Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

PowerPoint Lecture Outlines to accompany

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "PowerPoint Lecture Outlines to accompany"— Presentation transcript:

1 PowerPoint Lecture Outlines to accompany
Hole’s Human Anatomy and Physiology Eleventh Edition Shier w Butler w Lewis Chapter 22 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

2 Chapter 22 Reproductive Systems
Male reproductive organs

3 Male Reproductive Organs
posterior view

4 Descent of the Testes During fetal development, each testis develops near a kidney and then descends through an inguinal canal and enters the scrotum completing the journey by the eighth gestational month.

5 Structure of the Testes

6 Formation of Sperm Cells

7 Spermatogenesis

8 Crossing Over mixes up genetic traits
different colors represent the fact that one homologous chromosome comes from the individual’s father and one from the mother

9 Crossing Over the genetic information in sperm cells and egg cells varies from cell to cell

10 Structure of a Sperm Cell

11 Male Internal Accessory Organs
epididymides vasa deferentia seminal vesicles prostate gland bulbourethral glands

12 Epididymides tightly coiled tubes connected to ducts within testis
promote maturation of sperm cells

13 Vasa Deferentia muscular tubes about 45 cm each
extends from epididymis to ejaculatory duct

14 Seminal Vesicles attached to vas deferens near base of bladder
secrete alkaline fluid secrete fructose and prostaglandins contents empty into ejaculatory duct

15 Prostate Gland surrounds proximal portion of urethra
ducts of gland open into urethra secretes a thin, milky, alkaline fluid secretion enhances fluid mobility composed of tubular glands in connective tissue also contains smooth muscle

16 Bulbourethral Glands inferior to the prostate gland
secrete mucus-like fluid fluid released in response to sexual stimulation

17 Semen sperm cells secretions of seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and bulbourethral glands slightly alkaline prostaglandins nutrients 120 million sperm cells per milliliter

18 Male External Reproductive Organs
scrotum penis

19 Scrotum pouch of skin and subcutaneous tissue
dartos muscle – smooth muscle in subcutaneous tissue; contracts to cause wrinkling of the scrotum medial septum divides scrotum into two chambers each chamber lines with a serous membrane each chamber houses a testis and epididymis

20 Penis conveys urine and semen
specialized to become erect for insertion into the vagina

21 Penis

22 Erection, Orgasm, and Ejaculation
parasympathetic nerve impulses blood accumulates in erectile tissues Orgasm culmination of sexual stimulation accompanied by emission and ejaculation Ejaculation emission is the movement of semen into urethra ejaculation is the movement of semen out of the urethra largely dependent on sympathetic nerve impulses

23 Mechanism of Penile Erection

24 Mechanism of Emission and Ejaculation

25 Functions of the Male Reproductive Organs

26 Hormonal Control of Male Reproductive Functions
hypothalamus controls maturation of sperm cells and development of male secondary sex characteristics negative feedback among the hypothalamus, the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, and the testes controls the concentration of testosterone

27 Actions of Testosterone
increased growth of body hair sometimes decreased growth of scalp hair enlargement of larynx and thickening of vocal cords thickening of skin increased muscular growth thickening and strengthening of the bones

28 Organs of the Female Reproductive System

29 Transverse Section of Female Pelvic Cavity

30 Ovary Attachments

31 Primordial Follicles

32 Oogenesis the process of egg cell formation

33 Follicle Maturation Primordial follicle Mature (Graafian) follicle

34 Follicle Maturation

35 Ovulation

36 Ovulation

37 Female Internal Accessory Organs
uterine tubes uterus vagina

38 Uterine Tubes convey eggs toward the uterus

39 Lining of Uterine Tubes

40 Uterine Wall

41 Uterus hollow muscular organ that receives the embryo that has been fertilized in the uterine tube

42 Vagina fibromuscular tube that conveys uterine secretions, receives the penis during intercourse, and provides an open channel for offspring

43 Female External Reproductive Organs
labia majora labia minora clitoris vestibular glands

44 Labia Majora rounded folds of adipose tissue and skin
enclose and protect the other external reproductive parts ends form a rounded elevation over the symphysis pubis

45 Labia Minora flattened, longitudinal folds between the labia majora
well supplied with blood vessels

46 Clitoris small projection at the anterior end of the vulva
analogous to the male penis composed of two columns of erectile tissue root is attached to the sides of the pubic arch

47 Vestibule space between the labia minora that encloses the vaginal and urethral openings vestibular glands secrete mucus into the vestibule during sexual stimulation

48 Functions of the Female Reproductive Organs

49 Erection, Lubrication, and Orgasm

50 Hormonal Control of Female Reproductive Functions
estrogens inhibit LH and FSH during most of the reproductive cycle

51 Effects of Estrogens development of breasts and ductile system of the mammary glands increased adipose tissue in breasts, thighs, and buttocks increases vascularization of skin

52 Female Reproductive Cycle

53 Female Reproductive Cycle

54 Hormonal Control of Female Secondary Sex Characteristics

55 Menopause usually occurs in late 40s or early 50s
reproductive cycles stop ovaries no longer produce as much estrogens and progesterone some female secondary sex characteristics may disappear may produce hot flashes and fatigue hormone therapy may prevent effects on bone tissue

56 Mammary Glands located in the subcutaneous tissue of the anterior thorax within the breasts composed of lobes estrogens stimulate breast development in females

57 Birth Control coitus interruptus rhythm method mechanical barriers
condom diaphragm cervical cap spermicidal foams or jellies chemical barriers spermicides oral contraceptives hormonal injectable contraception intrauterine devices surgical methods vasectomy tubal ligation

58 Surgical Methods of Birth Control
Vasectomy Tubal ligation

59 Sexually Transmitted Diseases
silent infections most are bacterial and can be cured herpes, warts, and AIDS are viral and cannot be cured many cause infertility AIDS causes death symptoms of STDs include burning sensation during urination pain in lower abdomen fever or swollen glands discharge from vagina or penis pain, itch, or inflammation in genital or anal area sores, blisters, bumps or rashes itchy runny eyes

60 Clinical Application Prostate Enlargement
benign prostatic hypertrophy occurs in most men over 50 BPH causes frequent urination risk factors include a fatty diet, having had a vasectomy, exposure to certain environmental factors, and inheriting a a particular gene that also causes breast cancer treatments include surgical removal, drugs, insertion of balloon into urethra, freezing of tumor, or insertion of a stent between lobes of prostate to relieve pressure on urethra

Download ppt "PowerPoint Lecture Outlines to accompany"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google