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Presented by Peter D. Marle, B.A. Development and Psychometric Properties of a New Scale: The Self-Report Scale for Schizoid Behaviors The Self-Report.

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Presentation on theme: "Presented by Peter D. Marle, B.A. Development and Psychometric Properties of a New Scale: The Self-Report Scale for Schizoid Behaviors The Self-Report."— Presentation transcript:

1 Presented by Peter D. Marle, B.A. Development and Psychometric Properties of a New Scale: The Self-Report Scale for Schizoid Behaviors The Self-Report Scale for Schizoid Behaviors Presented By Peter D. Marle, B.A.

2 Presented by Peter D. Marle, B.A. Special thanks to the co-authors The Self-Report Scale for Schizoid Behaviors Alisa J. Estey Laura J. Finan Karenleigh A. Overmann

3 Presented by Peter D. Marle, B.A. Special thanks to the co-authors The Self-Report Scale for Schizoid Behaviors Alisa J. Estey Laura J. Finan Karenleigh A. Overmann And to our Research Advisor Professor Frederick L. Coolidge, PhD

4 What is Schizoid Personality Disorder? The Self-Report Scale for Schizoid Behaviors Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000) seven diagnostic criteria (four required) The individual… 1.does not enjoy close relationships or being part of a family 2.predominately chooses solitary activities 3.shows decreased interest in sex 4.enjoys few activities 5.lacks close friends or relationships 6.appears unaffected by criticism or praise 7.shows decreased affect, characterized as emotional coldness or detachment

5 What is Schizoid Personality Disorder? The Self-Report Scale for Schizoid Behaviors DSM-5 (APA, 2011) Proposed Changes to the Diagnosis Schizoid Personality Disorder is proposed to become: Personality Disorder, Trait Specified with the following detachment traits 1.Withdrawal Preference for being alone to being with others; reticence in social situations; avoidance of social contacts and activity; lack of initiation of social contact. 2.Intimacy Avoidance Avoidance of close or romantic relationships, interpersonal attachments, and intimate sexual relationships. 3.Restricted Affectivity Little reaction to emotionally arousing situations; constricted emotional experience and expression; indifference or coldness. 4.Anhedonia Lack of enjoyment from, engagement in, or energy for life‘s experiences; deficits in the capacity to feel pleasure or take interest in things.

6 What is Schizoid Personality Disorder? The Self-Report Scale for Schizoid Behaviors Table 1 Comparison of DSM-IV-TR Schizoid Personality Disorder Diagnostic Criteria and DSM-5 Proposed Diagnostic Criteria for Personality Disorder, Trait Specified as Labeled by Detachment Traits DSM-IV-TR (APA, 2000) CriteriaDSM-5 (APA, 2011) Detachment Trait

7 What is Schizoid Personality Disorder? The Self-Report Scale for Schizoid Behaviors Table 1 Comparison of DSM-IV-TR Schizoid Personality Disorder Diagnostic Criteria and DSM-5 Proposed Diagnostic Criteria for Personality Disorder, Trait Specified as Labeled by Detachment Traits DSM-IV-TR (APA, 2000) CriteriaDSM-5 (APA, 2011) Detachment Trait Does not enjoy close relationships or being part of a familyWithdrawal Withdrawal: Preference for being alone to being with others; reticence in social situations; avoidance of social contacts and activity; lack of initiation of social contact.

8 What is Schizoid Personality Disorder? The Self-Report Scale for Schizoid Behaviors Table 1 Comparison of DSM-IV-TR Schizoid Personality Disorder Diagnostic Criteria and DSM-5 Proposed Diagnostic Criteria for Personality Disorder, Trait Specified as Labeled by Detachment Traits DSM-IV-TR (APA, 2000) CriteriaDSM-5 (APA, 2011) Detachment Trait Does not enjoy close relationships or being part of a familyWithdrawal Predominately chooses solitary activitiesWithdrawal Withdrawal: Preference for being alone to being with others; reticence in social situations; avoidance of social contacts and activity; lack of initiation of social contact.

