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1 PowerPoint Lecture Outlines to accompany Hole’s Human Anatomy and Physiology Eleventh Edition Shier  Butler  Lewis Chapter 22 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill.

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Presentation on theme: "1 PowerPoint Lecture Outlines to accompany Hole’s Human Anatomy and Physiology Eleventh Edition Shier  Butler  Lewis Chapter 22 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 PowerPoint Lecture Outlines to accompany Hole’s Human Anatomy and Physiology Eleventh Edition Shier  Butler  Lewis Chapter 22 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

2 2 Chapter 22 Reproductive Systems Male reproductive organs

3 3 Male Reproductive Organs posterior view

4 4 Descent of the Testes During fetal development, each testis develops near a kidney and then descends through an inguinal canal and enters the scrotum completing the journey by the eighth gestational month.

5 5 Structure of the Testes

6 6 Formation of Sperm Cells

7 7 Spermatogenesis

8 8 Crossing Over mixes up genetic traits different colors represent the fact that one homologous chromosome comes from the individual’s father and one from the mother

9 9 Crossing Over the genetic information in sperm cells and egg cells varies from cell to cell

10 10 Structure of a Sperm Cell

11 11 Male Internal Accessory Organs epididymides vasa deferentia seminal vesicles prostate gland bulbourethral glands

12 12 Epididymides tightly coiled tubes connected to ducts within testis promote maturation of sperm cells

13 13 Vasa Deferentia muscular tubes about 45 cm each extends from epididymis to ejaculatory duct

14 14 Seminal Vesicles attached to vas deferens near base of bladder secrete alkaline fluid secrete fructose and prostaglandins contents empty into ejaculatory duct

15 15 Prostate Gland surrounds proximal portion of urethra ducts of gland open into urethra secretes a thin, milky, alkaline fluid secretion enhances fluid mobility composed of tubular glands in connective tissue also contains smooth muscle

16 16 Bulbourethral Glands inferior to the prostate gland secrete mucus-like fluid fluid released in response to sexual stimulation

17 17 Semen sperm cells secretions of seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and bulbourethral glands slightly alkaline prostaglandins nutrients 120 million sperm cells per milliliter

18 18 Male External Reproductive Organs scrotum penis

19 19 Scrotum pouch of skin and subcutaneous tissue dartos muscle – smooth muscle in subcutaneous tissue; contracts to cause wrinkling of the scrotum medial septum divides scrotum into two chambers each chamber lines with a serous membrane each chamber houses a testis and epididymis

20 20 Penis conveys urine and semen specialized to become erect for insertion into the vagina

21 21 Penis

22 22 Erection, Orgasm, and Ejaculation Erection parasympathetic nerve impulses blood accumulates in erectile tissues Orgasm culmination of sexual stimulation accompanied by emission and ejaculation Ejaculation emission is the movement of semen into urethra ejaculation is the movement of semen out of the urethra largely dependent on sympathetic nerve impulses

23 23 Mechanism of Penile Erection

24 24 Mechanism of Emission and Ejaculation

25 25 Functions of the Male Reproductive Organs

26 26 Hormonal Control of Male Reproductive Functions hypothalamus controls maturation of sperm cells and development of male secondary sex characteristics negative feedback among the hypothalamus, the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, and the testes controls the concentration of testosterone

27 27 Actions of Testosterone increased growth of body hair sometimes decreased growth of scalp hair enlargement of larynx and thickening of vocal cords thickening of skin increased muscular growth thickening and strengthening of the bones

28 28 Organs of the Female Reproductive System

29 29 Transverse Section of Female Pelvic Cavity

30 30 Ovary Attachments

31 31 Primordial Follicles

32 32 Oogenesis the process of egg cell formation

33 33 Follicle Maturation Mature (Graafian) folliclePrimordial follicle

34 34 Follicle Maturation

35 35 Ovulation

36 36 Ovulation

37 37 Female Internal Accessory Organs uterine tubes uterus vagina

38 38 Uterine Tubes convey eggs toward the uterus

39 39 Lining of Uterine Tubes

40 40 Uterine Wall

41 41 Uterus hollow muscular organ that receives the embryo that has been fertilized in the uterine tube

42 42 Vagina fibromuscular tube that conveys uterine secretions, receives the penis during intercourse, and provides an open channel for offspring

43 43 Female External Reproductive Organs labia majora labia minora clitoris vestibular glands

44 44 Labia Majora rounded folds of adipose tissue and skin enclose and protect the other external reproductive parts ends form a rounded elevation over the symphysis pubis

45 45 Labia Minora flattened, longitudinal folds between the labia majora well supplied with blood vessels

46 46 Clitoris small projection at the anterior end of the vulva analogous to the male penis composed of two columns of erectile tissue root is attached to the sides of the pubic arch

47 47 Vestibule space between the labia minora that encloses the vaginal and urethral openings vestibular glands secrete mucus into the vestibule during sexual stimulation

48 48 Functions of the Female Reproductive Organs

49 49 Erection, Lubrication, and Orgasm

50 50 Hormonal Control of Female Reproductive Functions estrogens inhibit LH and FSH during most of the reproductive cycle

51 51 Effects of Estrogens development of breasts and ductile system of the mammary glands increased adipose tissue in breasts, thighs, and buttocks increases vascularization of skin

52 52 Female Reproductive Cycle

53 53 Female Reproductive Cycle

54 54 Hormonal Control of Female Secondary Sex Characteristics

55 55 Menopause usually occurs in late 40s or early 50s reproductive cycles stop ovaries no longer produce as much estrogens and progesterone some female secondary sex characteristics may disappear may produce hot flashes and fatigue hormone therapy may prevent effects on bone tissue

56 56 Mammary Glands located in the subcutaneous tissue of the anterior thorax within the breasts composed of lobes estrogens stimulate breast development in females

57 57 Birth Control coitus interruptus rhythm method mechanical barriers condom diaphragm cervical cap spermicidal foams or jellies chemical barriers spermicides oral contraceptives hormonal injectable contraception hormonal intrauterine devices surgical methods vasectomy tubal ligation

58 58 Surgical Methods of Birth Control VasectomyTubal ligation

59 59 Sexually Transmitted Diseases silent infections most are bacterial and can be cured herpes, warts, and AIDS are viral and cannot be cured many cause infertility AIDS causes death symptoms of STDs include burning sensation during urination pain in lower abdomen fever or swollen glands discharge from vagina or penis pain, itch, or inflammation in genital or anal area sores, blisters, bumps or rashes itchy runny eyes

60 60 Clinical Application Prostate Enlargement benign prostatic hypertrophy occurs in most men over 50 BPH causes frequent urination risk factors include a fatty diet, having had a vasectomy, exposure to certain environmental factors, and inheriting a a particular gene that also causes breast cancer treatments include surgical removal, drugs, insertion of balloon into urethra, freezing of tumor, or insertion of a stent between lobes of prostate to relieve pressure on urethra

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