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Section 1-7 The Industrial Revolution in Great Britain Causes of The Industrial Revolution – began in Great Britain.  Click the mouse button or press.

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Presentation on theme: "Section 1-7 The Industrial Revolution in Great Britain Causes of The Industrial Revolution – began in Great Britain.  Click the mouse button or press."— Presentation transcript:

1 Section 1-7 The Industrial Revolution in Great Britain Causes of The Industrial Revolution – began in Great Britain.  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. 1.Improved agricultural practices  Lowered price of food potatoes (pages 581–583)

2 Section 1-7 The Industrial Revolution in Great Britain Causes of The Industrial Revolution – began in Great Britain.  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. 2.More food = More people. New population = labor force. (pages 581–583)

3 Section 1-7 The Industrial Revolution in Great Britain Causes of The Industrial Revolution – began in Great Britain.  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. 3.Britain had a ready supply of capital– money to invest–for industrial machines and factories. (pages 581–583)

4 Section 1-7 The Industrial Revolution in Great Britain Causes of The Industrial Revolution – began in Great Britain.  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. 4.Wealthy entrepreneurs were looking for ways to invest and make profits. Started new businesses (pages 581–583)

5 Section 1-7 The Industrial Revolution in Great Britain Causes of The Industrial Revolution – began in Great Britain..  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. 5.Britain had natural resources. Rivers - waterpower and transportation Coal and iron ore - fuel for manufacturing (pages 581–583)

6 Section 1-7 The Industrial Revolution in Great Britain Causes of The Industrial Revolution – began in Great Britain..  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. 6.Market supply. Colonies of Great Britain became oversees markets for British manufactures Population growth and longer life expectancy grew the domestic market (pages 581–583)

7 What were the 6 main causes of The Industrial Revolution?

8 Section 1-9 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Great Britain had a lot of cotton goods (i.e. textiles).  a production method called cottage industry allowed for individuals to do spinning and weaving in their homes. (pages 581–583) The Industrial Revolution in Great Britain (cont.)

9 Section 1-10 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. NEW INVENTIONS FOR SPINNING and WEAVING Flying shuttle Spinning Jenny Water-powered loom Cottage industry no longer was efficient because workers went to the factories. (pages 581–583) The Textile Industry

10 Section 1-11 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. James Watt-- improved the steam engine Steam power was used to spin and weave cotton.  Mills no longer had to be located near water. (pages 581–583) The Textile Industry (cont.)

11 Section 1-11 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. James Watt’s Steam Engine  The Textile Industry (cont.)

12 Section 1-13 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. More powerful than water is coal! The steam engine ran on coal.  coal industry expanded (pages 581–583) Coal and Iron

13 Section 1-13 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Young “Coal Miners” (pages 581–583) Coal and Iron

14 How did the steam engine help the textile industry? In the picture on the previous slide, what do you notice about the people working in coal mines? In your opinion, is this right or wrong?

15 Section 1-13 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Coal also transformed the iron industry. (pages 581–583) Coal and Iron Henry Cort - puddling, industry produced a better quality of iron. Refer to chart

16 Section 1-15 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. railroads -- were crucial to the Industrial Revolution.  Transported goods The 32-miles of track went from Liverpool to Manchester, England.  The Rocket pulled a 40-ton train at 16 miles per hour. By 1850, Great Britain had more than 6,000 miles of track.  The less expensive transportation lowered the price of goods and made for larger markets. (pages 581–583) The Rise of the Railroad

17 Section 1-15 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 581–583) The Rise of the Railroad (cont.)

18 Section 1-18 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The factory was another important aspect of the Industrial Revolution because it created a new kind of labor system.  Factory life was hard: poor conditions, long hours (pages 581–583) The Industrial Revolution in Great Britain (cont.)

19 Section 1-20 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Spread of Industrialization (page 584) Britain became the world’s greatest industrial nation.  It produced one-half of the world’s cotton goods and coal.  The Industrial Revolution spread to other parts of the world at different speeds. 

