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Prevention through Design in Consensus Standards and Guidelines Presented by: CAPT G. Scott Earnest, Ph.D, P.E, C.S.P. DART, EPHB, Branch Chief Presented.

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Presentation on theme: "Prevention through Design in Consensus Standards and Guidelines Presented by: CAPT G. Scott Earnest, Ph.D, P.E, C.S.P. DART, EPHB, Branch Chief Presented."— Presentation transcript:

1 Prevention through Design in Consensus Standards and Guidelines Presented by: CAPT G. Scott Earnest, Ph.D, P.E, C.S.P. DART, EPHB, Branch Chief Presented by: CAPT G. Scott Earnest, Ph.D, P.E, C.S.P. DART, EPHB, Branch Chief

2 NIOSH Project Collaborators  Tom Bobick, Ph.D., P.E., C.S.P., C.P.E.; DSR  Rick Current, P.E.; DSR  Tom Dubaniewicz, P.E.; PRL  Scott Earnest, Ph.D, P.E., C.S.P.; DART  Alberto Garcia, M.S.; DART  Mike Gressel, Ph.D., C.S.P.; DART  Jim Harris, Ph.D., P.E.; DSR  Ken Mead, Ph.D., P.E.; DART  Tony McKenzie, Ph.D., P.E.; DSR  John Sheehy, Ph.D., P.E., C.I.H.; DART  Tom Bobick, Ph.D., P.E., C.S.P., C.P.E.; DSR  Rick Current, P.E.; DSR  Tom Dubaniewicz, P.E.; PRL  Scott Earnest, Ph.D, P.E., C.S.P.; DART  Alberto Garcia, M.S.; DART  Mike Gressel, Ph.D., C.S.P.; DART  Jim Harris, Ph.D., P.E.; DSR  Ken Mead, Ph.D., P.E.; DART  Tony McKenzie, Ph.D., P.E.; DSR  John Sheehy, Ph.D., P.E., C.I.H.; DART Disclaimer: The findings and conclusions in this presentation are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent the views of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.”

3 What is Prevention through Design?  Prevention through Design is the concept of mitigating occupational hazards by designing them out.  Reduces worker reliance on PPE  Each year in the U.S., 55,000 fatalities from work related illness & injury; 294,000 become ill and 3.8 million are injured.  Annual cost estimate: $ billion  Prevention through Design is the concept of mitigating occupational hazards by designing them out.  Reduces worker reliance on PPE  Each year in the U.S., 55,000 fatalities from work related illness & injury; 294,000 become ill and 3.8 million are injured.  Annual cost estimate: $ billion

4 Hierarchy of Controls  Elimination  Change design so hazard no longer exists  Substitution  Replace a high hazard for a lower hazard  Engineering  Isolation, Ventilation  Administrative  Medical Surveillance, Improved work practices  Personal Protective Equipment  Respirators, Ear Plugs, Gloves, Goggles…  Elimination  Change design so hazard no longer exists  Substitution  Replace a high hazard for a lower hazard  Engineering  Isolation, Ventilation  Administrative  Medical Surveillance, Improved work practices  Personal Protective Equipment  Respirators, Ear Plugs, Gloves, Goggles… Preferred

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6 What are Consensus Standards?  Common & repeated use of rules, conditions, guidelines or characteristics for products or related processes or production methods & management systems that were developed by ensuring openness, balance of interest, due process, & appeals.  American National Standards Institute (ANSI) – Oversees/facilitates consensus std development and coordinates International standard development  ANSI represents the interests of 125,000 companies and 3.5 million professionals  Common & repeated use of rules, conditions, guidelines or characteristics for products or related processes or production methods & management systems that were developed by ensuring openness, balance of interest, due process, & appeals.  American National Standards Institute (ANSI) – Oversees/facilitates consensus std development and coordinates International standard development  ANSI represents the interests of 125,000 companies and 3.5 million professionals

7 American National Standards Institute (ANSI)  ANSI formed in 1916 by 5 engr societies: Am Inst of Elec Engrs (AIEE), Am Soc of Mech Engrs (ASME), Am Soc of Civil Engrs (ASCE), Am Inst of Mining and Metallurgical Engrs (AIME), Am Soc for Testing Materials (ASTM)  Standards are written by standard developers  ANSI accredits the procedures that are used:  Consensus among all interested parties  Broad based public review  Consideration of and response to comments  Incorporation of submitted changes  Possibility of appeal for violating principles  ANSI formed in 1916 by 5 engr societies: Am Inst of Elec Engrs (AIEE), Am Soc of Mech Engrs (ASME), Am Soc of Civil Engrs (ASCE), Am Inst of Mining and Metallurgical Engrs (AIME), Am Soc for Testing Materials (ASTM)  Standards are written by standard developers  ANSI accredits the procedures that are used:  Consensus among all interested parties  Broad based public review  Consideration of and response to comments  Incorporation of submitted changes  Possibility of appeal for violating principles

