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By Chance Carbaugh.  Origin and discovery of Geomyces destructans  Information about Geomyces destructans  Impact of the fungus on host bats.

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Presentation on theme: "By Chance Carbaugh.  Origin and discovery of Geomyces destructans  Information about Geomyces destructans  Impact of the fungus on host bats."— Presentation transcript:

1 By Chance Carbaugh

2  Origin and discovery of Geomyces destructans  Information about Geomyces destructans  Impact of the fungus on host bats

3  Most widely excepted hypothesis is that Geomyces destructans originated from Europe.

4  In a study tracing the origins of Geomyces destructans photographs of hibernating bats were examined. They found multiple photos of bats across Europe that had white fuzzy patches on their muzzle.  Bats in Europe are not affected by Geomyces destuctans.  Spores found on the cave walls in Europe.

5  In 2006, surveys were conducted by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. They discovered that little brown bats in New York were dying off in large numbers due to a fungus.  The fungus was named Geomyces destructans which has recently been renamed to Pseudogymnoascus destructans through DNA sequencing.

6  From cave to cave by cavers who accidentally picked up the spores from an infected cave.  Between the contact of an infected bat and a non-infected bat.  Indirect transfer of spores from an infected bat to the cave walls to a non infected bat.

7  Cold weather fungus  Named white-nosed syndrome because of the white colored fungal growth it causes on the bats’ nose, ears, and/or wing membranes  Morphology changes with respect to temperature  Does not require bats to persist

8 Little brown bat infected with Geomyces destructans

9 Growth at 7°C Growth at 12°C Growth at 15°C and 18° C Morphology of Geomyces destructans at Various Temperatures

10 Who - Eleven bat species (all of which hibernate ) - Most impacted species is the little brown bat Where - North eastern states - In Canada the providences of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Ontario and Quebec

11  Invades and uses the bat’s skin as a source of nutrients  The fungus causes the bats to wake up more frequently during hibernation, which uses up more energy.  More than likely, infected bats will die

12  Resent studies, showed that bats infected with Geomyces destructans fully recovered when provided human supportive care.  Providing manmade warmer areas to reduce energy loss  Treating the bats with anti-fungal agents  Closing caves off from humans.


14  They eat insects  Economically important  Future impact on pollinator bats in the south (Arizona and New Mexico)

15  Geomyces destructans is a fungus that prefers cold climates to grow.  Its primary hosts are bats, although it can grow in soil and cave walls.  It causes damage to the host bats wings membrane, muzzle, and ears.  More studies needs to be conducted so that an economically important group of species do not go extinct.

16   1. Baress C. (2010). Biologists experiment with treatments for white-nose syndrome., retrieved 2013- 11-06.  2. Boyles J.G. & Willis C. (2010). Could localized warm areas inside cold caves reduce mortality of hibernating bats affected by white-nose syndrome? Front Ecol Environ, 8(2): 92–98, doi: 10.1890/080187.  3. Chaturvedi V., Springer D.J,. Behr M.J., Ramani R., Li X., et al. (2010) Morphological and Molecular Characterizations of Psychrophilic Fungus Geomyces destructans from New York Bats with White Nose Syndrome (WNS). PLoS ONE, 5(5): e10783. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0010783.  4. Desprez-Lousta M., Robin C., Buee, M., Courtecuissee R., (2007). The fungal dimension of biological invasions. TRENDS in Ecology and Evolution, 22(9), 473-480.  5. Martinkova N., Backor P, Bartonicka T, Blazkova, et al. (2010). Increasing Incidence of Geomyces destructans Fungus in Bats from the Czech Republic and Slovakia. PLoS One, 5(11): e13853. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone. 0013853.  6.Verant ML, Boyles JG, Waldrep W Jr, Wibbelt G, Blehert DS (2012) Temperature-Dependent Growth of Geomyces destructans, the Fungus That Causes Bat White-Nose Syndrome. PLoS ONE 7(9): e46280. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0046280  7. Minnis A.M. & Lindner D.L. (2013). Phylogenetic evaluation of Geomyces and allies reveals no close relatives of Pseudogymnoascus destructans, comb. Nov., in bat hibernacula of eastern North America. Fungal Biology, 117(9), 638-649.  8. Puechmaille SJ, Wibbelt G, Korn V, Fuller H, Forget F, et al. (2011) Pan-European Distribution of White-Nose Syndrome Fungus (Geomyces destructans) Not Associated with Mass Mortality. PLoS ONE 6(4): e19167. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0019167.  9. Robert V. & Casadevall A. (2006). Vertebrate Endothermy Restricts Most Fungi as Potential Pathogens. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 200(10), 1623-1626. doi: 10.1086/644642.  10. Smith B. (2013). Relatives of White Nose Syndrome Fungus Found, May Help Find A Cure. Universe Online, retrieved 2013-11-07.  11. Vanderwolf K., Malloch D., McAlpine D.F., & Forbes G.J. (2013). A world review on fungi, yeasts, and slime molds in caves. International Journal of Speleology, 42(1), 77-96.  12. Wibbelt G., Kurth A., Hellmann D., Weishaar M, Barlow A., Veith M, Pruger J., Gorfol T, Grosche L., Bontadina F., Zophel U., Seidl H., Cryan P., & Blehert D. (2010). White-Nose Syndrome Fungus (Geomyces destructans) in Bats, Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 16(8): 1237-1243.  13. Youngbaer, Peter (2010-02-20 & 2011-04), "White-Nose Syndrome: Year Six, and Counting", NSS News, retrieved 2013-11- 07."White-Nose Syndrome: Year Six, and Counting"

17 Questions?

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