20 Section 1-22 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The large United States needed a transportation system, and miles of roads and canals were built.  Robert Fulton built the first paddle-wheel steamboat, the Clermont, in 1807.  By 1860, thousands of these boats were on rivers, lakes, and even the ocean. The Spread of Industrialization (cont.) (page 584)

21 Section 1-24 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Labor for the growing factories came from the farm population.  Many of the new factory workers were women and girls, who made up a substantial majority of the workers in textile factories.  Factory owners sometimes had whole families work for them. The Spread of Industrialization (cont.) (page 584)

22 Section 1-26 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Social Impact in Europe (pages 585–588) The Industrial Revolution spurred the growth of cities and created two new social classes: the industrial middle class and the industrial working class.  Europe’s population nearly doubled between 1750 and 1850 to 266 million.  WHY WOULD THIS BE THE CASE?

23 Section 1-27 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Social Impact in Europe (cont.) The Irish potato famine in the 1840s was an exception, with almost one million people dying.  Cities were the home to many industries.  People moved in from the country to find work, taking the new railroads.  London’s population increased from about 1 million in 1800 to about 2,500,000 in 1850.  Nine British cities had populations over 100,000 in 1850. (pages 585–588)

24 Section 1-28 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Social Impact in Europe (cont.) Many inhabitants of these rapidly growing cities lived in miserable conditions.  The conditions prompted urban social reformers to call for cleaning up the cities, a call which would be heard in the second half of the nineteenth century. (pages 585–588)

25 Section 1-29 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Social Impact in Europe (cont.) industrial capitalism–an economic system based on industrial production.  produced the industrial middle class.  It was made up of the people who built the factories, bought the machines, and figured out where the markets were.  (pages 585–588)

26 Section 1-31 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Social Impact in Europe (cont.) In Britain, women and children made up two-thirds of the cotton industry’s workforce.  The Factory Act of 1833 set 9 as the minimum age to work.  Children from ages 9 to 13 could work only 9 hours a day; those between ages 13 and 18 could work only 12 hours. (pages 585–588)

27 Section 1-32 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Social Impact in Europe (cont.) Women took more and more of the textile industry jobs.  They were unskilled and were paid half or less than the men.  Excessive working hours for women were outlawed in 1844.  The employment of women and children was a holdover from the cottage industry system.  The laws restricting industrial work for women and children led to a new pattern of work, therefore. (pages 585–588)

28 Section 1-33 Social Impact in Europe (cont.) Married men were now expected to support the family, and married women were to take care of the home and perform low-paying jobs in the home, such as taking in laundry, to help the family survive. (pages 585–588)

29 Section 1-33a Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Social Impact in Europe (cont.) The awful conditions for workers led to socialism.  society, usually government, owns and controls some means of production–such as factories and utilities. Cooperation over competition Karl Marx – socialism is not practical (pages 585–588)

30 Section 1-35 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Social Impact in Europe (cont.) A famous utopian socialist was Robert Owen, a British cotton manufacturer.  He believed people would show their natural goodness if they lived in a cooperative environment.  Owen transformed a factory town in Scotland into a flourishing community.  A similar attempt at New Harmony, Indiana, failed in the 1820s. (pages 585–588)

31 Section 1-36 Social Impact in Europe (cont.) Capitalism and socialism have different views about what brings out the best in people. Is socialism correct that cooperation does so, or is capitalism correct that competition does so? (pages 585–588)

32 End of Section 1

33 Section 2-7 Europe in 1812

34 Section 2-7 The Congress of Vienna The great powers of Austria, Prussia, Russia, and Great Britain met at the Congress of Vienna in 1814, they wanted to restore the old order after Napoleon’s defeat. 

35 Section 2-7 The Congress of Vienna It’s job was to undo everything that Napoléon had done:  Reduce France to its old boundaries  her frontiers were pushed back to 1790 level. Restore as many of the old monarchies as possible that had lost their thrones during the Napoléonic era  LEGITIMACY. Supported the resolution: There is always an alternative to conflict.

