Linkage Institutions Interest Groups are one of three main linkage institutions. Interest Groups Media Political Parties
What is a L.I.? An entity that links the people to the govenrment.
What do interest groups do? express group members preferences to policy members Convey policy information to group memebers raise and spend money to advocate for the interest of the group with policymakers. Inform policy makers of issues
How do they do this? Letterwriting Campaign activities Lobbying Grass roots organizations Litigation Media campaigns Disseminating information to the public about government affairs.
Lobbying Lobbyists inform members of Congress on certain issues, what people want, and provide money for upcoming elections.
PACS Political Action Committees Parts of the interest groups that raise money to give to candidates.
FEC In charge of monitoring money. Allowed for PACS to give unlimited amounts of money: “soft money.”
FECA Federal Elections Campaign Act 1971: cannot say “vote for” or vote against (issue advocacy) 1971 Groups instead “bash” or promote candidates without those words.
BCRA Bipartisan Campagin reform act-- McCain Feingold Bill Limited ads 60 days before general election, and 30 days before a primary.
BCRA continued…. Bans corporations and unions from giving soft money. BCRA does not regulate what groups can do by phone, mail or in person.
Money limitations PACS $5000 per election PACS $10,000 per election cycle (primary and general elctions) $4,000 per individual
Soft Money Political Parties got around this through the use of soft money
K Street Street in Washington D.C. filled with think tanks, interest/”advocacy” groups and lobbying firms.
Citizens United vs. FEC Landmark case that will not be updated on the AP exam, so stick with the old!!!!!! Says corporations are people, cannot prohibit free speech before elections.
Hillary the Movie Citizens United wanted to air before elections. BCRA/McCain Feingold says “no” Supreme Court says yes: cannot limit free speech of citizens or their arms for communication.
Iron Triangles A mutually dependent relationship among interest groups, congressional committees and subcommittees and government agencies that share a common policy concern.
Revolving Door Employment cycle in which individuals who work for governmental agencies regulating interests eventually end up working for interest groups or businesses with the same policy concern.