Presentation on theme: "The Impact of Social Media on Mental Health: The Connection Between Number of Facebook Friends and Social Interest Presented by: Joseph Cice Susan Belangee."— Presentation transcript:
The Impact of Social Media on Mental Health: The Connection Between Number of Facebook Friends and Social Interest Presented by: Joseph Cice Susan Belangee NASAP 2012
Agenda for Presentation Introductions and background information on presentation Review of current literature regarding social media and mental health Discussion of Adlerian theoretical concepts ▫ Life tasks ▫ Belonging ▫ Social interest Current research study results Implications and potential interventions for counselors to use with clients Interactive discussion and Q&A time
Current Literature on Social Media & Mental Health Field is so new that little research exists Weekly hours online were related to feelings of loneliness ▫ Morahan-Martin & Schumacher (2003) Increased Feelings of Loneliness / Lower Number of Friends ▫ Sheldon (2008) Intervention (Well Being or Internet Usage) ▫ Valkenberg & Peter (2007) Cornell study with mirrors and FB ▫ Gonzales & Hancock (2011) Academic Performance ▫ Junco (2011)
Adlerian Concepts and Social Media Life Tasks (Ansbacher & Ansbacher, 1956) ▫ Social ▫ Love/Intimacy ▫ Work/Career Belonging (Adler, 1927) ▫ From birth, humans struggle to find their place, first in the family setting and later in the broader community. Social interest (Adler, 1970) ▫ “The goal of perfection must contain the goal of an ideal community, because everything we find valuable in life, what exists and will remain, is forever a product of this social feeling.” (original source Adler (1933) “On the Origin of Striving for Superiority and of Social Interest;” current quote from p. 35 in Superiority and Social Interest: A Collection of Later Writings, edited by Ansbacher & Ansbacher, 1970)
Current Study Results Instruments used: ▫ Demographics sheet (e.g., gender, age, # of Facebook friends, etc.) ▫ Beck Depression Inventory (M=13.6, min=2, max=35) ▫ Sulliman Social Interest Scale (Total, Sub1, Sub2, RDS) Sub 1 = concern for and trust in others Sub 2 = confidence in oneself and optimism RDS = relationally destructive (provisional scale) Procedure ▫ Initial electronic mailing ▫ In-person data collection Results (correlations) ▫ Pilot study in terms of numbers of participants (n=10) ▫ Age (M=22.9 years), Facebook friends (M=393.8), 60% female ▫ Friends & depression (positive direction) ▫ Friends & total SSSI (negative direction) ▫ Friends & Sub1 (negative direction) ▫ Friends & Sub2 (negative direction) ▫ Friends & RDS ( positive direction)
Implications and Potential Interventions Knowing client’s purpose of using social media will serve as a guide (out of the literature) Differences based on age or year in school can inform practice Encourage healthy online behavior ▫ When is it too much? Utilize connectivity to increase belonging ▫ Harness social media for encouragement purposes Promote socially interested activities ▫ Fundraising opportunities? ▫ Organizing events in the community
Interactive Discussion and Q&A time Thoughts from audience (personal and/or case-related) Role Adlerian counselors can play in this burgeoning field? How can it be used to foster belonging and encouragement? Is it truly belonging if person never sees that “friend” face-to- face?
References Adler, A. (1927). Understanding human nature. Oxford, England: Oneworld Publications. Adler, A. (1970). Superiority and social interest: A collection of later writings. H. Ansbacher and R. Ansbacher (Eds.). Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press. Ansbacher, H., & Ansbacher, R. (1956). The individual psychology of Alfred Adler: A systematic presentation in selections from his writings. New York, NY: Harper. Gonzales, A. L., & Hancock, J. T. (2011). Mirror, mirror on my Facebook wall: Effects of exposure to Facebook on self-esteem. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 14(1-2), 79-83. doi:10.1089/cyber.2009.0411. Junco, R. (2011). Too much face and not enough books: The relationship between multiple indices of Facebook use and academic performance. Computer in Human Behavior. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2001.08.026. Morahan-Martin, J., & Schumacher, P. (2003). Loneliness and social uses of the internet Computers in Human Behavior, 19(6), 659-671. doi:10.1016/S0747-5632(03)00040-2. Sheldon, P. (2008). The relationship between unwillingness-to-communicate and students’ Facebook use. Journal of Media Psychology: Theories, Methods, and Applications, 20(2), 67-75. doi:10.1027/1864-1220.127.116.11. Valkenburg, P. M., & Peter, J. (2007). Internet communication and its relation to well-being: Identifying some underlying mechanisms. Media Psychology, 9(1), 43-58.
Presenters’ Contact Information Joe Cice ▫ firstname.lastname@example.org Susan Belangee ▫ email@example.com