36 Key Players at Vienna The “Host” Prince Klemens von Metternich (Aus.) Foreign Minister, Viscount Castlereagh (Br.) Tsar Alexander I (Rus.) King Frederick William III (Prus.) Foreign Minister, Charles Maurice de Tallyrand (Fr.)

37 Key Principles Established at Vienna VBalance of Power VLegitimacy VCompensation VBalance of Power VLegitimacy VCompensation eCoalition forces would occupy France for 3-5 years. eFrance would have to pay an indemnity of 700,000,000 francs. eCoalition forces would occupy France for 3-5 years. eFrance would have to pay an indemnity of 700,000,000 francs.

38 VFrance was deprived of all territory conquered by Napoléon. VRussia was given most of Duchy of Warsaw (Poland). VPrussia was given half of Saxony, parts of Poland, and other German territories. VA Germanic Confederation of 30+ states (including Prussia) was created from the previous 300, under Austrian rule. VAustria was given back territory it had lost recently, plus more in Germany and Italy. VThe House of Orange was given the Dutch Republic and the Austrian Netherlands to rule. Changes Made at Vienna (1)

39 VNorway and Sweden were joined. VThe neutrality of Switzerland was guaranteed. VHanover was enlarged, and made a kingdom. VBritain was given Cape Colony, South Africa, and various other colonies in Africa and Asia. VSardinia was given Piedmont, Nice, Savoy, and Genoa. VThe Bourbon Ferdinand I was restored in the Two Sicilies. VThe Duchy of Parma was given to Marie Louise. VThe slave trade was condemned (at British urging). VFreedom of navigation was guaranteed for many rivers. Changes Made at Vienna (2)

40 Europe After the Congress of Vienna

41 Section 2-10 The Conservative Order The arrangement worked out at the Congress of Vienna curtailed the forces set loose by the French Revolution.  Those who saw this as a victory, such as Metternich, held a political philosophy called conservatism.

42 Section 2-11 The Conservative Order (cont.) Conservatism is based on tradition and social stability.  Conservatives wanted obedience to traditional political authority and believed that organized religion was important to an ordered society.  They did not like revolution or demands for rights and government representation. (pages 590–591)

43 Section 2-12 The Conservative Order (cont.) The powers at the Congress agreed to meet in the future to take steps to keep the balance of power in Europe.  These meetings came to be called the Concert of Europe. Most of the great powers eventually adopted the principle of intervention: countries had a right to intervene where revolutions were threatening monarchies.  Britain rejected the principle, saying countries should not interfere in the internal affairs of other states.  Austria, Prussia, Russia, and France did crush revolutions and restore monarchies.

44 Section 2-14 The Conservative Order (cont.) When, if ever, does a country have the right to intervene in another country’s internal affairs? (pages 590–591)

45 Section 2-15 Forces of Change (pages 591–592) The forces of liberalism and nationalism were gathering to bring about change in the old order.  Liberalism is based principally on Enlightenment principles and held that people should be free of government restraint as much as possible.  The chief liberal belief was the importance of protecting the basic rights of all people.  Liberals believed these civil rights should be guaranteed, as they are in the American Bill of Rights.

46 Section 2-16 Forces of Change (cont.) Liberals also avidly supported religious toleration and the separation of church and state.  Liberals tended to favor constitutional forms of government because they believed in representative government.  (pages 591–592) Liberals, however, thought that the right to vote and hold office should be given only to men who owned property–middle-class men.  Liberals feared mob rule, wanted to share power with the landowning classes, and had no desire to share power with the lower classes.

47 Section 2-18 Forces of Change (cont.) Nationalism was an even more powerful force for change in the nineteenth century.  It arose out of people’s awareness of belonging to a community with common institutions, traditions, language, and customs.  This community is called a nation.  In the view of nationalists, citizens owe their loyalty to the nation, not a king or other entity. (pages 591–592) Nationalists came to believe that each nationality should have its own government.

