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INVESTMENT AND INVESTORS INTEREST A lecture delivered at The 2014 Forum of Chartered Insurance Institute of Nigeria held on 10 th September 2014 at Green.

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Presentation on theme: "INVESTMENT AND INVESTORS INTEREST A lecture delivered at The 2014 Forum of Chartered Insurance Institute of Nigeria held on 10 th September 2014 at Green."— Presentation transcript:

1 INVESTMENT AND INVESTORS INTEREST A lecture delivered at The 2014 Forum of Chartered Insurance Institute of Nigeria held on 10 th September 2014 at Green Legacy Resort, Abeokuta Ogun State By: Mr. Dauda Kolapo Adedeji (FCA) Managing Director /CEO Niger Insurance Plc. Dauda Kolapo Adedeji FCA

2 INTRODUCTION I consider it expedient to begin this exposition by expressing my profound gratitude and appreciation to the Planning Committee of this years Forum for considering it fit to accord me the privilege and opportunity of mounting this highly esteemed and prestigious podium to share my views with an audience considered to be most enlightened and discerning in the Industry. 2 Dauda Kolapo Adedeji FCA

3 Introduction Contd. The choice of this topic is timely and thought provoking for various reasons; the global financial crises of 2008 is yet to be forgotten by many investors whose losses are difficult to quantify with precision, the economy of Nigeria is passing through momentous period in her history and facing tremendous challenges regarding economic stability and the need to transcend the political and socio economic problems. The country will only need to focus on its trajectory to achieve its vaunted milestone of becoming the 20 th economy in the year 2020 generally codified as 20:2020. 3 Dauda Kolapo Adedeji FCA

4 Definition Investment is the current commitment of funds or other resources to project or venture in the expectation of realising future benefits. Therefore, the purchase of shares or bonds would be an investment; just as the purchase of a car or a house, taking a life insurance or making a deposit in the bank or opening a savings accounts etc. There are three stages involved in the consummation of an investment decision namely: planning, execution and controlling of events to attain certain selected investment objectives. Planning because the investor will select from a wide variety of options combining either high risk with high returns or low risk with low returns etc. 4 Dauda Kolapo Adedeji FCA

5 Definition Contd. Executing because the investors will have to mobilise the available resources to carryout the objectives. Monitoring and controlling is designed to ensure that actual performance of such investments is consistent with the predetermined objectives. Investment decision entails the gathering of vital and critical information to engender efficient evaluation of the available alternatives. The criteria for distinguishing among these alternatives are established through the use of expected utility derived from the trade –off between returns and risk of a particular project. 5 Dauda Kolapo Adedeji FCA

6 Definition Contd. Specific objectives: All investment objectives must be specific rather than being broadly defined for example the level of income must be stated and quantified. Measurable Objectives: The Investment objectives must be measurable in terms of earnings yield or dividend yield. Achievable Investment objectives: The objectives developed in an investment policy must be feasible. The implication is that there should be adequate resources to acquire the asset necessary to make the target income. Realistic Investment objectives: The Investment objectives should not be based on illusion of what cannot be attained within the budget line. Time bound Investment objectives: All forecast and projections on the achievement of certain level of income and /or yield must be within a foreseeable period. 6 Dauda Kolapo Adedeji FCA

7 The Nature Of Investment The Real Asset: The material wealth of the society is ultimately determined by the productive capacity of its economy, that is the goods and services that the members can create. This capacity is the function of real assets of the economy which consist of land, building, machines and knowledge that is available for use. Financial Asset: These are sheets of papers or entries in our computers that does not contribute directly to the productive capacity of the economic units. However, they are the means by which individuals hold the claim on real assets. 7 Dauda Kolapo Adedeji FCA

8 The Nature Of Investment Contd. Financial assets therefore are represented by such instruments as ordinary shares, Treasury bills, Commercial papers, Treasury certificates, debenture stock, Government bond and development stock etc. Real Investment represents the purchase or construction either in parts or in full of specific land, residential, commercial or industrial buildings, plants or equipment or other personal possessions. While the real asset generate net income to the economy, financial assets simply define the allocation of wealth among investors. 8 Dauda Kolapo Adedeji FCA

