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The Unique Alternative to the Big Four ® Personal Finance 101 By Kirsten Crame & Chris Morton Disclaimer: the opinions expressed in this presentation are.

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Presentation on theme: "The Unique Alternative to the Big Four ® Personal Finance 101 By Kirsten Crame & Chris Morton Disclaimer: the opinions expressed in this presentation are."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Unique Alternative to the Big Four ® Personal Finance 101 By Kirsten Crame & Chris Morton Disclaimer: the opinions expressed in this presentation are those of Chris Morton and/or Kirsten Crame and are not necessarily the opinions of Crowe Horwath.

2 The Unique Alternative to the Big Four ® © 2013 Crowe Horwath LLP 2 Audit | Tax | Advisory | Risk | Performance EVERYTHING YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT FINANCE  Spend less money than you make.  -The end

3 The Unique Alternative to the Big Four ® © 2013 Crowe Horwath LLP 3 Audit | Tax | Advisory | Risk | Performance Agenda  Savings & Debt  Personal  Government  Investing  Credit Cards & Credit Scores  Insurance  HSA vs FSA’s  Your new job and where to move  Buying a House  Q & A

4 The Unique Alternative to the Big Four ® © 2013 Crowe Horwath LLP 4 Audit | Tax | Advisory | Risk | Performance Personal Savings & Debt

5 The Unique Alternative to the Big Four ® © 2013 Crowe Horwath LLP 5 Audit | Tax | Advisory | Risk | Performance Some not so fun facts about America’s saving problem… We’re right back where we started before the crisis…. at a 2% savings rate! Switzerland 13.9% Germany 10.3% Australia 10.2% Sweden 12.4% Other OECD Countries 2013 Personal Savings Rates rates-forecasts_ x-table7

6 The Unique Alternative to the Big Four ® © 2013 Crowe Horwath LLP 6 Audit | Tax | Advisory | Risk | Performance US Government Savings & Debt  Since 2008, the government debt has nearly doubled.  Deficit= Annual Spending – Annual Revenue  Debt = Cumulative Deficits  Harmful effects of high government debt:  Reduced private investment in productive capital  Federal spending on interest payments rises  Higher taxes are needed to cover interest obligations  Risk of fiscal crises

7 The Unique Alternative to the Big Four ® © 2013 Crowe Horwath LLP 7 Audit | Tax | Advisory | Risk | Performance US Government – A Going Concern Problem  Why don’t we feel the pain of the US debt doubling over the last ~5/years? Historically low interest rates The gov’t is currently rolling over their debt in short term >5/yr maturities (although the trend is to lengthen maturities in the future) No current fire sale Here’s a hypothetical; if interest rates on the 2 year went up to what they were in 2000, interest expense would be $1 TRILLION, up from $416 billion! (using the current $16.7T outstanding debt) – Larger than the Social Security Administration Currently, the FED gov’t takes in $2.7T in gross receipts, that would mean 37% of our taxes/fines/etc would go to servicing the debt alone! (currently 15%)

8 The Unique Alternative to the Big Four ® © 2013 Crowe Horwath LLP 8 Audit | Tax | Advisory | Risk | Performance Saving (“The aim of the wise is not to secure pleasure, but to avoid pain.” – Aristotle)  The first step to living debt free is to create a budget Know what to prioritize Eg. Room/board, then food, then transportation, etc Separate out your needs (rent/food/beer) versus wants (new phone/restaurants/movies) There are plenty of resources to create your own budgets including… Excel default spreadsheets https://www.mint.com/how-it-works/accounts/ (1:30/min video)https://www.mint.com/how-it-works/accounts/ Learning to save is critical in today’s world of immediate gratification and a global flexible work force Above all else, do SOMETHING!

9 The Unique Alternative to the Big Four ® © 2013 Crowe Horwath LLP 9 Audit | Tax | Advisory | Risk | Performance Once you’ve got the savings down, now the fun part… Investing! Rule of 72 (doubling time) Ex, if you were to invest $1,000 with compounding interest at a rate of 9% per annum, the rule of 72 gives 72/9 = 8 years required for the investment to be worth $2,000. “Compound interest is the eighth wonder of the world. He who understands it, earns it... he who doesn't... pays it.” ― Albert Einstein How to invest? 401k: $17.5k for 2013 annual limit IRA & Roth IRA: Lesser of earned income or $5.5k for 2013 annual limit Be careful of expense ratios… Start your own business!