48 Section 2-20 Forces of Change (cont.) Conservatives feared what such changes would do to the balance of power in Europe and to their kingdoms.  The conservatives repressed the nationalists. In the first half of the nineteenth century, liberalism was a strong ally of nationalism because liberals believed in self-government. This alliance gave nationalism a wider scope. Nationalism was the chief force behind rebellions in France, Poland and Italy, and a revolution in Belgium, as we will see tomorrow… (pages 591–592)

49 Section 2-22 Forces of Change (cont.) What differentiates nineteenth-century liberalism from contemporary liberalism? Possible answer: One clear difference is that nineteenth-century liberalism believed in minimal government, but contemporary liberalism tends to look to the government to solve social problems. (pages 591–592)

50 Section 2-23 The Revolutions of 1848 (pages 592–594) Despite changes after 1830, the conservative order still dominated much of Europe.  The growing forces of nationalism and liberalism erupted again in the Revolutions of 1848.

51 Section 2-23 Pre-1848 Tensions—Long Term (pages 592–594) Industrialization Economic challenges to rulers. Rapid urbanization. Challenges to the artisan class. Population doubled in the 18c Food supply problems Ideological Challenges Liberalism, nationalism, democracy, socialism.

52 Section 2-23 Pre-1848 Tensions—Short Term (pages 592–594) Agricultural Crises Poor cereal harvests—prices rose 60% in one year. Potato blight  Ireland—prices rose 135% for food in one year! Financial Crises Investment bubbles burst  railways, iron, coal. Unemployment increased rapidly [esp. among the artisan class]. Working & middle classes are now joined in misery as are the urban and agricultural peasantry!

53 Section 2-23 The Revolutions of 1848 (pages 592–594) Students, using their textbook (pp. 592-594), should re-create and complete the graphic organizer below in their notebooks. RevolutionSpecific Causes Nations Involved Details/ Outcome Revolutionary Reforms

54 Section 2-24 (pages 592–594) France had severe economic problems beginning in 1846, causing hardships to the lower class.  At the same time, the middle class wanted the right to vote.  Louis-Philippe, France’s monarch, refused to make changes, and opposition grew. The Revolutions of 1848—FRANCE

55 Section 2-25 The Revolutions of 1848—FRANCE The monarchy was overthrown in 1848.  Liberals: Moderate and radical republicans–people who wanted France to be a republic–set up a temporary government.  It called for the election of representatives to a Constituent Assembly that would draw up a new constitution.  Election would be by universal male suffrage–all adult men could vote, not just the wealthy. (pages 592–594)

56 Section 2-26 The Revolutions of 1848—FRANCE Socialists: The provisional government also set up national workshops to give the unemployed work.  When almost 120,000 people signed up, the treasury was drained, and the frightened moderates closed the workshops.  Workers took to the streets, and in bitter fighting the government crushed the worker revolt.  Ironically, fighting between liberals and socialists resulted in a conservative majority in the government! (pages 592–594)

57 Section 2-27 The Revolutions of 1848—FRANCE The new constitution, ratified in November 1848, set up the Second Republic, with a single legislature elected by universal male suffrage.  A president served for four years. Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte (called Louis-Napoleon), the famous ruler’s nephew, was elected president.

58 Section 2-27 The Revolutions of 1848—FRANCE President Louis-Napoleon Purged the government. of all radical officials. Replaced them with ultra- conservatives and monarchists. Disbanded the National Assembly and held new elections. Represented himself as a “Man of the People.” His government regularly used forced against dissenters

59 Section 2-28 The Revolutions of 1848—GERMANY The Congress of Vienna had recognized 38 independent German states, called the German Confederation.  The 1848 cries for change led many German rulers to promise constitutions, a free press, and jury trials.  An all-German parliament, the Frankfurt Assembly, met to fulfill the liberal and nationalist goal of creating a constitution for a unified Germany. (pages 592–594)

60 Section 2-28 The Revolutions of 1848—GERMANY Frankfurt Assembly Meets

61 Section 2-29 The Revolutions of 1848—GERMANY Since the members had no way to force the rulers to accept the constitution, the Frankfurt Assembly failed.  Liberalism was ultimately discredited in Germany.  Little popular support left and the union of liberals and democrats didn’t last. Rule of force was the only winner! There was a massive exodus of liberal thinkers.