9 The Nature Of Investment Contd. Investment in property: The ownership of property is usually evidenced by a title document and registered under the land use Act. Any land purchased after 1976 can only confer a leasehold interest on the owner because the freehold interest is theoretically vested in the Federal Government, The document evidencing the title under the land use Act is the certificate of occupancy issued by the State Government. Freehold and Leasehold properties: A Freehold Title gives the holder what is absolute ownership of the property. 9 Dauda Kolapo Adedeji FCA

10 The Nature Of Investment Contd. Owner occupier: The owner-occupied property has undoubtedly proved to be the most profitable long term Investment for most personal investors. There is therefore common aspiration among the individual investors to own and occupy their first property. Investment Property: This is land or building or part of a building (or both) held by the owner or (by the lessee under a finance lease) to earn rentals or for capital appreciation or both rather than for: Use in the production or supply of goods or services or for administrative purpose or sale in the ordinary course of business 10 Dauda Kolapo Adedeji FCA

11 Investment In Chattels Chattels are moveable tangible personal possessions other than real estate and commodities. Making investment in Chattels are commonly known as alternative investments. Most investments in Chattels are done as a way of protecting the purchasing power of money because they have the potential to appreciate in value. Eg Gold, Jewelries,Paintings etc. 11 Dauda Kolapo Adedeji FCA

12 Investment Objectives Risk and safety of Capital: The investor must determine the level of risk he is prepared to take in a relatively efficient and informed capital market, risk tends to be closely correlated with returns. While some experienced investors may prosper on their wits alone, most high returns may be perceived as compensation for the level of risk. Investors who wish to assume low risk will probably confine most of their investment portfolio to short term instruments in which the repayment is expected with a certain period. It is not only the inherent risk in an asset that must be considered but also the extent to which that risk is being diversified away in the portfolio. 12 Dauda Kolapo Adedeji FCA

13 Investment Objectives Contd. Attitude to risk and uncertainty: There are basically three dimensions to risk namely risk seeker, risk averse and risk neutral for those who are indifferent to the risk situation. Tools For Incorporating Risk And Uncertainty: Sensitivity analysis: This takes different but uncertain factors each at a time and compute the change that would be needed in that factor before the original decision is reversed. Expected Value (EV): An expected value shows the weighted average of all possible outcome and it is very useful tool when a decision is repeated. However, the method does not take account of the risk in the range of potential outcomes. 13 Dauda Kolapo Adedeji FCA

14 Investment Objectives Contd. Simulation analysis: This is a modelling technique which shows the effect of more than one variable changing at a time and gives information of the likely out come to enable the investor takes a more discerning decision. Scenario building: This technique to risk analysis looks at a number of different but plausible future situations. Maximin Rule, Maximax Rule and Minimax Regret Maximin Rule:Here the investor is selecting the investment alternative that maximises the minimum pay off achievable. This method is appropriate for the pessimistic investor who has risk averse and seek to attain the best out of the worst result. 14 Dauda Kolapo Adedeji FCA

15 Investment Objective Contd. Maximax Rule:This technique is applicable when selecting the alternative that maximises the maximum pay off achievable. The method is suitable for the optimistic investor, risk seeking investors who wants to take high risk with the aim of earning very high returns. Venture Capitalist are example of this class of investors. Minimax Regrets: This technique tend to minimise the maximum regrets with the opportunity that was lost because a wrong investment decision was taken. 15 Dauda Kolapo Adedeji FCA

16 Investment Objective Contd. Current income versus capital appreciation: Although the decision concerning current income or future appreciation of capital is closely linked to risk appetite, yet the factors are managed independently. Investors looking for immediate income may have to invest in matured industry e.g. manufacturing. On the other hand the investor looking for capital appreciation will need to invest in emerging industry such as the telecommunication Broadband eg. DISCOS, GENCOS. Liquidity Consideration: Liquidity is measured by the ease of the investor in converting the investment to cash within a short time at its fair market value or with a minimum capital loss. 16 Dauda Kolapo Adedeji FCA

