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Indian Institute of Pulses Research

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Presentation on theme: "Indian Institute of Pulses Research"— Presentation transcript:

1 Indian Institute of Pulses Research
Research priorities -feasibility of plant ideotypes for ease of operations vis-à-vis yield improvement N. Nadarajan Director Indian Institute of Pulses Research Kanpur

2 Different pulse growing situations of India
Crop Total area (m.ha) Crop season Major states Chickpea 9.21 Rabi (Oct-Mar) M.P., Rajasthan, Maharashtra, A.P., Karnataka, U.P. Pigeonpea 4.42 Kharif (June-Feb) Maharashtra, Karnataka, U.P., Gujarat, A.P., M.P. Greengram (Mungbean) 3.55 Kharif (July-Sept) Rabi (Oct – Jan) Spring/Summer (Mar-June) Rice fallow (Nov –Mar) Rajasthan, Maharashtra, A.P., Karnataka, Bihar, Gujarat Blackgram (Urdbean) 3.26 Kharif (Jul-Sept) U.P., Maharashtra, A.P., M.P., T.N., Rajasthan Lentil 1.60 U.P., M.P., Bihar, W.B., Rajasthan Fieldpea 0.72 U.P., M.P., Jharkhand, Bihar, Assam

3 Major yield limiting trait/climatic factors of pulses in contrasting agroclimatic zones
Stress Yield limiting constraints Strategies to improve yield North High biomass Temperature extremities Crop duration long, frost damage, flower drop Earliness with high biomass, high input responsiveness, lodging resistance & tolerance to terminal heat and drought stress South Low biomass Terminal drought Crop duration short due to inadequate supporting biomass, harsh post-anthesis period Improved biomass, earliness and tolerance to terminal drought

4 Major focused research programmes of IIPR
Pre-breeding and genetic enhancement for breaking yield barriers Development of pod borer resistant transgenic in chickpea & pigeonpea Development of hybrids in pigeonpea Enhancing resource use efficiency in pulses under rice fallows Functional genomics in chickpea Climate resilience in major pulses Improving heat tolerance in chickpea

5 Major operations with possibility of mechanization in pulses
Preparation of seed bed, raised bed/ridges-furrows Sowing Weeding Plant protection Harvesting Threshing Post harvest management

6 Scope of mechanization in pulses production
Field preparation - Ridge maker Sowing- Tractor operated seed drill Pre-emergence herbicide spray Weeding through power operated weeders Spraying – multi bloom sprayer Harvest – combined harvester

7 General plant ideotype concept in pulses
Determinate plant type Erect and upright plant Average plant height Early vigour, early flowering and synchronous maturity Pod bearing from well above the soil surface More pods/plant and more number of seeds /pod High harvest index Yield stability

8 Chickpea Rainfed condition Early vigour
50-60 cm plant height with 9-10 secondary branches Tall, erect or semi-erect plant More number of pods per plant Podding from 10th node

9 Chickpea Irrigated condition High input responsiveness
Tall (75-90 cm) and erect habit with broom shaped branching behaviour Synchronous flowering, delayed senescence and determinancy Long fruiting branches and short inter nodes Lodging resistance Pod bearing from 20 cm above the ground

10 Chickpea Rice-fallow (Eastern India) For milling
Early vigour and high biomass Short duration ( days) 50-60 cm plant height Terminal drought tolerance 2-3 primary branches, 9-10 secondary branches For milling Small seeded type Thin seed coat

11 Chickpea plant type North India: High biomass, more primary branches, Long duration South India: low biomass, less primary branches, short duration

12 Pigeonpea Long and medium duration
Semi-dwarf plant type (1.5 – 1.8 m) for mechanized plant protection Open canopy with determinancy Non-cluster pod bearing Long fruiting branches for high yield Middle and top bearing Spreading type for intercropping in south and central India Compact plant type for intercropping in northern India

13 Long fruiting branches Non cluster pod bearing Determinate plant type
Pigeonpea plant types Long fruiting branches Top pod bearing Non cluster pod bearing Determinate plant type

14 Mungbean Kharif season Optimum duration (65-75 days)
Balanced vegetative growth Clear distinction between vegetative and reproductive phase Tall plants ( cm) with more branches Synchronous maturity More no. of clusters/plant and pods/cluster More number of seeds/pod Shattering and pre-harvest sprouting tolerance

15 Mungbean Spring/Summer season Shorter duration (50-60 days)
Medium plant height (60-80 cm) Determinate growth habit and synchronous maturity High initial growth vigor More number of pods at top of plant and non-shattering habit Longer pods with >10seeds/pod Tolerance to terminal heat stress

16 Mungbean Rice-fallow (Peninsular India) Prolific root system
Narrow leaf Early seedling vigour and high biomass Photo-thermo-insensitivity and synchronous maturity (60-65 days) Shattering resistance Terminal drought tolerance

17 Urdbean Kharif (North India)/rabi (South India)
Optimum maturity (65-75 days) Determinate and bushy plant type Upright plant growth habit Optimum plant height (70-80 cm) High number of clusters/plant and pods/cluster Sympodial bearing Synchronous maturity More number of seeds/pod (7-9) Sympodial branching

18 Urdbean Summer/spring season Optimum duration ( 60-70 days)
Determinate growth habit and synchronous maturity High initial growth vigor Sympodial bearing Tolerance to terminal heat stress Medium plant height (60-75 cm) Longer pods with > 7 seeds/pod Podding above plant canopy

19 Urdbean Rice-fallow Prolific root system Narrow leaf
Early seedling vigour Photo-thermo-insensitivity and synchronous maturity Terminal drought tolerance

20 Early maturity and drought tolerance
Lentil Optimum duration ( days for central India, days for north India) Compact type with strong collar region and stiff stem Tall (50-60 cm) and erect plant Lodging resistance Pod bearing from 8th node Prolific root system Pods borne well above the soil surface (>10 cm) Reduced pod dehiscence Large seeds (>3 g/100 seeds) Early maturity and drought tolerance

21 Lentil Eastern India / Rice fallow (Utera system) High seedling vigour
Prolific root system Early maturity ( days) and high biomass Small seed size ( g/100 seeds) Pods borne well above the soil surface (>15 cm) Terminal heat and drought tolerance

22 Lentil plant type Small seeded Large seeded

23 Lodging Resistant plant type
Fieldpea Semi-dwarf ( cm) plant type with tendrils Lodging resistance : stiff stem Early flowering with determinate growth habit More number of pods/plant 8-10 seeds per pod Lodging plant type More seeds/pod Lodging Resistant plant type

24 Efforts at IIPR towards developing ideotypes in pulses
Broadening the genetic base for restructuring plant types Wide hybridization garden of major pulses available Wild and exotic lines have been collected from areas of diversity within India and procured from international Institutes Pre-breeding initiated in Vigna, chickpea, lentil and pigeonpea Distant cross progenies are in various stages of selection for identification of suitable pulse ideotypes

25 Thanks

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