62 Section 2-30 The Revolutions of 1848—CENTRAL EUROPE The Austrian Empire was a multinational state with a collection of peoples joined only by the Hapsburg ruler. 

63 Section 2-30 The Revolutions of 1848—CENTRAL EUROPE The Austrian Empire had its problems.  In March 1848, demonstrations led to the ouster of Metternich, the quintessential conservative.  Revolutionary forces took control of the capital, Vienna, and demanded a liberal constitution.  The government gave Hungary its own legislature as a gesture of appeasement. (pages 592–594)

64 Section 2-30 The Revolutions of 1848—CENTRAL EUROPE The Hungarian Revolution

65 Section 2-31 The Revolutions of 1848—CENTRAL EUROPE In June, Austrian military forces crushed the Czech rebellion in Prague.  The rebels in Vienna were defeated by October.  With the help of 140,000 Russian soldiers, the Austrians crushed the Hungarian rebels by 1849. (pages 592–594)

66 Section 2-32 The Revolutions of 1848—ITALY The Congress of Vienna had set up nine states in Italy.  Italian nationalists and liberals sought to end foreign domination of Italy. Milan, Lombardy & Venetia wanted to expel their Austrian rulers.  Revolutionaries in other Italian states took up arms.  By 1849, however, Austria had established the old order throughout Italy. (pages 592–594)

67 Section 2-33 The Revolutions of 1848 (cont.) In Europe in 1848, popular revolts led to constitutional governments.  The revolutionaries could not stay united, however, and conservative rule was reestablished. (pages 592–594)

68 Section 2-33 Why did the 1848 Revolutions fail? They failed to attract popular support from the working classes. The middle classes led these revolutions, but as they turned radical, the middle class held back. Nationalism divided more than united. Where revolutions were successful, the Old Guard was left in place and they turned against the revolutionaries. Some gains lasted [abolition of serfdom, etc.] BUT, in the long term, most liberal gains would be solidified by the end of the 19c: The unification of Germany and Italy. The collapse of the Hapsburg Empire at the end of World War I.

69 End of Section 2

70 National Unification and the National State Section 3-1 Students, using their textbooks (pp. 600- 602), should create a “Four-Door Foldable” of “Nineteenth Century Changes” in the European states of Great Britain, France, the Austrian Empire and Russia.

71 While nationalism had great appeal, not all peoples achieved the goal of establishing their own national states.  National Unification and the National State Section 3-1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The rise of nationalism contributed to the unification of Italy and Germany.  Main Ideas Key Terms militarism  emancipation  abolitionism  secede kaiser  plebiscite 

72 National Unification and the National State Section 3-2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Giuseppe Garibaldi  People to Identify Queen Victoria  Czar Alexander II  Piedmont  Places to Locate Lorraine  Budapest Alsace  Otto von Bismarck 

73 Section 3-12 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Italian Unification (pages 597–598) In 1850, Austria was still the dominant power on the Italian Peninsula.  After 1848, people looked to the northern Italian state of Piedmont to lead the fight for unification.

74 Section 3-13 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Italian Unification (cont.) The king of Piedmont named Camillo di Cavour his prime minister.  Cavour pursued economic expansion, which gave the government enough money to support a large army.  He then made an alliance with the French emperor Louis-Napoleon, knowing his army by itself could not defeat Austria, and provoked the Austrians into declaring war in 1959. (pages 597–598)

75 Section 3-14 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Italian Unification (cont.) The conflict resulted in a peace settlement that made Piedmont an independent state.  Cavour’s success caused nationalists in other northern Italian states to overthrow their governments and join their states to Piedmont.  In southern Italy, a new patriotic leader for unification emerged–Giuseppe Garibaldi.  He raised an army of one thousand volunteers, called Red Shirts because of the color of their uniforms. (pages 597–598)

76 Section 3-15 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Italian Unification (cont.) A branch of the Bourbon dynasty ruled the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (Sicily and Naples).  A revolt broke out in Sicily against the king, and Garibaldi and his forces landed on the island.  By July 1860, they controlled most of the island.  They marched up the mainland and Naples soon fell. (pages 597–598)