17 Investment Objectives Contd. Most financial assets provide a high degree of liquidity. Shares and stocks can generally be sold at their market value on the floor of the exchange. Similarly, government bonds can be discounted quite easily thereby providing liquidity for their investors. Investors must carefully examine their individual situation to determine the need for liquidity. 17 Dauda Kolapo Adedeji FCA

18 Investment Objectives Contd. Short term or Long term Orientation: Market strategies may be short term or long term in scope. Those who engage in short term are called traders. These are those who use the technical analysis and charts to evaluate the performance of the stock. Those who take long term perspective identify the sound and strong organisations for buy and hold strategies. Taxation factors: Investors in the high tax bracket have different objectives than those in the lower tax bracket or tax exempt charities, foundations, or similar organisations. The high tax bracket investor (high net worth individuals) may prefer the government development stock or state bond because of the tax effect (interest is not taxed) They will also prefer the real estate because of depreciation and interest write off or investment that provides tax credit or tax shelters. 18 Dauda Kolapo Adedeji FCA

19 Rights Of Shareholders The company and Allied Matters Act (CAMA) 1990 provided a wide range of areas in which the shareholders can exercise some rights especially during the Annual General Meetings. The interests of the Investors are protected through various ways during the AGM. The right to attend the Annual General Meeting. The right to speak and vote on the resolution of the meeting. The right to vote in person or in absentia with equal effect. The right to be furnished with information concerning date, location and agenda of the AGM. The right to speak and ask questions from the Directors and place item on the agenda in the General Meeting subject to the reasonable limitation. Right to be informed of any resolution appointing or approving the appointment of a Director. The right to have a copy of the MEMART. 19 Dauda Kolapo Adedeji FCA

20 Legal framework for Investment Management Companies and Allied Matter Act 1990 (CAMA) the Act made general provision on the rights of share holders and their responsibilities. It also provided for the payment of dividend as well as the timing of the General meeting, extraordinary General Meeting etc. Trustee Investment Act reproduced as the cap 449 Laws of the federation 1990. The Act highlighted the specific areas in which trustees can invest including ordinary share, Debenture Stock issued by quoted companies. Others are Government stocks, Treasury bills and the stock bonds. Pension Reforms Act 2004: Contributory pension scheme for employees in both public and private sector. Established the national pension commission and the transitional terms for public sector and provide for the transfer of funds assets to NSITF. It also established the Pension Fund administrators and Pension Custodians. 20 Dauda Kolapo Adedeji FCA

21 Legal Framework For Investment Management Contd. Investment and Securities Act 2007: The Act deals with the registration and regulation of Securities and Capital trade point as well as other self regulatory organisations. It provides for the Registration and regulation of capital market operators. The Registration and regulation of collective investment scheme. Insurance Act 2004: The Act is designed to protect the policy holders to ensure the company is run on sustainable basis thereby indirectly also protecting the interest of shareholders. The act specifically made provisions for Investment as follows: An insurance company shall not invest on property except securities specified under the Trustee Investment Act. Shares in or other securities of society registered under any laws relating to co-operative society. Loans of building society. Loans of life policy within their surrender value. 21 Dauda Kolapo Adedeji FCA

22 Legal Framework Contd. These requirement will not be satisfied except: Not more than 25% of total assets is invested in securities specified under the trustee investment Act. Not more than 10% of Nonlife fund is invested in real property Not more than 25% of the Life fund is invested in real property. Income tax management Act 1967: The act specified the level of exemption applicable to interest income on Government Securities and State Bonds. It specified the allowable and disallowable income for estates and provided for the valuation living accommodation. International Centre for settlement of investment disputes Act 1967: The act established the centre for settlement of investment disputes. Nigerian Investment Promotion Commission Decree of 1995 which provides that non Nigerians can invest and participate in the operation of any enterprise in Nigeria and guarantees the transfer of funds whether dividends or profits. 22 22 Dauda Kolapo Adedeji FCA

