felt most strongly – Peak blood pressure and respiration rates – May reduce menstrual cramps by expelling blood from the region
The Sexual Response Cycle in Women (Cont.) Resolution Phase – Takes about 5-10 minutes – Body returns to pre-excitement condition – Blood leaves the genitals, nipple erections dissipate, muscles relax, heart and breathing rates decrease – Multiple orgasms with further stimulation in some women – Clitoris may still be sensitive
Figure 10.4 Internal changes in the female sexual response cycle.
Figure 10.5 External changes in the female sexual response cycle.
The Sexual Response Cycle in Men The four-phases are less defined in men Excitement Phase – Often very short phase – Tumescence – vasocongestive swelling of the penis – Erection is unstable – Testicles increase by about 50% in size – Testicles are pulled closer to the body
The Sexual Response Cycle in Men (Cont.) Plateau Phase – May develop a sex flush – Nipple erections – Glans penis engorges with blood – Erection is more stable – Pre-ejaculatory fluid may appear on head of penis
The Sexual Response Cycle in Men (Cont.) Orgasm Phase – Ejaculation does not always accompany orgasm – If ejaculation occurs with orgasm, there are 2 stages: Within a few seconds, the vas deferens, seminal vesicles, and prostate gland contract, leading to ejaculatory inevitability
The Sexual Response Cycle in Men (Cont.) Orgasm (Cont.) Semen is forced out of the urethra by muscle contractions that occur every 0.8 seconds, the first 3-4 are strongest – Some men can teach themselves to have multiple orgasms by practicing delaying and withholding ejaculation
The Sexual Response Cycle in Men (Cont.) Resolution Phase – Glans penis decreases in size – Refractory stage – period in which men cannot be re-stimulated to orgasm Time period increases as men age
Figure 10.6 External and internal changes in the male sexual response cycle.
Helen Singer Kaplan’s Triphasic Model Sexual response starts with psychological component Three phases: Desire is psychological phase Excitement is physiological phase Orgasm is physiological phase
Figure 10.7 Helen Singer Kaplan’s three-stage model of sexual response includes the psychological phase of sexual desire and two physiological stages of excitement and orgasm.
David Reed’s Erotic Stimulus Pathway Reed’s Erotic Stimulus Pathway (ESP) – 4 phases: Seduction (a psychosocial phase) Sensation (a psychosocial phase) Surrender (orgasm) Reflection (reflect on the experience)
Figure 10.8 David Reeds’s Erotic Stimulus Pathway (ESP) model blends features of Masters and Johnson’s and Kaplan’s models using four phases: seduction, sensation, surrender, and reflection.
Solitary Sexual Behavior Sexual Fantasy – Women’s Sexual Fantasies – Men’s Sexual Fantasies Masturbation
Sexual Fantasy Sexual fantasies are normal and healthy They may be a driving force in human sexuality Men tend to have sexual fantasies and cognitions more often than women Similar fantasies regardless of sexual orientation, with the exception of the gender of the fantasized partner Most people have a select few fantasies
Women’s Sexual Fantasies Sexual fantasy is used to increase arousal, self- esteem, and sexual interest; to cope with past hurts and relieve stress Age is unrelated to types of sexual fantasies Compared to men’s fantasies, women’s fantasies tend to: – be more passive, submissive, romantic – include more touching, feeling, partner response, and ambiance
Women’s Sexual Fantasies (Cont.) 5 most common: – Sex with current partner – Reliving a past sexual experience – Engaging in different positions – Having sex in rooms other than the bedroom – Sex on a carpeted floor
Women’s Sexual Fantasies (Cont.) Many report using sexual force fantasies – May reduce guilt for having desires – May indicate openness to experiences – May be from past sexual abuse Women are in control in their fantasies
Men’s Sexual Fantasies Compared to women’s fantasies, men’s fantasies tend to: – Be more active and aggressive – Are more frequent, impersonal, and visual – Involve explicit sex acts and focus on partner as a sex object – Involve someone other than the current partner
Men’s Sexual Fantasies (Cont.) 5 most common: – Different positions – Having an aggressive partner – Receiving oral sex – Having sex with a new partner – Having sex on the beach
Masturbation In the past, masturbation was feared as a cause of mental and physical problems Currently viewed as a way to promote healthy sexuality – Can decrease sexual tension and anxiety – Can be an outlet for sexual fantasy – Allows a person to test own body – Couples can use mutual masturbation during intercourse
Masturbation (Cont.) Unrelated to health or relationship status Masturbation is the main sexual outlet in adolescence Common throughout the lifespan for men and women Women more likely to feel stigma against masturbation More than half of women aged 18 to 49-years old masturbate (highest in the 25 to 29 group) Common and frequent component of male sexual behaviors Highest among males 25 to 39-years old
Masturbation (Cont.) May use vibrators or dildos Cultural and religious taboos can lead to increased guilt Asian American women masturbate significantly less than non-Asian women
Partnered Sexual Behavior Foreplay Manual Sex Oral Sex Vaginal Intercourse Anal Intercourse Same-Sex Sexual Techniques