77 Section 3-16 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Italian Unification (cont.) Garibaldi turned his conquests over to Piedmont, and in 1861 a new Kingdom of Italy was proclaimed.  King Victor Emmanuel II, who had been king of Piedmont, was crowned ruler. (pages 597–598)

78 Section 3-17 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Italian Unification (cont.) Italy’s full unification would mean adding Venetia, held by Austria, and Rome, held by the pope and supported by the French.  The Italian state allied with Prussia in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866.  When Prussia won, it gave Venetia to the Italians.  France withdrew from Rome in 1870.  The Italian army annexed Rome that same year, and Rome became the capital of the united Italy. (pages 597–598)

79 Maps and Charts 3

80 Section 3-18 Italian Unification (cont.) How did Giuseppe Garibaldi contribute to Italian unification? (pages 597–598) After conquering the Italian Peninsula, Garibaldi could have chosen to rule over this area. Instead, he turned over the lands to Piedmont in order for Italy to be unified. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

81 Section 3-19 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. German Unification (pages 598–599) Germans looked to Prussia’s militarism for leadership in unification.  In the 1860s, King William I tried to enlarge the already powerful Prussian army.  When the legislature refused to levy the tax, William I appointed a new prime minister, Otto von Bismarck.

82 Section 3-20 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. German Unification (cont.) Bismarck often is seen as the greatest nineteenth-century practitioner of realpolitik, or practical politics with little regard for ethics and an emphasis on power.  He ignored the legislature on the matter of the army, saying that “Germany does not look to Prussia’s liberalism but to her power.” (pages 598–599)

83 Section 3-21 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. German Unification (cont.) Bismarck collected taxes and strengthened the army.  From 1862 to 1866, he governed Prussia without legislative approval.  With Austria as an ally, he defeated Denmark and gained territory.  He then created friction with Austria, and the two countries went to war in 1866.  The highly disciplined Prussian army defeated the Austrians soundly less than a month after war was declared. (pages 598–599)

84 Section 3-22 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. German Unification (cont.) Prussia organized northern German states into a North German Confederation.  The southern German states signed military alliances with Prussia for protection against France, even though Prussia was Protestant and southern Germany was Catholic. (pages 598–599)

85 Section 3-23 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. German Unification (cont.) Prussia dominated all of northern Germany.  Problems with France soon developed.  France feared a strong German state.  From a misunderstanding between Prussia and France over the candidacy of a relative of the Prussian king for the throne of Spain, the Franco-Prussian War broke out in 1870.  Prussia and its southern German allies handily defeated the French. (pages 598–599)

86 Section 3-25 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. German Unification (cont.) Prussian armies advanced into France, capturing the king (Napoleon III) and an entire army.  Paris surrendered, and an official peace treaty was signed in 1871.  France paid 5 billion francs and gave up the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine to the new German state.  The French burned for revenge over the loss of these territories. (pages 598–599)

87 Section 3-26 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. German Unification (cont.) The southern German states joined the North German Confederation.  On January 18, 1871, in the Hall of Mirrors in the palace of Versailles, William I of Prussia was proclaimed kaiser, or emperor, of the Second German Empire (the first was the Holy Roman Empire). (pages 598–599)

88 Maps and Charts 3a

89 Section 3-27 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. German Unification (cont.) The Prussian monarchy and army had achieved German unity, giving the new state its authoritarian and militaristic values.  This military might combined with industrial resources made the new state the strongest power on the European continent. (pages 598–599)

90 Section 3-28 German Unification (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. What characteristics of German National Socialism are found in the Prussian state? Authoritarianism, militarism, and the emphasis on obedience to state authority were characteristics of German National Socialism found in the Prussian state. (pages 598–599)

91 Section 3-29 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Nationalism and Reform in Europe (pages 600–602) Great Britain avoided the revolutionary upheavals of the first half of the nineteenth century.  In 1815 the aristocratic classes dominated Parliament.  In 1832 Parliament extended the vote to include male members of the industrial middle class, giving them an interest in ruling Britain.  Further social and political reforms stabilized Britain through the 1860s.