23 Regulatory Authorities Federal Ministry of Finance: This is the overseer and the regulator of the entire financial system which consist of banking, insurance, capital market and other nonbank financial institutions. Central Bank of Nigeria: The Central Bank of Nigeria regulates the banks and other financial institutions including the bureau the change. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC): Securities and Exchange Commission is the apex regulatory organisation of the capital market. It regulates investment and Securities Market in Nigeria. Nigeria Stock Exchange : The Nigeria Stock Exchange create the facilities for dealing on shares. Established the rules and regulations for the transfer of shares. 23 Dauda Kolapo Adedeji FCA

24 Regulatory Authorities Contd. Central Securities Clearing System: This is the subsidiary of the Nigeria Stock Exchange though operate as an independent company. The company is responsible for the clearing and settlement of all shares to be traded on the floor of the Nigerian Stock Exchange. Pension Commission (Pencom): It is the apex regulator of the Pension Fund Administrator and the Pension custodians. It registers the Administrators and Custodians and regulates their operations. National Insurance Commission (NAICOM) It registers and regulates the operations of Insurance companies. It registers new products and ensure operators comply with the standard. It ensures that the investment portfolio of Insurance companies comply with the provision of the Act. 24 Dauda Kolapo Adedeji FCA

25 Portfolio Management Services There are a wide variety of services offered by large number of organisations to meet different client requirements. Polarization: Most financial institutions have been polarized in the area of advisory services. They can no longer sell both their in-house investment products and other company products. They have had to sell their own investment services. Discretionary management advisory services: Private client who wants investment advise tend to be steered towards discretionary management of their portfolio. 25 Dauda Kolapo Adedeji FCA

26 Portfolio Management Services Contd. Advisory services: Here the manager and the client set up an initial portfolio which is then monitored by the manager. The portfolio manager can only deal with the consent of the lient. Commercial bank services: Most commercial banks deal with total financial package including fund management, capital gain tax, wills, income tax etc. Merchant Banks: The Merchant Bank offers investment banking services which are mainly fee based. These include fund management, foreign exchange, bill discounting and general investment advisory services. 26 Dauda Kolapo Adedeji FCA

27 Portfolio Management Services Contd. The Stockbrokers: These are specialised professionals in buying and selling of shares as well as portfolio management services. Insurance companies: Insurance companies usually maintain a large pool of Agents who are trained in the marketing of their inhouse products. Accountants and solicitors: These are professionals who have the skills to offer total financial planning package especially to high net worth individual. Independent advisers: These are individuals with a variety of professional knowledge who hold themselves out to offer investment advise including tax planning, pension, individual savings account, unit trust. 27 Dauda Kolapo Adedeji FCA

28 Special Developments In The Investment World The Financial Services Industry has continued to evolve with change in the method of handling issues as well as new products. Over the counter market: Unlike the organised exchanges, the over the counter markets (OTC) have no central location where securities are being traded. Over the counter implies that the trade takes place by telephone or electronic device and dealers stand ready to by or sell specific securities for their accounts. NASDAQ: National Association of Securities Dealer Automated quotation system is the system that links dealer in the over the counter market by computer net work and provide an up to date quotation and information on all the securities traded in OTC using the NASDAQ system. 28 Dauda Kolapo Adedeji FCA

29 Special Development In The Investment World Cross Border Dealing: Cross Border Dealing in securities and other goods are carried out to promote economic growth. At the moment only the banks and leading oil companies have made offering across the national boundaries the latest of which is Seplat Petroleum Plc. Electronic dividends (e-dividend): This is the payment of dividend through direct credit to the nominated account rather than a cheque or a warrant. It is a convenient means of securing an on-line payment directly to the shareholders accounts. Commodities Exchanges: These are institutions registered with securities and Exchange Commission under organised market with the required facilities for trading of commodities (agricultural commodities and solid minerals /petroleum) they could be futures options and other derivatives through a registered license broker. 29 Dauda Kolapo Adedeji FCA

