2Interest Group are:Organizations composed of individuals who share one or more interests in common and who have formed an association for their purpose of advancing or protecting their interests
3Differences between political parties and interest groups Similar views on most issuesBroad coalition of membersAffect policy by getting people elected to officeInterest GroupsSimilar views on one or a handful of issuesNarrow focusAffect policy through access and lobbying
4Types of Interest Groups Private Interest groups: pursue chiefly economic interests that benefit their membersBusiness groups-largest and most powerful of interest groups that represent large business corporations, chambers of commerce, small businessNational Association of ManufacturersAmerican Petroleum Institute-represents 400 oil and gas corp.US Chamber of Commerce: 3 million businesses, 2,800 state chambers,
5Labor GroupsCampaign for workers’ issues like minimum wage, workplace safety, industry protection from overseas competitionAFL-CIO-88 unions and trade groupsUnited Auto Workers UnionNational Education AssociationTeamsters Union
6Agriculture GroupsFarm groups that lobby for farm subsidies, environmental issues, genetic engineeringAmerican Farm Bureau AssociationIn 2005, over $25 billion paid out
7Professional Groups AMA-American Medical Association ABA-large and well-funded group representing lawyersGroups that represent occupations that require some special training (question: what do they lobby for?)
8Other Private Interest Groups ElderlyForeign governmentsAARP-powerful lobby for people over 55 with a lot of clout on issues like Social Security and prescription drugs. Seniors vote in large numbers
9Consumer Groups: Nader’s Raiders Women’s Groups: NOW Religious Groups Public interest groups: groups that lobby for benefits and interests that are not limited to its membersConsumer Groups: Nader’s RaidersWomen’s Groups: NOWReligious GroupsEnvironmental Groups: Audubon Society, Sierra Club
10Single Issue Groups: groups that look at a single issue they want to change National Rifle Association: very rich and powerfulAbortion: Operation Rescue, Planned ParenthoodCivil Rights: NAACP, LULAC (a group rising in importance as the Hispanic population grows)PETA
12MethodsInterest groups try to influence the making of public policy by using tactics that are effective for them such as donating campaign funds, filing lawsuits, electioneering.Lobbying provides access for interest groups and forces Congress to take action on their issue. Sometimes no action is a successful strategy because nothing changes, for the interest group.
13Direct lobbyingPersonal Contact: meeting with policymakers and doing what they can to persuade them to support their causeProviding Expertise: using their specialized body of knowledge about a certain topic to aid in writing legislationTestifying at hearings: provide information for Congressional hearings to get their message out and get free publicity (see iron triangle)
14Final direct methodGiving money: Interest groups endorse candidates who support their interest and then help finance that candidate’s campaign by using PACs.PACs give billions of dollars primarily to congressional campaigns and to incumbents.PACs are limited by law to give $5,000 for each campaign (hard money), but there are no limits on donations to parties (soft money).PACs can also create issue ads without specifically endorsing a particular candidate.
15Fortune Magazine "Power 25 Survey for 2001" The Top 25 Interest Groups October 2, 2002Fortune Magazine periodically produces a list of the most influential interest groups in Washington, D.C. This is called the Fortune Power 25 Survey. The top 25 interest groups on its Survey for 2001 is listed below . You can find that WEB page at: 1. National Rifle Association 2. American Association of Retired People (AARP) 3. National Federation of Independent Business 4. American Israel Foreign Affairs Committee 5. Association of Trial Lawyers of America 6. AFL-CIO 7. Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America 8. National Beer Wholesalers of America 9. National Association of Realtors10. National Association of Manufacturers 11. National Association of Homebuilders of the United States 12. American Medical Association 13. American Hospital Association 14. National Education Association of the United States 15. American Farm Bureau Federation 16. Motion Picture Association of America 17. National Association of Broadcasters 18. National Right to Life Committee 19. Health Insurance Association of America 20. National Restaurant Association 21. National Governors' Association 22. Recording Industry Association of America 23. American Bankers Association 24. Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America 25. International Brotherhood of Teamsters
16Indirect MethodsMobilizing grassroots: Letter campaigns, phone campaigns-getting members to act on their ownMolding public opinion: ads, rallies, rating political leaders; cultivating a positive image of their group in the eyes of the publicCoalition building: ex. Daylight Savings Time Coalition was made up of lobbyists representing 7/11, Kingsford charcoal, amusement parks, lawn and garden centers, meat producers, and travel companies