10 The Unique Alternative to the Big Four ® © 2013 Crowe Horwath LLP 10 Audit | Tax | Advisory | Risk | Performance Traditional IRA vs. Roth IRA  Traditional IRA- money contributed is pre-tax and will be taxed when it is distributed  “tax deferred” earnings & current year deduction on page 1 of your 1040  Qualified distributions begin at age 59½.  Required minimum distributions begin at age 70½.  No AGI limits on who can contribute  Beneficiaries pay taxes on inherited IRAs.  After 5 years, up to $10k can be withdrawn penalty free to cover first time homebuyer expenses, but tax will be due on the distributions.  Roth IRA- money contributed is post tax and will not be taxed when distributed  “tax exempt” earnings because the principal was taxed, and now will grow tax free  Single people- Modified AGI< $125k  Married people- Modified AGI< $183k (this is an example of a marriage penalty)  Qualified distributions begin at age 59½.  No required minimum distributions  wealth can be transferred without beneficiaries owing income tax  After 5 years, up to $10k can be withdrawn penalty free to cover first time homebuyer expenses, no tax on distribution

11 The Unique Alternative to the Big Four ® © 2013 Crowe Horwath LLP 11 Audit | Tax | Advisory | Risk | Performance Traditional IRA vs. Roth IRA- so which one should I have?  You can have both!  People who believe their current tax rate is lower now than it will be when they retire typically invest in Roth IRAs so that they are taxed currently at their low rate, and then they plan to take distributions tax free when taxes are higher.  People who are currently in a high tax bracket contribute to their traditional IRA to reduce their taxable income in the current year. The higher your tax rate is currently, the more benefit you get by contributing to a traditional IRA.  People can “hedge” themselves by investing in both- just not more than $5.5k total for 2013 amongst IRA & Roth IRA accounts /pdf/individual_rates.pdf 2013 Income Tax Rates

12 The Unique Alternative to the Big Four ® © 2013 Crowe Horwath LLP 12 Audit | Tax | Advisory | Risk | Performance What if you need to take money from your retirement account?  Avoid taking money from your retirement if possible  401k withdrawals before age 59 ½ are subject to tax and a 10% penalty  Early Roth IRA distributions of income are subject to tax (they wouldn’t be if it was a regular distribution instead of an early distribution) and a 10% penalty.  There are some exceptions that will get you out of tax & penalty such as certain medical expenses, home purchases, disability & a few other things.  Major point: You can withdraw the Principal you contributed to a Roth IRA at any time with no tax or penalty!  If you change jobs, you can rollover many types of retirement accounts from one company to another (usually must happen in a 60 day window)  The tax document you will receive if you do this is a 1099-R  Double check the coding in box 7 to make sure its coded correctly  Report any early distributions (regardless of if they are taxable or not) on form 5329 of your tax return.

13 The Unique Alternative to the Big Four ® © 2013 Crowe Horwath LLP 13 Audit | Tax | Advisory | Risk | Performance What should I invest in? This is ultimately your decision and based on risk tolerance, however someone under 40 typically should be in high risk assets Small cap stocks (Russell 2000) (2012 returns of 17.28%) – Source Russell.com Using the rule of 72, your investment will double in 72/17.28 ~=4.2/years! Mutual Funds An investment program funded by shareholders that trades in diversified holdings and is professionally managed Exchange Traded Fund (ETF) ETFs seek to track an underlying index’s performance over time A mutual fund that is traded on a stock exchange Emerging market or foreign stocks through an ETF What’s an index? An imaginary portfolio of securities representing a particular market or a portion of it It’s a group of stocks, bonds, or both! Ex. Vanguard Total World Stock Idx Fd (Symbol VT) 2012 performance of 15.55% - Source Google Finance

14 The Unique Alternative to the Big Four ® © 2013 Crowe Horwath LLP 14 Audit | Tax | Advisory | Risk | Performance

15 The Unique Alternative to the Big Four ® © 2013 Crowe Horwath LLP 15 Audit | Tax | Advisory | Risk | Performance ETF expense ratio comparison Similar ETFs 

