2 Figure 10.1 Lifetime Sexual Behavior in the U.S. – 2006-2008
3 Hormones and Neurotransmitters Both sexes produce estrogen & testosterone, although in different amounts that decrease with ageEstrogen decline in older women slows growth of vaginal cells, which thins the wall, increases dryness, & decreases vaginal sensitivityTestosterone levels remain constant in aging women, which may increase sexual desire
4 Hormones and Neurotransmitters Aging men experience decreases in testosterone; can lead to decreased sexual desire, decreased quality and quantity of erectionsNeurotransmitters oxytocin, serotonin, dopamine, and vasopressin affect desire, arousal and orgasm
5 Family BackgroundWe internalize norms about sexual attitudes and behaviors from family of originChildren with married parents have more conservative attitudes about sex; are more likely to have witnessed displays of affection between parents and to have talked to parents about sex; have fewer lifetime sexual partnersBlack teens have vaginal intercourse earlier, lower rates of contraceptive use; higher pregnancy and birth rates; highest rates of adult sexual behavior
6 EthnicityEthnicity can affect our sexual behaviors, frequency, attitudes, communicationsRace is one of most influential variables affecting sexual attitudes and behaviorsRacial and ethnic identities closely tied to religion
7 Figure 10.2 Number of other sex partners in lifetime for female and males yrs by ethnicity/race U.S.,
8 Religion In general, the more religious people are: the more conservative their sexual attitudes and behaviorthe less they have premarital intercoursethe less they engage in risky sexual behaviorthe less they approve of oral sexthe more guilt they experience about sexual behavior
9 Studying Sexual Response Sexual response – series of physiological and psychological changes during sexual behaviorMasters & Johnson’s Four-Phase Sexual Response CycleThe Sexual Response Cycle in WomenThe Sexual Response Cycle in MenHelen Singer Kaplan’s Triphasic ModelDavid Reed’s Erotic Stimulus PathwayFuture Directions in Sexual Response Models
10 Masters and Johnson’s Four-Phase Sexual Response Cycle Four-phase model of physiological changes that occur during sexual behavior, regardless of sexual orientationFour phases:ExcitementPlateauOrgasmResolution
11 Figure 10.3 Variations within male and female response cycles.
12 The Sexual Response Cycle in Women Time in each phase of sexual response varies among women and with menstrual cycleExcitement: Many stimuli induce excitementCan last minutes to hoursVasocongestion – increased blood flow to the genitals and/or breastsTransudation (vaginal lubrication) occurs within 30 seconds, longer if lying downTenting effect – vaginal walls expand
13 The Sexual Response Cycle in Women (Cont.) Excitement (Cont.)Breasts and areolas enlarge, nipples erectFor childless women:Labia majora thin and flatten outLabia minora turn bright pink and swellFor women who have delivered children:Quick vasocongestion & enlargement of labia majora & minora, clitoris may erectSex flush on chest first, then spreads
14 The Sexual Response Cycle in Women (Cont.) Plateau PhaseMay last between 30 seconds and 3 minutesBreast size continues to increaseClitoris retracts behind hood shortly before orgasmClitoral hood rubbing and pulling causes the orgasm during sexual intercourse
15 The Sexual Response Cycle in Women (Cont.) Plateau (Cont.)For childless women:Flattened labia majora and red labia minoraFor women who have delivered children:Labia majora engorge, turn dark redOrgasm releases pressure from vasocongestion
16 The Sexual Response Cycle in Women (Cont.) Orgasm PhaseOrgasmic platform due to vasocongestion in pelvic areaWhen the vasocongestive pressure reaches a threshold, a reflex of surrounding muscles is triggeredContractions (primarily uterine muscles) expel the pooled blood and causes pleasurable orgasmic sensations
17 The Sexual Response Cycle in Women (Cont.) Orgasm (Cont.)Orgasmic contractions occur every 0.8 secondsAre 8 to 15 contractions in women, the first 5 to 6 are felt most stronglyPeak blood pressure and respiration ratesMay reduce menstrual cramps by expelling blood from the region
18 The Sexual Response Cycle in Women (Cont.) Resolution PhaseTakes about 5-10 minutesBody returns to pre-excitement conditionBlood leaves the genitals, nipple erections dissipate, muscles relax, heart and breathing rates decreaseMultiple orgasms with further stimulation in some womenClitoris may still be sensitive