8 American National Standards Institute (ANSI)  Hundreds of ANSI Standards Developing Organizations (SDOs) in the U.S. today. Ninety percent of the standards are written by the 20 largest SDOs.  200 SDOs are ANSI accredited  There are approx 10,000 American National Standards  ANSI accredits the procedures that are used:  Consensus among all interested parties  Broad based public review  Consideration of and response to comments  Incorporation of submitted changes  Possibility of appeal for violating principles  Hundreds of ANSI Standards Developing Organizations (SDOs) in the U.S. today. Ninety percent of the standards are written by the 20 largest SDOs.  200 SDOs are ANSI accredited  There are approx 10,000 American National Standards  ANSI accredits the procedures that are used:  Consensus among all interested parties  Broad based public review  Consideration of and response to comments  Incorporation of submitted changes  Possibility of appeal for violating principles

9 Project Time Line  FY 08  Solicit interest and input from NIOSH researchers  Develop evaluation criteria  Evaluate potential consensus standards activities  Select best standards (at least 7) to support  FY  Support NIOSH participation and distribute guidance  Interact with individual collaborators  Compile progress reports  Address issues that develop during course of the project  FY 11  Compile committee reports, complete summary report of successes/failures and lessons learned  Disseminate results  FY 08  Solicit interest and input from NIOSH researchers  Develop evaluation criteria  Evaluate potential consensus standards activities  Select best standards (at least 7) to support  FY  Support NIOSH participation and distribute guidance  Interact with individual collaborators  Compile progress reports  Address issues that develop during course of the project  FY 11  Compile committee reports, complete summary report of successes/failures and lessons learned  Disseminate results

10 Summary of r2p Database Search  DART – 16 activities  DSR – 20 activities  DRDS – 3 activities; EID – 4 activities  HELD – 2 activities; SRL – 1 activity  DART – 16 activities  DSR – 20 activities  DRDS – 3 activities; EID – 4 activities  HELD – 2 activities; SRL – 1 activity

11 Selection Criteria  Potential for occupational safety and health impact  Clear linkage to NIOSH program portfolio sector goals  Likelihood that PtD concepts will be successfully incorporated into design portion of the standard  Background and skills of the NIOSH researcher  Potential for occupational safety and health impact  Clear linkage to NIOSH program portfolio sector goals  Likelihood that PtD concepts will be successfully incorporated into design portion of the standard  Background and skills of the NIOSH researcher

12 Consensus Std Activities 1. ROPS for Wheeled Ag Tractors. -- Impacts ag and landscaping industries, nearly 100 fatalities per year from tractor rollovers. 2. Elec Equip for Hazardous Locations. – Impacts on any industry with flammable gases, liquids or dusts. (oil, gas, mining, chem, ag…) 3. Industrial Ventilation – Guidelines for ind vent and eng controls Healthcare Facilities – 5.5 million workers, inf disease, haz drugs Clean Spaces million workers, apps to haz drugs 4. Safety Stds for Machine Tools. -- Approx 30 stds. that impact the manuf industry and metalworking machine shops. 5. Portable Engine Generators -- CO poisonings from generators continue to be a problem in construction and residentially. Approx 60 annual CO fatalities and 2,000 nonfatal CO poisonings in the US.

13 Consensus Std Activities 6. Safety Stds for Eye Protection. -- Numerous industries impacted. 700k Americans suffer a work-related eye injury each year. 7. Health & Safety Stds for Ventilation Systems. -- Impacts several million U.S. workers. Includes design specs for open surface tanks, spray finishing, abrasive blasting, grinding, laboratory ventilation, recirculation, portable. 8. Safety in Construction and Demo. – 42 subcommittees addressing many construction issues. Approx 8 million U.S. constr workers 9. Air Quality on Commercial Aircraft. -- Applies to all commercial aircraft with 20+ passengers. Significant air quality and disease transmission issues exist. 100k US flight attendants and millions of passengers (AFA requested NIOSH involvement)

14 Key Point PtD is an integral part of each engineering design standard in this project. NIOSH participants have the background, experience, and training to work with other interested parties to incorporate important OSH concepts.