92 Section 3-30 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Nationalism and Reform in Europe (cont.) Britain’s continued economic growth also added to its stability.  After 1850, the industrial middle class was prosperous, and the wages of the industrial working class were beginning to climb. (pages 600–602)

93 Section 3-31 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Nationalism and Reform in Europe (cont.) The British feeling of national pride was reflected in Queen Victoria.  Her reign from 1837 to 1901 is the longest in English history.  Her sense of duty and moral respectability were reflected in her era, known as the Victorian Age. (pages 600–602)

94 Nationalism and Reform in Europe (cont.) Section 3-32 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. After 1848, events in France moved towards restoring the monarchy.  In the 1852 plebiscite, or popular vote, 97 percent voted to restore the empire.  Louis-Napoleon became Napoleon III, emperor of the Second Empire. (pages 600–602)

95 Section 3-33 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Napoleon III’s government was authoritarian.  He controlled the armed forces, police, and civil service.  Only he could introduce legislation or declare war.  He limited civil liberties and focused on expanding the economy.  Government subsidies built railroads, harbors, canals, and roads.  Iron production tripled. Nationalism and Reform in Europe (cont.) (pages 600–602)

96 Section 3-34 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. He also did a vast rebuilding of Paris, replacing old narrow streets with wide boulevards.  The new Paris had spacious buildings, public squares, an underground sewage system, a public water supply, and gaslights.  It was modern. Nationalism and Reform in Europe (cont.) (pages 600–602)

97 Section 3-35 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Opposition to the emperor arose in the 1860s.  Napoleon III liberalized his regime, giving the legislature more power, for example.  After the Prussians defeated the French, however, the Second Empire fell. Nationalism and Reform in Europe (cont.) (pages 600–602)

98 Section 3-36 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The multinational state of Austria had been able to frustrate the attempts of its ethnic groups for independence.  After 1848 and 1849, the Hapsburg rulers restored centralized, autocratic government. Nationalism and Reform in Europe (cont.) (pages 600–602)

99 Section 3-37 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. However, the Prussian victory over Austria forced Austria to make concessions to the strongly nationalistic Hungarians.  The result was the Compromise of 1867.  It created the dual Austria-Hungary monarchy.  Each component had its own constitution, legislature, bureaucracy, and capital– Vienna for Austria and Budapest for Hungary. Nationalism and Reform in Europe (cont.) (pages 600–602)

100 Section 3-38 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Holding the two states together was a single monarch (Francis Joseph), a common army, foreign policy, and a shared financial system.  Nationalism and Reform in Europe (cont.) Domestically, Hungary had become an independent state.  Other states were not happy with the compromise. (pages 600–602)

101 Section 3-39 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, Russia was a highly rural, autocratic state with a divine-right monarch with absolute power.  Nationalism and Reform in Europe (cont.) In 1856, however, Russia was defeated in the Crimean War.  Even conservatives knew that Russia was falling behind western Europe and needed to modernize. (pages 600–602)

102 Section 3-40 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Czar Alexander II made reforms.  Nationalism and Reform in Europe (cont.) On March 3, 1861, he freed the serfs with an emancipation edict.  Peasants could now own property and marry as they wished.  The government bought land from the landlords and provided it to the peasants. (pages 600–602)

103 Section 3-41 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Landowners often kept the best land for themselves, however, and the new system was not helpful to peasants.  Nationalism and Reform in Europe (cont.) Emancipation had led to an unhappy, land-starved peasantry following old ways of farming. (pages 600–602)

104 Section 3-42 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. A group of radicals assassinated Alexander II in 1881.  Nationalism and Reform in Europe (cont.) His son and successor turned against reform and returned to the old methods of repression–soldiers, secret police, censorship, and the like. (pages 600–602)

105 Section 3-43 Nationalism and Reform in Europe (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. How could Alexander II have more effectively freed the serfs? He could have found ways to guarantee that the peasants received good and sufficient land. (pages 600–602)

106 End of Section 3


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