19 Figure 10.4 Internal changes in the female sexual response cycle.
20 Figure 10.5 External changes in the female sexual response cycle.
21 The Sexual Response Cycle in Men The four-phases are less defined in menExcitement PhaseOften very short phaseTumescence – vasocongestive swelling of the penisErection is unstableTesticles increase by about 50% in sizeTesticles are pulled closer to the body
22 The Sexual Response Cycle in Men (Cont.) Plateau PhaseMay develop a sex flushNipple erectionsGlans penis engorges with bloodErection is more stablePre-ejaculatory fluid may appear on head of penis
23 The Sexual Response Cycle in Men (Cont.) Orgasm PhaseEjaculation does not always accompany orgasmIf ejaculation occurs with orgasm, there are 2 stages:Within a few seconds, the vas deferens, seminal vesicles, and prostate gland contract, leading to ejaculatory inevitability
24 The Sexual Response Cycle in Men (Cont.) Orgasm (Cont.)Semen is forced out of the urethra by muscle contractions that occur every 0.8 seconds, the first 3-4 are strongestSome men can teach themselves to have multiple orgasms by practicing delaying and withholding ejaculation
25 The Sexual Response Cycle in Men (Cont.) Resolution PhaseGlans penis decreases in sizeRefractory stage – period in which men cannot be re-stimulated to orgasmTime period increases as men age
26 Figure 10.6 External and internal changes in the male sexual response cycle.
27 Helen Singer Kaplan’s Triphasic Model Sexual response starts with psychological componentThree phases:Desire is psychological phaseExcitement is physiological phaseOrgasm is physiological phase
28 Figure 10.7 Helen Singer Kaplan’s three-stage model of sexual response includes the psychological phase of sexual desire and two physiological stages of excitement and orgasm.
29 David Reed’s Erotic Stimulus Pathway Reed’s Erotic Stimulus Pathway (ESP)4 phases:Seduction (a psychosocial phase)Sensation (a psychosocial phase)Surrender (orgasm)Reflection (reflect on the experience)
30 Figure 10.8 David Reeds’s Erotic Stimulus Pathway (ESP) model blends features of Masters and Johnson’s and Kaplan’s models using four phases: seduction, sensation, surrender, and reflection.
31 Solitary Sexual Behavior Sexual FantasyWomen’s Sexual FantasiesMen’s Sexual FantasiesMasturbation
32 Sexual Fantasy Sexual fantasies are normal and healthy They may be a driving force in human sexualityMen tend to have sexual fantasies and cognitions more often than womenSimilar fantasies regardless of sexual orientation, with the exception of the gender of the fantasized partnerMost people have a select few fantasies
33 Women’s Sexual Fantasies Sexual fantasy is used to increase arousal, self-esteem, and sexual interest; to cope with past hurts and relieve stressAge is unrelated to types of sexual fantasiesCompared to men’s fantasies, women’s fantasies tend to:be more passive, submissive, romanticinclude more touching, feeling, partner response, and ambiance
34 Women’s Sexual Fantasies (Cont.) 5 most common:Sex with current partnerReliving a past sexual experienceEngaging in different positionsHaving sex in rooms other than the bedroomSex on a carpeted floor
35 Women’s Sexual Fantasies (Cont.) Many report using sexual force fantasiesMay reduce guilt for having desiresMay indicate openness to experiencesMay be from past sexual abuseWomen are in control in their fantasies
36 Men’s Sexual Fantasies Compared to women’s fantasies, men’s fantasies tend to:Be more active and aggressiveAre more frequent, impersonal, and visualInvolve explicit sex acts and focus on partner as a sex objectInvolve someone other than the current partner
37 Men’s Sexual Fantasies (Cont.) 5 most common:Different positionsHaving an aggressive partnerReceiving oral sexHaving sex with a new partnerHaving sex on the beach
38 MasturbationIn the past, masturbation was feared as a cause of mental and physical problemsCurrently viewed as a way to promote healthy sexualityCan decrease sexual tension and anxietyCan be an outlet for sexual fantasyAllows a person to test own bodyCouples can use mutual masturbation during intercourse
39 Masturbation (Cont.) Unrelated to health or relationship status Masturbation is the main sexual outlet in adolescenceCommon throughout the lifespan for men and womenWomen more likely to feel stigma against masturbationMore than half of women aged 18 to 49-years old masturbate (highest in the 25 to 29 group)Common and frequent component of male sexual behaviorsHighest among males 25 to 39-years old
40 Masturbation (Cont.) May use vibrators or dildos Cultural and religious taboos can lead to increased guiltAsian American women masturbate significantly less than non-Asian women
41 Partnered Sexual Behavior ForeplayManual SexOral SexVaginal IntercourseAnal IntercourseSame-Sex Sexual Techniques
42 ForeplayTypically defined as everything that happens before penetrationFor many, caressing, fondling and snuggling are foreplay