15  Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning from generator emissions has been a problem in construction, agriculture, and the marine industry.  NIOSH has worked in this area for many years  Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning from generator emissions has been a problem in construction, agriculture, and the marine industry.  NIOSH has worked in this area for many years UL 2201, Portable Engine – Generators

16 CO Concentrations from Marine Generators 200 ppm – 10’ away 7,000 – 10,000 ppm >IDLH (1,200 ppm)

17 CFD Model of propulsion engines: CO Concentration – water level Trailing dispersing plume of CO is downstream of the boat

18 Exhaust stacks Release below waterline Catalysts Electronic fuel injection Cleaner engines Generators Outboard motors Inboards & stern drives Oxidation of Carbon Monoxide CO + ½ O 2  CO 2 CO + H 2 O  CO 2 + H 2 17 million recreational boats UL 2201, Portable Engine – Generators (marine engine work)

19 UL 2201, Portable Engine – Generators  Activity involves Standard and Guidelines for UL certification of portable generators  First edition (covering 15 Kw or less) released in March, 2009 with NIOSH input  electric shock, fire, and casualty aspects associated with the mechanical performance  the electrical features of portable engine- driven generator assemblies.  NIOSH involvement generally includes guidance and recommendations regarding potential carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, instructions in the users/owners manual, markings and labels  Would like to repeat successes in marine industry  Activity involves Standard and Guidelines for UL certification of portable generators  First edition (covering 15 Kw or less) released in March, 2009 with NIOSH input  electric shock, fire, and casualty aspects associated with the mechanical performance  the electrical features of portable engine- driven generator assemblies.  NIOSH involvement generally includes guidance and recommendations regarding potential carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, instructions in the users/owners manual, markings and labels  Would like to repeat successes in marine industry

20  Disease transmission and indoor air quality is an important concern for flight crew and passengers.  HEPA filtration required on recirc air and other measures to address the issue.  *Bleed air is an important PtD issue. i.e. Boeing Dreamliner design  Disease transmission and indoor air quality is an important concern for flight crew and passengers.  HEPA filtration required on recirc air and other measures to address the issue.  *Bleed air is an important PtD issue. i.e. Boeing Dreamliner design ANSI/ASHRAE SSPC 161: Air Quality on Commercial Aircraft

21  Activity involves both Std and Guideline that applies to all commercial aircraft with 20+ passengers  The standard contains the following op requirements:  cabin vent rates, cabin temp, local air speed, temp spatial variation, maximum surface temps  HEPA filtration of recirc and ozone monitoring  Std includes design and maintenance measures to address cabin contamination from:  Deicing fluid, exhaust fumes, fuel, hydraulic fluid, engine oil, ozone, bacteria/viruses, pesticides, lavatory fluids, cargo solvents, dry ice  Activity involves both Std and Guideline that applies to all commercial aircraft with 20+ passengers  The standard contains the following op requirements:  cabin vent rates, cabin temp, local air speed, temp spatial variation, maximum surface temps  HEPA filtration of recirc and ozone monitoring  Std includes design and maintenance measures to address cabin contamination from:  Deicing fluid, exhaust fumes, fuel, hydraulic fluid, engine oil, ozone, bacteria/viruses, pesticides, lavatory fluids, cargo solvents, dry ice

22  Infectious disease transmission and hazardous drug exposure are concerns for healthcare workers  Incorporate NIOSH guidance on ventilation, env controls and room design to reduce hazards to healthcare workers  Infectious disease transmission and hazardous drug exposure are concerns for healthcare workers  Incorporate NIOSH guidance on ventilation, env controls and room design to reduce hazards to healthcare workers NIOSH Impact on ASHRAE TC 9.6

23  NIOSH input in Chap 7~Healthcare Facilities in HVAC Apps Manual.  Specifies design/operating criteria by treatment area (e.g. Emergency Dept, Op room, Airborne infectious iso room, pharmacy, radiology, oncology, autopsy…)  Applicable to hospitals, outpatient clinics, nursing facilities, dental care facilities  NIOSH provided input on hospital pharmacy design and changed two sentences to several pages:  hazardous drug compounding –occupational exposure issues (incl. the NIOSH Alert and related guidance)  sterile compounding (incl. USP 797) and considerations between sterile & hazardous drug compounding reqs  engineering design and equipment selection requirements for occupationally safe design of these areas  NIOSH input in Chap 7~Healthcare Facilities in HVAC Apps Manual.  Specifies design/operating criteria by treatment area (e.g. Emergency Dept, Op room, Airborne infectious iso room, pharmacy, radiology, oncology, autopsy…)  Applicable to hospitals, outpatient clinics, nursing facilities, dental care facilities  NIOSH provided input on hospital pharmacy design and changed two sentences to several pages:  hazardous drug compounding –occupational exposure issues (incl. the NIOSH Alert and related guidance)  sterile compounding (incl. USP 797) and considerations between sterile & hazardous drug compounding reqs  engineering design and equipment selection requirements for occupationally safe design of these areas ASHRAE TC 9.6: Healthcare Facilities