9 What is Schizoid Personality Disorder? The Self-Report Scale for Schizoid Behaviors Table 1 Comparison of DSM-IV-TR Schizoid Personality Disorder Diagnostic Criteria and DSM-5 Proposed Diagnostic Criteria for Personality Disorder, Trait Specified as Labeled by Detachment Traits DSM-IV-TR (APA, 2000) CriteriaDSM-5 (APA, 2011) Detachment Trait Does not enjoy close relationships or being part of a familyWithdrawal Predominately chooses solitary activitiesWithdrawal Shows decreased interest in sexIntimacy Avoidance Intimacy Avoidance: Avoidance of close or romantic relationships, interpersonal attachments, and intimate sexual relationships.

10 What is Schizoid Personality Disorder? The Self-Report Scale for Schizoid Behaviors Table 1 Comparison of DSM-IV-TR Schizoid Personality Disorder Diagnostic Criteria and DSM-5 Proposed Diagnostic Criteria for Personality Disorder, Trait Specified as Labeled by Detachment Traits DSM-IV-TR (APA, 2000) CriteriaDSM-5 (APA, 2011) Detachment Trait Does not enjoy close relationships or being part of a familyWithdrawal Predominately chooses solitary activitiesWithdrawal Shows decreased interest in sexIntimacy Avoidance Enjoys few activitiesAnhedonia Anhedonia: Lack of enjoyment from, engagement in, or energy for life‘s experiences; deficits in the capacity to feel pleasure or take interest in things.

11 What is Schizoid Personality Disorder? The Self-Report Scale for Schizoid Behaviors Table 1 Comparison of DSM-IV-TR Schizoid Personality Disorder Diagnostic Criteria and DSM-5 Proposed Diagnostic Criteria for Personality Disorder, Trait Specified as Labeled by Detachment Traits DSM-IV-TR (APA, 2000) CriteriaDSM-5 (APA, 2011) Detachment Trait Does not enjoy close relationships or being part of a familyWithdrawal Predominately chooses solitary activitiesWithdrawal Shows decreased interest in sexIntimacy Avoidance Enjoys few activitiesAnhedonia Lacks close friends or relationshipsWithdrawal/Intimacy Avoidance Withdrawal: Preference for being alone to being with others; reticence in social situations; avoidance of social contacts and activity; lack of initiation of social contact. Intimacy Avoidance: Avoidance of close or romantic relationships, interpersonal attachments, and intimate sexual relationships.

12 What is Schizoid Personality Disorder? The Self-Report Scale for Schizoid Behaviors Table 1 Comparison of DSM-IV-TR Schizoid Personality Disorder Diagnostic Criteria and DSM-5 Proposed Diagnostic Criteria for Personality Disorder, Trait Specified as Labeled by Detachment Traits DSM-IV-TR (APA, 2000) CriteriaDSM-5 (APA, 2011) Detachment Trait Does not enjoy close relationships or being part of a familyWithdrawal Predominately chooses solitary activitiesWithdrawal Shows decreased interest in sexIntimacy Avoidance Enjoys few activitiesAnhedonia Lacks close friends or relationshipsWithdrawal/Intimacy Avoidance Appears unaffected by criticism or praiseRestricted Affectivity Restricted Affectivity: Little reaction to emotionally arousing situations; constricted emotional experience and expression; indifference or coldness.

13 What is Schizoid Personality Disorder? The Self-Report Scale for Schizoid Behaviors Table 1 Comparison of DSM-IV-TR Schizoid Personality Disorder Diagnostic Criteria and DSM-5 Proposed Diagnostic Criteria for Personality Disorder, Trait Specified as Labeled by Detachment Traits DSM-IV-TR (APA, 2000) CriteriaDSM-5 (APA, 2011) Detachment Trait Does not enjoy close relationships or being part of a familyWithdrawal Predominately chooses solitary activitiesWithdrawal Shows decreased interest in sexIntimacy Avoidance Enjoys few activitiesAnhedonia Lacks close friends or relationshipsWithdrawal/Intimacy Avoidance Appears unaffected by criticism or praiseRestricted Affectivity Shows decreased affect, emotional coldness or detachmentRestricted Affectivity Restricted Affectivity: Little reaction to emotionally arousing situations; constricted emotional experience and expression; indifference or coldness.

14 Other Characteristics of Schizoid Personality Disorder The Self-Report Scale for Schizoid Behaviors Schizoid Personality Disorder (SPD) prevalence rate < 1% in the general population (slightly more frequent in males; Grant et al., 2004) Persons with SPD are described as introverts who are detached from others and display a flattened affect Why is a new scale necessary? The differentiation of SPD and Asperger’s Disorder is “unclear” and there is “great difficulty differentiating” SPD from ASD (APA, 2000; p. 83, 696, respectively) New research stating 1:88 children have ASD (Baio, 2012) Few scales exist which measure SPD, no known scale solely built to measure SPD behaviors - what was their criteria?