43 Manual Sex“Hand jobs”Physical caressing of the genitals in solo or partner masturbationLess common than solo masturbationLess common than solo masturbation among black men and womenWomen differ in clitoral touching preferencesMany men like strong, consistent strokes of the penis; some light strokes of the scrotum; do not restrict the urethraMost nerve endings at the tip of the penis
44 Oral Sex Cunnilingus – oral sex on a woman Fellatio – oral sex on a manMajority of Americans have oral sexMany engage in oral sex before first intercourseBlack women engage in less oral sex than white women
45 Oral Sex (Cont.)Oral sex is often used as part of foreplay, or instead of other sexual behaviors“69” – mutual oral sexAnilingus (rimming) – oral stimulation of the anusHygiene practices are important to reduce possible spread of infectionsMost would rather receive, than give, oral sexCold sores can transmit infections in oral sex
46 Cunnilingus Some women have cleanliness concerns Anxieties may prevent women’s enjoymentMany men find it eroticMost women prefer it begin slowly, graduallySome enjoy simultaneous digital stimulation of the vagina or anusAir embolisms may form and be fatal if air is blown into a pregnant woman’s vaginaMost popular lesbian sexual behavior
47 Fellatio Most popular sexual behavior for gay men Some men enjoy having one testicle in their partner’s mouth with the tongue stroking itMany enjoy simultaneous hand stimulation of the penile shaft, while the head is suckedTeeth can cause pain if not covered by the lips
48 Fellatio (Cont.)If the male is not infected, swallowing ejaculate is fineEjaculate is usually larger if a long time has passed since the last ejaculation1-2 teaspoons of semen are ejaculatedEjaculate contains 5 calories of fructose, enzymes, vitaminsEjaculate taste can vary depending on the man’s diet and stress level
49 Vaginal Intercourse 3 American categories 1/3 have intercourse at least 2x/week1/3 have intercourse a few times a month1/3 have intercourse a few times a year or not at allVaginal intercourse is most common sexual behavior among men and women of all ages and ethnicitiesWith age, frequency of vaginal intercourse decreases
50 Vaginal Intercourse (Cont.) Pornography reinforces idea that women like fast and rough thrustingLonger thrusting does not mean a woman is closer to an orgasmHeterosexual intercourse typically lasts from 3 to 13 minutesMost people do not make eye contact in intimate situations
51 Figure 10.14 Frequency of vaginal intercourse by age for partnered and married men. U.S., 2010.
52 Positions for Vaginal Intercourse Are many positions for intercourseEach has advantages and disadvantagesFour main positions are:Male-on-topFemale-on-topSide-by-sideRear-entry
53 Male-on-Top “Missionary,” “male superior” Male controls the thrusting Advantages: eye contact, kissing, hugging, most effective for procreationDisadvantages: uncomfortable if obese or pregnant, large penis can bump the cervix, difficult to stimulate the clitoris, man must support his weight, difficulties in controlling erection and ejaculation
54 Female-on-Top “Female superior” Advantages: woman has greater control, more clitoral stimulation, her partner’s hands are free for further stimulation, eye contact, kissing, huggingDisadvantages: some women may be uncomfortable being in an active role, some men may be uncomfortable with their partner in control
55 Side-by-SideAdvantages: can take it slow and extend intercourse, hands free for caressing each other, eye contact, kissing, talkingDisadvantages: difficulties with penetration, keeping momentum going, and deep penetration
56 Rear-Entry One variation is “doggie-style” Advantages: can be fast or slow, provides opportunity for clitoral stimulation by either partner, may directly stimulate the G-spot, helps those who are overweight or obese
57 Anal Intercourse Practiced by men and women of all sexual orientations May lead to orgasm, especially with simultaneous clitoral or penile stimulation1/4 of adults have had anal sex at least onceLubrication is required; the tissue is fragile and does not self-lubricateAnal sphincter needs to be relaxedOne of the riskiest sexual behaviors
58 Sexual Behavior Later in Life Physical ChangesChanges in Sexual Behavior
59 Figure Percentage of men and women years old reporting engaging in vaginal intercourse within the past year.
60 Physical ChangesMany decreases in sexual functioning are exacerbated by sexual inactivityGood nutrition, physical fitness, adequate rest and sleep, reduced alcohol intake, and positive self-esteem can enhance sexuality throughout life
61 Changes in Sexual Behavior Two most frequent complaints of elderly men:Decrease in sexual desireDecreased ability to performTherefore, intercourse decreases, but masturbation increasesPhysical problems can interfere with sexual functioning: arthritis, diabetes, osteoporosis
62 Safer-Sex BehaviorsSome sexual behaviors are safer to engage in because they protects against the risk of acquiring a STIOnly abstinence, solo masturbation, and fantasy protect 100% of the timeSome safer practices: decrease number of partners, know backgrounds of partners, have protected sex, use barrier contraception, limit alcohol intake