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1/ INTEREST Interactions between Environment Society and Technology Ecosystems approach and environmental issues Concepts and tools.

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Presentation on theme: "1/ INTEREST Interactions between Environment Society and Technology Ecosystems approach and environmental issues Concepts and tools."— Presentation transcript:

1 1/ INTEREST Interactions between Environment Society and Technology Ecosystems approach and environmental issues Concepts and tools

2 2/ INTEREST Interactions between Environment Society and Technology Contribution / Role Environmental issues on case studies How to – methodology  Indicators  Models Final remarks - future SummarySummary

3 3/ INTEREST Interactions between Environment Society and Technology Contribution / Role  Environmental aspects  Identify inter-relations between environmental variables and other variables within each case study  Process identification  Identify commonalities between different case studies

4 4/ INTEREST Interactions between Environment Society and Technology Nepal – Machhindranath Community Forestry Agro-forest ecosystems Case studiesCase studies  Output – forest and agricultural products  Environmental issues: Water availability over the year. Deficiency on basic sanitation Soil loss due to agricultural practices (terracing) Siltation water bodies Problem with agrochemicals (persistent substances)

5 5/ INTEREST Interactions between Environment Society and Technology Haryana Bamboo forest Case studiesCase studies  Output – bamboo wood  Environmental issues: Water availability over the year. Soil erosion, in connection with forest management and agricultural practices. Siltation of water bodies with degradation of existing infrastructures

6 6/ INTEREST Interactions between Environment Society and Technology Goa -Khazans system at Divar Island – Mandovi estuary Case studiesCase studies  Output – fish (shellfish); rice  Environmental issues: Sensitive and complex ecosystem - productivity of the estuary. Water quality (external sources) Mangrove growth Salinization of soil Intensive farming (tendency for eutrophication)

7 7/ INTEREST Interactions between Environment Society and Technology Small farming at South Canara – Karnataka Case studiesCase studies  Output –agricultural products  Environmental issues: Water availability over the year Efficient use of water Agrochemicals (persistent substances) Soil degradation (clay mining) Interaction between land use /farming practices and coastal water quality

8 8/ INTEREST Interactions between Environment Society and Technology SriLanka – Rubber production Case studiesCase studies  Output – Rubber production and processing, associated crops  Environmental issues : Impact (strong) on water from the wastewater of processing latex. Efficiency of treatment of WW (local method for BOD- COD removal) Working environment in processing units (connection with public health)

9 9/ INTEREST Interactions between Environment Society and Technology Characterization - Indicators  Using an uniform methodology in all ecosystems  Processes identification Understanding - Modelling  Dynamic representation of relevant controlling processes MethodologyMethodology

10 10/ INTEREST Interactions between Environment Society and Technology Indicators A descriptor of the pressures on the system, of its state and the changes of the system  Organized into a conceptual framework  Assessment criteria  Time and space ToolsTools

11 11/ INTEREST Interactions between Environment Society and Technology Environmental Indicators Allow the organization of information in a systematic way Sensitive to action (information, management, actions) Are associated with criteria and objectives Understandable by wide audiences ToolsTools

12 12/ INTEREST Interactions between Environment Society and Technology Conceptual framework State of the Environment Water Sediments Biota Human Activity Resources (use) Emissions Energy Agriculture Industry Economic Environmental Agencies Administration Private Pressures State Response Responses from Society (action) Human Activity Energy Agriculture Industry Driving-forces Impacts Values Public Health Biodiversity Functions Recreation Fisheries Food Macro economic policies Prioritize action ToolsTools

13 13/ INTEREST Interactions between Environment Society and Technology IndicatorsconstructionIndicatorsconstruction Representative values Assessment criteria Values of indicators Uses and problems Spatial domain Morphology Hydrology Reference Objective values Temporal domain Time scale of processes Graphic and algebraic Algorithms Selection of variables

14 14/ INTEREST Interactions between Environment Society and Technology Variables Context information  Morphology  Fresh water flows, tide Pressure  Loads of matter and energy  Susceptibility State  Concentration of substances  Presence (quantity) of organisms Response  Structural, operational Integration Spatial –homogeneous zones  Morphology  Salinity  Management / uses Temporal – time scales  Seasonal  Moon Indicators Test values  Dimension removal Normalised Indicator  Algebraic operator  Penalty curves Variables to IndicatorsVariables to Indicators

15 15/ INTEREST Interactions between Environment Society and Technology State Indicator V test ComplianceNon-complianceIndicator Criteria/integ. value V test ≥ 1 ⇒ V aux =1V test ≥ 11 ⇒ V aux = (10xV aux )

16 16/ INTEREST Interactions between Environment Society and Technology Analytical operator Penalty curve Variable – Dissolved nitrogen Objective =40  mol l -1 Reference=25  mol l -1 V integrated. V test V aux. Ind. (obj.) Sit.1351, Sit.21160,34 34 Sit 3430,92 92 Sir.4401, V integrated. V test Ind. (obj.) Ind. (ref.) 35 1,13 0, ,34 0, ,92 0, ,00 0,

17 17/ INTEREST Interactions between Environment Society and Technology Models Dynamic representation of the influence of controlling factors and of inter-relationships between state variables Objectives of modelling:  Provide a representation of reality  Uncover relationships between variables (state and forcing functions) –better understanding of the system - diagnosis modelling  Forecast values of variables and of the behaviour of the system - prognosis modelling ToolsTools

18 18/ INTEREST Interactions between Environment Society and Technology Modelling process  Conceptual model – tell the story we know about the system.  Identify: Interdependencies Influence of external factors Time scales Boundaries (what is part and is not part of the system)  Verbal  Schematic (blocks diagram)  Symbolic language (Odum, Forrester) ToolsTools

19 19/ INTEREST Interactions between Environment Society and Technology River Area Water level Volume Paddy field Flux Poim_river Flux River_poim Flux Poim_fields Flux Fields_poim POIM Area Water level Volume Driving forces Tide Fresh water flow

20 20/ INTEREST Interactions between Environment Society and Technology River Salinity Paddy field Salt flux Poim_river Salt flux River_poim Salt flux Poim_fields Salt flux Fields_poim POIM Salinity Driving forces Estuarine salinity

21 21/ INTEREST Interactions between Environment Society and Technology

22 22/ INTEREST Interactions between Environment Society and Technology ToolsTools

23 23/ INTEREST Interactions between Environment Society and Technology Ecological models

24 24/ INTEREST Interactions between Environment Society and Technology Final remarks  There are commonalities in the identified issues  The proposed methodologies may be extrapolated to different project components  Application of models need Initial understanding of processes Data

25 25/ INTEREST Interactions between Environment Society and Technology Pollution loads Compliance with Emission limits [VLE] Plolltion loads –  Evolution indicator  Normalised indicator Pollution accidents Susceptibility Based on: Dilution criteria (P/V HW ) Decision rule, using (R T /P), as a measure for tendency to stratification Export capacity criteria (T f ) Pressure Indicators


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