30 Special Development In The Investment World Private Equity Companies: These are a type of investments aimed at gaining significant or even complete control of a company in the hope of earning high returns. The funds are usually invested in assets that are either privately owned or public owned. The basic principle is that a group of investors buy out a company and use the earnings of the company to pay themselves. Market makers: The Nigerian Stock Exchange introduced the market makers 2012 with the aim of reducing market volatility and enhance liquidity in the system. 30 Dauda Kolapo Adedeji FCA

31 New Products In The Industry These are the new areas to Invest in Financial Markets. Single Premium Annuity: This is a product in which the annuitant are expected to make a single premium with the hope of receiving a period income for life starting immediately. The amount of periodic income vary widely depending on age, gender, indexation rate etc. Mutual Halal Investment Plan: It is an Insurance scheme which combines savings and investment plan for Muslims and other interested parties. It is an investment plan designed to meet both short term and long term obligations based Islamic profit sharing and reciprocal guarantee principle of AL-Takaful. There are a variety of products including marriage plan (Al-Nikah Plan), Educational plan (Al-tadris), Mortgage plan (Al binau) etc. 31 Dauda Kolapo Adedeji FCA

32 New Products In The Industry Contd. Securities Lending Services: Securities Lending Strategy involves the transfer of Securities to a third party (borrower) who will give the Lender collateral in the form of shares, bonds and treasury bills. The borrower will also pass over to the lender any dividend / interest payment and corporate action that may arise. The lender will retain the rights that he would have had if he did not lend the securities. Non- Interest payment Investment: Financial Institutions in Nigeria have started making offerings which complies with Islamic profit sharing banking concept. The investment strategy is that the investors funds are invested in various types of business and the profit earned is paid to depositors in a predetermined ratio. There is a wide range of product offerings including cost plus financing (murabaha) profit sharing (mudaraba), lease (ijara), partnership (Musharaka) forward sale (baySalam) etc. 32 Dauda Kolapo Adedeji FCA

33 New Product Contd. Sukuk (Islamic Securities): Sukuk is defined by the Islamic financial service Board (IFSB-2) as ‘’the certificates that represent the holder’s proportionate ownership in an undivided part of the underlying asset, where the holder assumes all rights and obligations to such asset’’. Operations of Sukuk was approved by Sec under section 313 (6) of investment and Securities Act 2007 and structured the following transactions: Sukuk Musharka – Sharing contract Sukuk Ijarah – Lease contract Sukuk Istisnah - Exchange contract Sukuk Murabaham- Financing contract 33 Dauda Kolapo Adedeji FCA

34 The Expectation Of Investors The major expectation of all investors is to earn good returns. However, this can only be achieved through the existence of certain factors detailed below: Strengthened collaboration between various chambers of commerce industries mines and Agriculture. Simplification of visa processing and single customs territory slashing the Red Tape. Complete removal of the non tariff trade barriers. Creation of enabler of continental trade and investment and alignment of immigration laws. Modification of business registration procedures and building of entrepreneurial incubators. 34 Dauda Kolapo Adedeji FCA

35 The Expectation Of Investors Contd Effective security, and air space management. Low cost of doing business in Nigeria and reduction of bureaucracies. Effective development of infrastructures including information and communication technology. Improvement of power generation and transmission as well as the road network. 35 Dauda Kolapo Adedeji FCA

36 The Expectation Of Investors Contd. Diversification of the economy away from the oil sector to provide a variety of opportunities as a hedge against business cycles. Stable political system which facilitate planning and execution of investment decision. Transparent and honest operating environment completely devoid of corruption and other unethical practices. Sustainable growth and yielding stocks. Early payment of dividends and other benefit accruable to the shareholders. 36 Dauda Kolapo Adedeji FCA

37 Expectation Of Investment Contd. Finally, the investors will want a balanced regulatory framework that is neither too loose nor overbearing. I will conclude this paper with this statement from a Veteran Multibillionaire Investor – Richard Brandson, who said “Investment is not all about money, but also about what the mind can conceive and believe’.’ 37 Dauda Kolapo Adedeji FCA

38 Thank You For Listening. Dauda Kolapo Adedeji FCA


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