16 The Unique Alternative to the Big Four ® © 2013 Crowe Horwath LLP 16 Audit | Tax | Advisory | Risk | Performance Personal Risk Tolerance  There are several risk tolerance calculators on the internet  These help you decide how to invest  For example, a young professional with no children and a full time job probably has a higher risk tolerance than an older person who is not working and is dependent on social security.  Investments for people with low risk tolerance tend to be value stocks/mutual funds/ETFs and short/medium term bonds.  Investments for people with high risk tolerance tend to be growth oriented stocks/mutual funds/ETFs

17 The Unique Alternative to the Big Four ® © 2013 Crowe Horwath LLP 17 Audit | Tax | Advisory | Risk | Performance Diversification  Stocks  Bonds  Commodities  Crops  Steel  Precious metals  Timber  REITS  Cash  Personal Home  Rental Properties  Collectables

18 The Unique Alternative to the Big Four ® © 2013 Crowe Horwath LLP 18 Audit | Tax | Advisory | Risk | Performance Credit Cards These can be a blessing or a curse depending on how you use them, here are some things you should know: Is there an introductory rate? When, and by how much, will it increase? Is there an annual fee? How much is it? What is the grace period? Is online banking available? What is the credit limit? No interest if you pay the full bill every month What other fees are attached to the card and how are they assessed? (ex: transaction fees foreign exchange fees)? Are there any offers or rebates associated with the card (ex: frequent flyer miles)? What type of offers/rebates are relevant to you? (e.g. do you travel, like to shop, need 0% intro APR)

19 The Unique Alternative to the Big Four ® © 2013 Crowe Horwath LLP 19 Audit | Tax | Advisory | Risk | Performance Credit Cards allows people to compare credit cards

20 The Unique Alternative to the Big Four ® © 2013 Crowe Horwath LLP 20 Audit | Tax | Advisory | Risk | Performance Typical Current Interest Rates  Student Loans- about 6%  Credit Card Debt- about 19% - 25%  Cash Advances (such as AMSCOT) 10% - 250%  Checking Accounts 0%  Short Term CDs.25%  Long Term CDs 1.1%  Car Loans- about 2% - 9%  House Loans- about 3% - 7%  Savings Accounts.1%-.25%  Money Market.2% https://partnersfcu.org/everyday-banking/rates/#certificates

21 The Unique Alternative to the Big Four ® © 2013 Crowe Horwath LLP 21 Audit | Tax | Advisory | Risk | Performance How to Get out of Debt  Pay off your highest interest rate debt first  For most people, this is usually credit card debt. It is normal for credit card debt to accrue interest at 20% APR or more. The average household has $15,950 of credit card debt.  Some student debt loans are higher than others, you may be able to chose which ones you pay first  Don’t put double payments towards your mortgage if you’ve got other debt at a higher rate  Write down everything you buy so you see where your money goes, then eliminate nonessentials.  Pay credit cards in full monthly- do not carry a balance  Be a member at a credit union instead of a bank- usually lower fees/no fees

22 The Unique Alternative to the Big Four ® © 2013 Crowe Horwath LLP 22 Audit | Tax | Advisory | Risk | Performance How to Get out of Debt…continued  Do a balance transfer to a 0% balance transfer credit card to buy yourself time to pay off credit card debt with little or no interest (there usually is a 4% fee for this.)  Absolutely do not take PayDay loans or cash advances. These typically have interest rates of 10%-250%!  Be weary of things like Angie’s List:  Automatic credit card charges & renewals  Almost impossible to get out of  Bad reviews all over the internet  Allegations of “rigged” ranking of vendors  You can get the info you’re looking for from the Better Business Bureau for free  Learn how to cook & buy groceries. It’s cheaper and healthier than restaurants  Consolidate/Negotiate debt down  Alternative methods  Pay off lowest “total debt” first to feel accomplished that you have less debts.  This is less rational than the methods above, but it may give you an emotional boost.

23 The Unique Alternative to the Big Four ® © 2013 Crowe Horwath LLP 23 Audit | Tax | Advisory | Risk | Performance Your Credit Score  DO NOT SIGN UP FOR “FREE CREDIT REPORT SERVICES” or any kind of credit monitoring Can pull your credit once a year from each of the 3 bureaus I pull mine once every 4 months FICO score doesn’t matter as long as you pay your credit card off each month and use less than 50% of your credit card limits Check out for free account monitoring and FICO scorewww.creditkarma.com Worried about identity theft? Freeze your credit!