24 (currently in revision) ANSI B11 covers 25 stds and 6 recommended practices for machine safeguarding of manufacturing machines that are used throughout industry. ANSI B11 General Safety Req Common to ANSI B11 Machines; ANSI B11.1 Safety Req for Mechanical Power Presses. ANSI B11.2 (R05) Hydraulic Power Presses- Safety Req for Construction, Care, and Use ANSI B11.3 Safety Req for Power Press Brakes; ANSI B11.9 Safety Req for the Constr, Care, and Use of Grinding Machines ANSI B11.13 Single & Multiple-Spindle Automatic Bar, & Chucking Machines- Safety Req for Construction, Care, & Use ANSI B11.19 Performance Criteria for Safeguarding ANSI B15.1 Safety Stds for Mechanical Power Transmission ANSI B11. Risk Assessment & Risk Reduction - A Guideline to Estimate, Evaluate, & Reduce Risks Assoc with Machine Tools ANSI B11 Standards and TRs

25 Goals: to increase the US tractor fleet equipped with ROPS & seatbelt and provide design and testing specs ASABE committee oversees the ROPS testing stds SAE J1194 & SAE J2194 ROPS for wheeled Ag tractors ASABE X599 Deployment Perf of AutoROPS (proposed) Automatic telescoping ROPS design with sensors for work in low clearances (barns, orchards, etc.) ASABE X599 authors: T McKenzie & J Powers (NIOSH) Amer Soc of Ag & Bio Eng (ASABE) PM23/2/2 ATSC ROPS

26 A (R2004) Concrete and Masonry Work Safety Requirements A (R2004) Safety Requirements for Temporary and Portable Space Heating Devices and Equipment A (R2004) Safety Requirements for Work Platforms Suspended from Cranes or Derricks A (R2004) Safety and Health Program Requirements for Multi-Employer Projects A10.34 Protection of the Public on or Adjacent to Constr Sites A10.40 Reduction of Musculoskeletal problems in construction Recently Reaffirmed ANSI A10 Stds A10.4 Personnel Hoists and Employee Elevators A10.32 Fall Protection Systems New ANSI A10 Stds Over 40 ANSI consensus stds impact 8 million U.S. constr workers ANSI/ASSE A10 Safety in Constr and Demo Ops

27 American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)  ASTM E WG 17797, Skylight Human Impact Resistance – Spec for Human Impact Criteria with Procedure for Testing & Rating Plastic-Glazed Unit Skylights and Related Products used on Commercial Walkable Roofs for Fall-through Resistance  Approx U.S. fatalities per year  WG began Jan 2008; developing test criteria to simulate human impact on skylights  WG chair: Dr. Nigel Ellis, authority on fall-protection; includes 7 skylight manufs; Tom Bobick is NIOSH rep.  ASTM E WG 17797, Skylight Human Impact Resistance – Spec for Human Impact Criteria with Procedure for Testing & Rating Plastic-Glazed Unit Skylights and Related Products used on Commercial Walkable Roofs for Fall-through Resistance  Approx U.S. fatalities per year  WG began Jan 2008; developing test criteria to simulate human impact on skylights  WG chair: Dr. Nigel Ellis, authority on fall-protection; includes 7 skylight manufs; Tom Bobick is NIOSH rep.

28 ANSI/AIHA Z9 Health & Safety Standards for Ventilation  Open surface tanks, Local Exhaust Vent  Spray finishing,  Abrasive blasting  Lab ventilation  Grinding, buffing, polishing  Recirculation of exhaust air from Ind processes  HVAC ops and maintenance  Portable ventilation: decommissioning  New: Combustible dust collection, laminar flow fume hoods  Open surface tanks, Local Exhaust Vent  Spray finishing,  Abrasive blasting  Lab ventilation  Grinding, buffing, polishing  Recirculation of exhaust air from Ind processes  HVAC ops and maintenance  Portable ventilation: decommissioning  New: Combustible dust collection, laminar flow fume hoods

29 Am Soc of Safety Engineers (ASSE) Tech Rep or Std  ASSE released a TR that addresses “Prevention through Design Guidelines for Addressing Occupational Risks”  Report provides guidance to address occupational risks in design and redesign processes  ASSE will seek approval to create a PtD ANSI Std  EID/DSR reviewing: D Heidel, T Bobick, and others.  ASSE released a TR that addresses “Prevention through Design Guidelines for Addressing Occupational Risks”  Report provides guidance to address occupational risks in design and redesign processes  ASSE will seek approval to create a PtD ANSI Std  EID/DSR reviewing: D Heidel, T Bobick, and others.

30 QUESTIONS?


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