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Male Sexual Anatomy and Physiology

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Presentation on theme: "Male Sexual Anatomy and Physiology"— Presentation transcript:

1 Male Sexual Anatomy and Physiology
Lucy Capuano Brewer, Psychology Psy 25 – Chapter 5

2 External Male Sexual Anatomy and Physiology
Penis Scrotum

3 Penis The tube shaped organ that swells with blood during sexual arousal. The penis is composed of 3 sections: The root, (base) which anchors penis within the body The shaft, which is the main portion of penis existing outside the body The glans penis (the head), a blunt or conical highly sensitive widened tip. The tissue that swells during an erection consists of 3 cylinders... 2 of which are called the corpus cavernosum on the top 1 of which is called the corpus spongiosum on the underside

4 Corpus Cavernosa Corpus Spongiosum

5 Foreskin All males are born with a foreskin.
A foreskin is a loose collection of skin that surrounds the glans. This skin attaches to the shaft of the penis just proximal to the head. When the penis is flaccid, this foreskin extends over the glans. When the penis is erect the glans protrudes from the foreskin.

6 Male Circumcision During a circumcision, the prepuce of the foreskin, which is the skin that covers the tip of the penis, is removed. Circumcision is usually performed on the first or second day after birth. It becomes more complicated and riskier in infants older than 2 months and in boys and men. The procedure takes only about 5 to 10 minutes. A local anesthetic (numbing medicine) can be given to your baby to lessen the pain from the procedure. Studies about the benefits of circumcision have provided conflicting results The American Pediatric Association stands neutral in this subject

7 Scrotum Pouch containing testes
Active sperm require a temperature of about 93.6 F That's 5 degrees below normal body temperature. To provide this environment, muscles in the scrotum regulate the temperature of the testes by pulling them closer to the body for warmth or letting them hang further from the body for cooling. The left teste usually hangs slightly lower than the right in order to prevent uncomfortable collisions between the testes while walking. The testes are also drawn close to the body during sex.

8 Nonsurgical methods of penis enlargement
NOTE** The Food and Drug Administration, the government agency that regulates medications and medical devices, has never approved any medications or devices for enlarging a penis. There are four basic types of nonsurgical penis enlargement: Manual stretching or squeezing. These exercises are supposed to be performed 30 minutes a day for an indefinite period of time. Although they may be safer than other methods, they can lead to scar formation, pain and disfigurement. Stretching with penile weights. This technique is very likely to cause permanent penile damage. Vacuum pumps. Because pumps draw blood into the penis and make it swell, they're useful in the treatment of impotence (erectile dysfunction). This may create an illusion of a larger penis, but results are seldom permanent. Repeated use can damage elastic tissue in the penis, leading to less-firm erections. Pills and lotions. These usually contain vitamins, minerals, herbs or hormones such as testosterone; there's no evidence that it or any other substance can increase penis size in adult men.

9 Surgical methods of penis enlargement
Cosmetic surgeons have developed several different enlargement techniques, none of them endorsed by medical organizations - all issued policy statements against cosmetic surgical procedures to enhance the penis. To lengthen a penis, surgery typically involves snipping the suspensory ligament that attaches the penis to the pubic bone and moving skin from the abdomen to the penile shaft. The suspensory ligament stabilizes and gives an upward tilt to an erect penis. When this ligament is cut, the penis may look longer because more of it hangs outside the body. But cutting the suspensory ligament can cause an erect penis to wobble and position itself at odd angles, particularly when erect. Surgery to make the penis thicker involves suctioning fat from a fleshy part of the body and injecting the fat into the penis. Another technique is simply to graft fat cut away from the buttocks or abdomen onto the penile shaft. Some practitioners use tissue from cadavers. None of these techniques have been shown to be safe or effective. The cost: about $10,000 for a typical penis-enlargement surgery. Not covered by insurance (Cosmetic)

10 Internal Male Sexual Organs

11 Internal Male Sexual Organs
Include: the testes, the epididymis, the vas deferens, the seminal vesicles, the prostate gland, and the Cowper’s glands. The testes, (To Testify) the paired, oval-shaped organs that produce sperm and male sex hormones, are located in the scrotum. They are highly innervated and sensitive to touch and pressure. The testes produce testosterone, which is responsible for the development of male sexual characteristics and sex drive (libido).


13 The epididymis are the two highly coiled tubes against the back side of the testes where sperm mature and are stored until they are released during ejaculation. The Vas Deferens are the paired tubes that carry the mature sperm from the epididimys to the urethra. The seminal vesicles are a pair of glandular sacs that secrete about 60% of the fluid that makes up the semen in which sperm are transported. Seminal fluid provides nourishment for sperm. The prostate gland is a walnut-sized, glandular structure that secretes about 30% of the fluid that makes up semen. The prostate gland is very sensitive to stimulation and can be a source of sexual pleasure for some men. The Cowper’s glands are two pea-sized glands at the base of the penis under the prostate gland that secrete a clear alkaline fluid into the urethra during sexual arousal and before orgasm and ejaculation. These glands produce pre-ejaculatory fluid in the urethra that acts as a lubricant for the sperm and coats the urethra as semen flows out of the penis (PRECUM)

14 Semen The whitish fluid expelled through the opening of the penis (urethra) during ejaculation. Most of the ejaculate is made up of the fluid that supports the sperm. Besides sperm, (1%)  semen is made up of fluids; 65% from the seminal vesicles, 30 to 35% from the prostate and 5% from the vasa. The amount of ejaculate you produce can vary, from just a few drops to about a teaspoon full (2 to 6 ml). One amount of ejaculate may contain between 40 million to 600 million sperm depending on the volume and the length of time stored before ejaculating. Yet, the quantity of sperm produced will only cover the head of a pin.