24 The Unique Alternative to the Big Four ® © 2013 Crowe Horwath LLP 24 Audit | Tax | Advisory | Risk | Performance Building Credit  Start building credit by getting a credit card- preferably one with no annual fees and some sort of rewards.  Open credit accounts with stores you love- Macy’s, Rooms to Go etc.  Have things in your name such as apartments, utilities and phone contracts  Don’t carry high balances on lines of credit.  Buy a car (if you need one)  Get a job and keep it  Don’t get evicted  Pay your bills in full and on time.  Open a savings account if you don’t already have one  Avoid bankruptcy- “the credit equivalent of poison”  Mars your credit report for 10 years  Don’t get arrested  Criminal convictions stay on your credit report forever

25 The Unique Alternative to the Big Four ® © 2013 Crowe Horwath LLP 25 Audit | Tax | Advisory | Risk | Performance

26 The Unique Alternative to the Big Four ® © 2013 Crowe Horwath LLP 26 Audit | Tax | Advisory | Risk | Performance Sneaky Bank Tricks  Subtracting Electronic payments early  Payments were deducted from customer accounts but not paid to the creditor on same day  Wachovia (now Wells Fargo) and other banks got in trouble when customers learned funds were taken out 2-5 days before payment was due, thus giving the banks several days of float  Ordering transactions from high to low  Banks used to post transactions chronologically, but now are choosing to process transactions by size paying the highest ones first when they realized this increased customers chances of over drafting  Debit Card Overdraft Fees  The purpose of debit cards was to prevent the customer from spending more than hey had  Banks found that approving over draft fees for the “convenience” of their customers was very lucrative  In fact, many banks now make it difficult to opt out or even say they cannot prevent payments from clearing even though there is no money in the account  “Privacy Assist” security monitoring services offered by banks  Unneeded and difficult to get out of- monthly automatic fees deducted from accounts  Prey on the poorest people by then charging overdraft fees america-sued-for_n_ html

27 The Unique Alternative to the Big Four ® © 2013 Crowe Horwath LLP 27 Audit | Tax | Advisory | Risk | Performance Insurance Remember that the goal of insurance is solely to mitigate risk Only buy the coverage you absolutely need When you need life insurance If no one is depending on your income (children/spouse) then you probably don’t need life insurance. Most accounting firms give life insurance to workers as one of their benefits. Whole vs term Whole Can access up to 2/3 of value while still alive if there is a terminal illness More expensive Cash surrender value Guaranteed rate of return Term Cheaper For specified time Only pays out if someone passes How much do you need and why?

28 The Unique Alternative to the Big Four ® © 2013 Crowe Horwath LLP 28 Audit | Tax | Advisory | Risk | Performance HSA & FSA Health Savings Accounts (HSA) and Flex Spending Accounts (FSA) are becoming more common health insurance plans. HSA details : Contribution limits- Individuals $3,250 & Families $6,450 Requires a HDHP (high deductible health plan) and minimum required deductibles Deductibles- Individuals $1,250 & Families $2,500 Lower premiums and much higher deductibles than a traditional health plan. Also called catastrophic illness plans, great for young people due to low premiums Contributions to HSAs can be carried over year to year, and they can be invested. FSA Details $2,500 employee cap Allows you to contribute money to the FSA for costs not covered by insurance: deductibles, co-pays, and coinsurance. In addition, you can use your FSA to pay for health care costs that health insurance doesn’t cover.

29 The Unique Alternative to the Big Four ® © 2013 Crowe Horwath LLP 29 Audit | Tax | Advisory | Risk | Performance HSA & FSA continued… Compare/Contrast Unlike HSA’s, funds in FSA’s that are unused over $500 when the plan year is over are lost and cannot be carried over to the following year. (updated 11/1/13) Neither allow expenses for over the counter drugs except insulin or if prescribed Unlike health savings accounts or health reimbursement accounts, FSAs are more commonly offered with traditional medical plans Contributions to HSAs can be made for the 2013 tax year up until April 15, Contributions to traditional and Roth IRAs for the 2013 tax year also can be made up until April 15, 2014.

