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Indian Institute of Pulses Research Kanpur 208 024 Research priorities -feasibility of plant ideotypes for ease of operations vis-à-vis yield improvement.

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Presentation on theme: "Indian Institute of Pulses Research Kanpur 208 024 Research priorities -feasibility of plant ideotypes for ease of operations vis-à-vis yield improvement."— Presentation transcript:

1 Indian Institute of Pulses Research Kanpur Research priorities -feasibility of plant ideotypes for ease of operations vis-à-vis yield improvement N. Nadarajan Director

2 Different pulse growing situations of India CropTotal area (m.ha) Crop seasonMajor states Chickpea9.21Rabi (Oct-Mar)M.P., Rajasthan, Maharashtra, A.P., Karnataka, U.P. Pigeonpea4.42Kharif (June-Feb)Maharashtra, Karnataka, U.P., Gujarat, A.P., M.P. Greengram (Mungbean) 3.55Kharif (July-Sept) Rabi (Oct – Jan) Spring/Summer (Mar-June) Rice fallow (Nov –Mar) Rajasthan, Maharashtra, A.P., Karnataka, Bihar, Gujarat Blackgram (Urdbean) 3.26Kharif (Jul-Sept) Rabi (Oct – Jan) Spring/Summer (Mar-June) Rice fallow (Nov –Mar) U.P., Maharashtra, A.P., M.P., T.N., Rajasthan Lentil1.60Rabi (Oct-Mar)U.P., M.P., Bihar, W.B., Rajasthan Fieldpea0.72Rabi (Oct-Mar)U.P., M.P., Jharkhand, Bihar, Assam

3 Major yield limiting trait/climatic factors of pulses in contrasting agroclimatic zones ZoneTraitStressYield limiting constraints Strategies to improve yield NorthHigh biomass Temperature extremities Crop duration long, frost damage, flower drop Earliness with high biomass, high input responsiveness, lodging resistance & tolerance to terminal heat and drought stress SouthLow biomass Terminal drought Crop duration short due to inadequate supporting biomass, harsh post-anthesis period Improved biomass, earliness and tolerance to terminal drought

4 Major focused research programmes of IIPR  Pre-breeding and genetic enhancement for breaking yield barriers  Development of pod borer resistant transgenic in chickpea & pigeonpea  Development of hybrids in pigeonpea  Enhancing resource use efficiency in pulses under rice fallows  Functional genomics in chickpea  Climate resilience in major pulses  Improving heat tolerance in chickpea

5 Major operations with possibility of mechanization in pulses Preparation of seed bed, raised bed/ridges-furrows Sowing Weeding Plant protection Harvesting Threshing Post harvest management

6 Scope of mechanization in pulses production Field preparation - Ridge maker Sowing- Tractor operated seed drill Pre-emergence herbicide spray Weeding through power operated weeders Spraying – multi bloom sprayer Harvest – combined harvester

7 General plant ideotype concept in pulses  Determinate plant type  Erect and upright plant  Average plant height  Early vigour, early flowering and synchronous maturity  Pod bearing from well above the soil surface  More pods/plant and more number of seeds /pod  High harvest index  Yield stability

8  Early vigour  cm plant height with 9-10 secondary branches  Tall, erect or semi-erect plant  More number of pods per plant  Podding from 10 th node Rainfed condition

9  High input responsiveness  Tall (75-90 cm) and erect habit with broom shaped branching behaviour  Synchronous flowering, delayed senescence and determinancy  Long fruiting branches and short inter nodes  Lodging resistance  Pod bearing from 20 cm above the ground Irrigated condition

10  Early vigour and high biomass  Short duration ( days)  cm plant height  Terminal drought tolerance  2-3 primary branches, 9-10 secondary branches  Small seeded type  Thin seed coat Rice-fallow (Eastern India) For milling

11 Chickpea plant type North India: High biomass, more primary branches, Long duration South India: low biomass, less primary branches, short duration

12  Semi-dwarf plant type (1.5 – 1.8 m) for mechanized plant protection  Open canopy with determinancy  Non-cluster pod bearing  Long fruiting branches for high yield  Middle and top bearing  Spreading type for intercropping in south and central India  Compact plant type for intercropping in northern India Long and medium duration

13 Long fruiting branchesTop pod bearing Non cluster pod bearing Determinate plant type

14  Optimum duration (65-75 days)  Balanced vegetative growth  Clear distinction between vegetative and reproductive phase  Tall plants ( cm) with more branches  Synchronous maturity  More no. of clusters/plant and pods/cluster  More number of seeds/pod  Shattering and pre-harvest sprouting tolerance Kharif season

15  Shorter duration (50-60 days)  Medium plant height (60-80 cm)  Determinate growth habit and synchronous maturity  High initial growth vigor  More number of pods at top of plant and non-shattering habit  Longer pods with >10seeds/pod  Tolerance to terminal heat stress Spring/Summer season

16  Prolific root system  Narrow leaf  Early seedling vigour and high biomass  Photo-thermo-insensitivity and synchronous maturity (60-65 days)  Shattering resistance  Terminal drought tolerance Rice-fallow (Peninsular India)

17  Optimum maturity (65-75 days)  Determinate and bushy plant type  Upright plant growth habit  Optimum plant height (70-80 cm)  High number of clusters/plant and pods/cluster  Sympodial bearing  Synchronous maturity  More number of seeds/pod (7-9) Sympodial branching Kharif (North India)/rabi (South India)

18 Summer/spring season  Optimum duration ( days)  Determinate growth habit and synchronous maturity  High initial growth vigor  Sympodial bearing  Tolerance to terminal heat stress  Medium plant height (60-75 cm)  Longer pods with > 7 seeds/pod Podding above plant canopy

19 Rice-fallow  Prolific root system  Narrow leaf  Early seedling vigour  Photo-thermo-insensitivity and synchronous maturity  Terminal drought tolerance

20  Optimum duration ( days for central India, days for north India)  Compact type with strong collar region and stiff stem  Tall (50-60 cm) and erect plant  Lodging resistance  Pod bearing from 8 th node  Prolific root system  Pods borne well above the soil surface (>10 cm)  Reduced pod dehiscence  Large seeds (>3 g/100 seeds) Early maturity and drought tolerance

21  High seedling vigour  Prolific root system  Early maturity ( days) and high biomass  Small seed size ( g/100 seeds)  Pods borne well above the soil surface (>15 cm)  Terminal heat and drought tolerance Eastern India / Rice fallow (Utera system)

22 Lentil plant type Small seeded Large seeded

23  Semi-dwarf ( cm) plant type with tendrils  Lodging resistance : stiff stem  Early flowering with determinate growth habit  More number of pods/plant  8-10 seeds per pod Lodging plant type Lodging Resistant plant type More seeds/pod

24 Efforts at IIPR towards developing ideotypes in pulses  Wide hybridization garden of major pulses available  Wild and exotic lines have been collected from areas of diversity within India and procured from international Institutes  Pre-breeding initiated in Vigna, chickpea, lentil and pigeonpea  Distant cross progenies are in various stages of selection for identification of suitable pulse ideotypes Broadening the genetic base for restructuring plant types

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