15 Journey of the Sperm interstitial cells- testosterone

16 Journey of the Sperm sperm production in the seminferous tubules

17 Journey of the Sperm sperm storage in the epididymis

18 Journey of the Sperm transport in the vas deferens

19 Journey of the Sperm ampulla - storage

20 Journey of the Sperm fluid from the seminal vessicles ejaculatory duct

21 Journey of the Sperm fluid from the prostate gland

22 Journey of the Sperm cowper’s gland

23 Journey of the Sperm ejaculation

24 Erectile and Ejaculatory Abnormalities
Peyronie’s disease: An abnormal condition characterized by an excessive curvature of the penis that can make erection quite painful Etiology: buildup of fibrous tissue in the penile shaft. It usually requires medical attention.

25 Phimosis Phimosis is a medical condition in which the foreskin of the penis of an uncircumcised male cannot be fully retracted. The word derives from the Greek phimos ("muzzle"). In the United States, circumcision is the surgical treatment of choice for correction of phimosis

26 Retrograde ejaculation:
Ejaculation in which the ejaculate empties into the bladder. The external sphincter remains closed  preventing the expulsion of the seminal fluid; the internal sphincter remains open  allowing the ejaculate to empty into the bladder. The result is a dry orgasm. Etiology: possible (earlier types of ) prostate surgery, tranquilizers, illness, and accidents. Harmless  discharged with urine. Infertility may be the result.

27 Priapism: Painful erections that persist for hours or days. Etiology: mechanisms that drain the blood that erects the penis are damaged and so cannot return the blood to the circulatory system. Caused by the following medical conditions: leukemia, sickle cell anemia, or diseases of the spinal cord. Treatment: may become a medical emergency, since prolonged erections beyond six hours can starve the penile tissues of oxygen, leading to permanent tissue deterioration. Surgery or drugs are sometimes used.

28 Testicular Cancer Cancer of the testicles is fairly uncommon, affecting about 7,000 men a year in the United States.  Risk factors for testicular cancer include: Age: testicular cancer is most common in adolescents and young adults up to age 40. It is the most common form of cancer in young men. Family history: if a man has testicular cancer, his male relatives are at increased risk. Cryptorchidism: a condition in which one or both of the testicles fail to descend from the abdomen into the scrotum during infancy. Prior cancer history: a man who has had cancer in one testicle has a higher risk of getting it in the remaining testicle than someone who's never had testicular cancer. Symptoms Men are usually the first to find testicular tumors, during a bath or other hygiene ritual. Monthly self-examination of the testicles is recommended for all men, particularly those with one or more risk factors. Symptoms may include: A painless lump on the testicle A heavy feeling in the scrotum A testicle that looks enlarged or feels different Breast tenderness/breast growth (rare)

29 Self Exam for Testicular Cancer
A testicular self exam is best performed after a warm bath or shower. Heat relaxes the scrotum, making it easier to spot anything abnormal. The National Cancer Institute recommends following these steps every month: Stand in front of a mirror. Check for any swelling on the scrotum skin. Examine each testicle with both hands. Place the index and middle fingers under the testicle with the thumbs placed on top. Roll the testicle gently between the thumbs and fingers. Don't be alarmed if one testicle seems slightly larger than the other. That's normal. Find the epididymis, the soft, tubelike structure behind the testicle that collects and carries sperm. If you are familiar with this structure, you won't mistake it for a suspicious lump. Cancerous lumps usually are found on the sides of the testicle but can also show up on the front. If you find a lump, see a doctor right away. The abnormality may not be cancer, but if it is, the chances are great it can spread if not stopped by treatment. Only a physician can make a positive diagnosis.

30 Prostate Cancer The Facts*
About 70% of all diagnosed cancers: men aged 65 years or older. Over the past 20 years, the survival rate increased from 67% to 97%. Studies have found the following risk factors for prostate cancer: Age: Age is the main risk factor for prostate cancer. This disease is rare in men younger than 45. The chance of getting it goes up sharply as a man gets older. Family history: A man's risk is higher if there is family history Race: Prostate cancer is more common in African American Diet: Some studies suggest that men who eat a diet high in animal fat or meat may be at increased risk for prostate cancer. Screening: Digital Rectal Exam: The doctor inserts a lubricated, gloved finger into the rectum and feels the prostate through the rectal wall. The prostate is checked for hard or lumpy areas. Blood test for PSA: A lab checks the level of PSA in a man's blood sample. Prostate cancer may also cause a high PSA level. The digital rectal exam and PSA test can detect a problem in the prostate. They cannot show whether the problem is cancer or a less serious condition.

31 Symptoms A man with prostate cancer may not have any symptoms. For men who have symptoms of prostate cancer, common symptoms include: Urinary problems Not being able to urinate Having a hard time starting or stopping the urine flow Needing to urinate often, especially at night Weak flow of urine Urine flow that starts and stops Pain or burning during urination Difficulty having an erection Blood in the urine or semen Frequent pain in the lower back, hips, or upper thighs Sometimes symptoms are not due to cancer.

32 Enlarged Prostrate An enlarged prostate means the gland has grown
bigger. Prostate enlargement happens to almost all men as they get older. As the gland grows, it can press on the urethra and cause urination and bladder Symptoms Slowed or delayed flow of urine Weak urine stream Dribbling after urinating Straining to urinate Strong and sudden need to urinate Incomplete emptying of your bladder Incontinence Pain and bloody urine

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