30 The Unique Alternative to the Big Four ® © 2013 Crowe Horwath LLP 30 Audit | Tax | Advisory | Risk | Performance New job and where to move Check out the Robert Half salary guide (2014 now available) Know what the cost of living will be when looking at salaries Other things to look for: (Google/Wikipedia) Total unemployment/job growth Cost of living/median home price Average Salary School system Age Things to do

31 The Unique Alternative to the Big Four ® © 2013 Crowe Horwath LLP 31 Audit | Tax | Advisory | Risk | Performance Buying a house How much down payment? How much house can you afford? Items to be wary of when buying Ask your lender/Realtor how they make money Closing costs (Typically 3% of home cost) Buying furniture after the purchase, security deposits, etc. Consider 10 or 15 year loan instead of 30 year loan 15 year loans typically are.25% lower interest than 30 year are-my-mortgage-options.aspx?source=web

32 The Unique Alternative to the Big Four ® © 2013 Crowe Horwath LLP 32 Audit | Tax | Advisory | Risk | Performance Mortgage Options  Conventional mortgages  Meet the funding criteria of Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac  About 35-50% of the market (depending on location)  May be fixed-rate or adjustable-rate (certain circumstances interest-only)  Fixed = interest rate doesn’t change  Adjustable = interest rate adjusts to prevailing rate (usually based on an index plus a certain margin – ex- libor +1)  Interest only – Pay only interest, balloon payment due after certain duration

33 The Unique Alternative to the Big Four ® © 2013 Crowe Horwath LLP 33 Audit | Tax | Advisory | Risk | Performance Mortgage Options  FHA mortgages  Benefits include 100% financing (minimum of 3% down, can be gifted and applied to closing costs)  Sellers must pay part of the closing costs  Disadvantage is that the PMI (private mortgage insurance) does not go away after meeting a certain equity threshold (usually 20% for conventional)  In most cases, borrower pays 1.5% of loan amount at closing along with a.5% annual renewal premium paid over life of loan  May qualify for partial refund after 5/yrs under certain circumstances

34 The Unique Alternative to the Big Four ® © 2013 Crowe Horwath LLP 34 Audit | Tax | Advisory | Risk | Performance Mortgage Options  First time home buyer loan programs  Offers vary by state and lender  Little or no down payment & reduced closing costs and fees  Allow lower credit scores & higher debt ratios  Typically total loan would be less than conventional loan  Must be primary residence & may be difficult to refinance  Department of Agriculture (USDA) Rural Development loans  No mortgage insurance, but 2% guarantee fee  Intended for first time home buyers  Not confined to farmland  Income restrictions  Veterans Administration (VA loan)  Qualified veterans can get zero down payment mortgages with no mortgage insurance and reduced rates (2.15%-3.3%) _offices/housing/sfh/pred/predlend

35 The Unique Alternative to the Big Four ® © 2013 Crowe Horwath LLP 35 Audit | Tax | Advisory | Risk | Performance Crowe Horwath LLP is an independent member of Crowe Horwath International, a Swiss verein. Each member firm of Crowe Horwath International is a separate and independent legal entity. Crowe Horwath LLP and its affiliates are not responsible or liable for any acts or omissions of Crowe Horwath International or any other member of Crowe Horwath International and specifically disclaim any and all responsibility or liability for acts or omissions of Crowe Horwath International or any other Crowe Horwath International member. Accountancy services in Kansas and North Carolina are rendered by Crowe Chizek LLP, which is not a member of Crowe Horwath International. © 2013 Crowe Horwath LLP For more information, contact: Kirsten Crame Direct Chris Morton Direct

36 The Unique Alternative to the Big Four ® © 2013 Crowe Horwath LLP 36 Audit | Tax | Advisory | Risk | Performance Crowe Horwath LLP is an independent member of Crowe Horwath International, a Swiss verein. Each member firm of Crowe Horwath International is a separate and independent legal entity. Crowe Horwath LLP and its affiliates are not responsible or liable for any acts or omissions of Crowe Horwath International or any other member of Crowe Horwath International and specifically disclaim any and all responsibility or liability for acts or omissions of Crowe Horwath International or any other Crowe Horwath International member. Accountancy services in Kansas and North Carolina are rendered by Crowe Chizek LLP, which is not a member of Crowe Horwath International. © 2013 Crowe Horwath LLP Mint.com https://www.mint.com/how-it-works/accounts/https://www.mint.com/how-it-works/accounts/ Choose to save.org Debt Clock Vanguard https://personal.vanguard.comhttps://personal.vanguard.com Free credit monitoring & FICO score Freeze your credit issues-id-theft/credit-freezes-are-effective-tool-against-data-bre/nMgx3/http://www.clarkhoward.com/news/clark-howard/consumer- issues-id-theft/credit-freezes-are-effective-tool-against-data-bre/nMgx3/ Credit Cards.com


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