15 Hypotheses The Self-Report Scale for Schizoid Behaviors 1.The Self-Report Scale for Schizoid Behaviors (SRSSB) would have adequate internal reliability (α >.80) 2.The SRSSB would have adequate convergent validity (r >.80) with an established measure of SPD (Schizoid subscale of the Coolidge Axis II Inventory [CATI]; see Coolidge & Merwin, 1992) 3.The SRSSB would have a medium to large positive correlation (.30 < r <.50) with a self-reported measure of introversion

16 Participants The Self-Report Scale for Schizoid Behaviors Total N = 257 (70 males, 185 females, 2 unspecified) Ages ranged from 17 to 56 years (M = 23.7, SD = 6.9) * All participants were undergraduate students

17 Materials and Procedure The Self-Report Scale for Schizoid Behaviors Initial survey development 50 DSM-IV-TR-aligned items were developed by the authors Seven or eight items per diagnostic criterion At least two items per criterion were reverse-coded to reduce response bias Item order was randomized for the survey Included in the survey packet Consent form Demographic form An introversion scale (1 Introverted to 10 Extraverted) 50 SRSSB items along with the nine items from the Schizoid subscale of the CATI (randomly added); items ranged from 1 (Strongly False) to 4 (Strongly True) Survey packets were administered to undergraduate classes and collected 1 week later; approximate completion time: 30 min

18 Results The Self-Report Scale for Schizoid Behaviors The 50 items were compared within their respective diagnostic criterion to select the two best items per each of the seven criteria Determined by computing Cronbach’s α for each criterion and interpreting the two best items The following illustrate the resultant 14-item SRSSB Hypothesis 1 (inter-item reliability) Cronbach’s α =.84; hypothesis supported Hypothesis 2 (convergent validity) r(257) =.84, p <.01; hypothesis supported Hypothesis 3 (correlation with introversion) r(257) =.56, p <.001; hypothesis partially supported (large, positive correlation) DSM-IV-TR Criteria; The individual…(#) SRSSB Item does not enjoy close relationships or being part of a family (R50) I enjoy spending time with my family (R57) Being part of a family or having close friends makes me feel complete predominately chooses solitary activities (R17) I enjoy social activities (42) I prefer to be alone shows decreased interest in sex (13) I could care less about having sex (23) Sex is not important to me enjoys few activities (19) I don’t like to do many activities (R51) I enjoy recreational activities lacks close friends or relationships (31) I do not have many close friends (38) I am not close with others, except for my family appears unaffected by criticism or praise (R34) It hurts my feelings when people criticize me (49) Criticism does not bother me shows decreased affect, characterized as emotional coldness or detachment (26) I do not show my emotions (54) I don’t express my emotions

19 Discussion The Self-Report Scale for Schizoid Behaviors Hypothesis 1 (inter-item reliability) supported Exploratory Factor Analysis was also computed for the data Interesting results Hypothesis 2 (convergent validity) supported Hypothesis 3 (correlation with introversion) partially supported (large, positive correlation) Strongly related to self-reported measure of introversion Limitation Assessment was based on non-clinical sample

20 Discussion (continued) The Self-Report Scale for Schizoid Behaviors Future Research with the SRSSB Test-retest reliability Factor analysis issue Possibility of disparate representations of SPD; Cluster Analysis with a large sample of persons with SPD Questions?

21 References The Self-Report Scale for Schizoid Behaviors American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4 th ed., text rev.). Washington DC: author. American Psychiatric Association. (2011). DSM-5 development. Retrieved from Walk.aspx Baio, J. (2012). Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders - Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 14 Sites, United States, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), 61(SS03),1-19. Retrieved from Coolidge, F. L. & Merwin, M. M. (1992). Reliability and validity of the Coolidge Axis Two Inventory: A new inventory for the assessment of personality disorders. Journal of Personality Assessment, 59, Grant, B. F., Hasin, D. S., Stinson, F. S., Dawson, D. A., Chou, S. P., Ruan, W. J., & Pickering, R. P. (2004). Prevalence, correlates, and disability of personality disorders in the United States: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 65,


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