Foreplay Typically defined as everything that happens before penetration For many, caressing, fondling and snuggling are foreplay
Manual Sex “Hand jobs” Physical caressing of the genitals in solo or partner masturbation Less common than solo masturbation Less common than solo masturbation among black men and women Women differ in clitoral touching preferences Many men like strong, consistent strokes of the penis; some light strokes of the scrotum; do not restrict the urethra Most nerve endings at the tip of the penis
Oral Sex Cunnilingus – oral sex on a woman Fellatio – oral sex on a man Majority of Americans have oral sex Many engage in oral sex before first intercourse Black women engage in less oral sex than white women
Oral Sex (Cont.) Oral sex is often used as part of foreplay, or instead of other sexual behaviors “69” – mutual oral sex Anilingus (rimming) – oral stimulation of the anus – Hygiene practices are important to reduce possible spread of infections Most would rather receive, than give, oral sex Cold sores can transmit infections in oral sex
Cunnilingus Some women have cleanliness concerns Anxieties may prevent women’s enjoyment Many men find it erotic Most women prefer it begin slowly, gradually Some enjoy simultaneous digital stimulation of the vagina or anus Air embolisms may form and be fatal if air is blown into a pregnant woman’s vagina Most popular lesbian sexual behavior
Fellatio Most popular sexual behavior for gay men Some men enjoy having one testicle in their partner’s mouth with the tongue stroking it Many enjoy simultaneous hand stimulation of the penile shaft, while the head is sucked Teeth can cause pain if not covered by the lips
Fellatio (Cont.) If the male is not infected, swallowing ejaculate is fine Ejaculate is usually larger if a long time has passed since the last ejaculation 1-2 teaspoons of semen are ejaculated Ejaculate contains 5 calories of fructose, enzymes, vitamins Ejaculate taste can vary depending on the man’s diet and stress level
Vaginal Intercourse 3 American categories – 1/3 have intercourse at least 2x/week – 1/3 have intercourse a few times a month – 1/3 have intercourse a few times a year or not at all Vaginal intercourse is most common sexual behavior among men and women of all ages and ethnicities With age, frequency of vaginal intercourse decreases
Vaginal Intercourse (Cont.) Pornography reinforces idea that women like fast and rough thrusting Longer thrusting does not mean a woman is closer to an orgasm Heterosexual intercourse typically lasts from 3 to 13 minutes Most people do not make eye contact in intimate situations
Figure Frequency of vaginal intercourse by age for partnered and married men. U.S., 2010.
Positions for Vaginal Intercourse Are many positions for intercourse Each has advantages and disadvantages Four main positions are: – Male-on-top – Female-on-top – Side-by-side – Rear-entry
Male-on-Top “Missionary,” “male superior” Male controls the thrusting Advantages: eye contact, kissing, hugging, most effective for procreation Disadvantages: uncomfortable if obese or pregnant, large penis can bump the cervix, difficult to stimulate the clitoris, man must support his weight, difficulties in controlling erection and ejaculation
Female-on-Top “Female superior” Advantages: woman has greater control, more clitoral stimulation, her partner’s hands are free for further stimulation, eye contact, kissing, hugging Disadvantages: some women may be uncomfortable being in an active role, some men may be uncomfortable with their partner in control
Side-by-Side Advantages: can take it slow and extend intercourse, hands free for caressing each other, eye contact, kissing, talking Disadvantages: difficulties with penetration, keeping momentum going, and deep penetration
Rear-Entry One variation is “doggie-style” Advantages: can be fast or slow, provides opportunity for clitoral stimulation by either partner, may directly stimulate the G-spot, helps those who are overweight or obese
Anal Intercourse Practiced by men and women of all sexual orientations May lead to orgasm, especially with simultaneous clitoral or penile stimulation 1/4 of adults have had anal sex at least once Lubrication is required; the tissue is fragile and does not self-lubricate Anal sphincter needs to be relaxed One of the riskiest sexual behaviors
Sexual Behavior Later in Life Physical Changes Changes in Sexual Behavior
Figure Percentage of men and women years old reporting engaging in vaginal intercourse within the past year.
Physical Changes Many decreases in sexual functioning are exacerbated by sexual inactivity Good nutrition, physical fitness, adequate rest and sleep, reduced alcohol intake, and positive self-esteem can enhance sexuality throughout life
Changes in Sexual Behavior Two most frequent complaints of elderly men: – Decrease in sexual desire – Decreased ability to perform Therefore, intercourse decreases, but masturbation increases Physical problems can interfere with sexual functioning: arthritis, diabetes, osteoporosis
Safer-Sex Behaviors Some sexual behaviors are safer to engage in because they protects against the risk of acquiring a STI Only abstinence, solo masturbation, and fantasy protect 100% of the time Some safer practices: decrease number of partners, know backgrounds of partners, have protected sex, use barrier contraception, limit alcohol intake