Presentation on theme: "Today Student Will (TSW):"— Presentation transcript:
1Today Student Will (TSW): Describe the importance of the roles interest groups play in influencing the actions and policies of government.Warm Up:You are a Northwestern High School student who is unhappy with the late hours of your school.What might some of your options be as far as influencing the existing person or group in charge of changing those hours according to your preference?
2Warm UpYou are a Northwestern High School student who is unhappy with the late hours of your school.What might some of your options be as far as influencing the existing person or group in charge of changing those hours according to your preference?
3Interest Groups and Public Opinion Local, State, and National Government
4Ask Questions…What are interest groups and what do they have to do with government?How is participation in interest groups an effective way of influencing government?What are PACs?What is mass media and what role does it play in shaping public opinion?How is public opinion measured?
5Interest GroupsAn interest group is a group of people who share common goals and organize to influence government.These groups spend a great deal of money and put a lot of effort into persuading government officials to support bills or policies the group feels will be beneficial.(USG, page 503)
6Interest Groups are NOT Political Parties ...They do not nominate candidates.…Only concerned with a few specific issues and do not try to gain members with different opinions.…Organized on the basis of common values rather than on geographic location.Discussion preparing interest groups to political parties.Look at “Pleading for Parks” at the bottom of page Read the short segment and ask students to respond verbally to the question put forth.
7Why belong to an Interest Group? Economic self-interestBeliefs, values, and attitudesSocial reasons***Most who join tend to be from upper income levels.The group might promote an individual’s economic self-interest. For example, labor unions work to secure better wages and benefits for their members. Another example—American Association of Retired Persons (a senior citizen group) works for higher Social Security benefits.Example—the Sierra Club members work to conserve natural resources and protect the environment. Members have strong beliefs about the value of maintaining our environment.Example—a person who joins a farm organization may simple enjoy the company of other farmers.
8Types of Interest Groups Business and Labor (NAM and AFL-CIO)Agricultural groups represent farmers. (Grange)Professional AssociationsEnvironmental groupsPublic Interest groupsBusiness and Labor—many interest groups are concerned with economic issues such as taxes, food prices, housing, inflation, unemployment, and so on. (Examples=National Association of Manufacturers and AFL-CIO)Agricultural groups represent the interests of Farmers (Ex=the Grange)Professional Associations—include members of a particular profession; might set standards, influence training processes, and also influence govt policy on issues important to themSierra club and other groups concerned with protection of wildlife and natural resources as well as the environment.Public Interest groups—believe they work to accomplish policy in the best interests of all Americans; example=Ralph Nader’s Public Citizen Inc. devotes itself to consumer and public safety issues affecting the general population
9Major Special Interest Groups National Association for the Advancement of Colored PeopleAmerican Federation of Labor-Congress of Industrial OrganizationAmerican Medical AssociationNational Education AssociationNational Association for the Advancement of Colored PeopleAmerican Federation of Labor-Congress of Industrial OrganizationAmerican Medical AssociationNational Education Association
10Purpose and Methods of Interest Groups Provide Americans with additional RepresentationSeek to Inform the Public and Officials of IssuesLetter Writing CampaignsMedia Campaigns
11Checking for Understanding How are interest groups different from political parties?What methods do interest groups use to influence public policy?Why are interest groups more effective in influencing the government than are individual citizens?
13Lobbying/LobbyistLobbying is the process of making direct contact with government leaders in attempt to influence policy.Lobbyists are the representatives of interest groups who conduct such work.
14Political Action Committees (PACs) Another vehicle for interest groups to influence government is through PACs.Organizations specifically designed to collect money and provide financial support for a political candidate.Pros and Cons?***Look at the Political Cartoon on page 511 “The Power of Money”
15Contributions to PACs Graphs on page 510 What has the general trend been in Total PAC spending since 1978?By about how many dollars did PAC spending increased between ?By how much did the number of PACs declined between 1996 and 1998?Which type of PAC spent the most $ in 1997?
16Learning Log:Do interest groups help make representative government truly “government by the people?” EXPLAIN!Do you have any questions or comments on this topic?
18TSW: Examine political ads in order to identify techniques used by politicians and the media to influence public opinionWarm Up:Take a copy of the handout titled: “Wanda’s Adventures in Government”Use vocabulary from last class to fill in the blanks.Write your answers under “warm up” in your journal.
19Mass MediaTelevision, radio, newspapers, magazines, recordings, movies, and booksAKA—”The Fourth Branch of Government”Strategic methods in influencing public opinion—the ideas and attitudes a significant number of Americans hold about government and political issues
20Media in Political Campaigns Candidates use the media to creatively persuade people’s opinions of themselves and opponentsAds costs lots of $Candidates spend lots of time raising money to fund the expensive ads
21Propaganda Techniques (page 496 in text) Testimonial: Celebrity endorsementMudslinging: negative adTransfer: using symbols to create negative attitude toward opponentCard Stacking: use of stats & one-sided info to make opponent look bad
22More Propaganda Techniques… Plain Folks: attempt to appeal as “one of the people”Glittering Generalities: introduce candidate to people with positive & broad words/phrasesContrast Ad: Compare positive images of candidate with negative images of opponent in same ad
23Your Turn….In small groups, you will write & record a 30 second political radio ad for a presidential candidate of your choice that uses at least one of the campaign advertising strategies we learned today.Guidelines:Your group needs a written script to receive full credit— the script needs to explain which advertising strategies you use.Your group needs to practice a few times before recording and Be Creative!!
24Learning Log:How much of an influence do you think the media really has over people’s decisions?Can you think of any examples from your daily life when the media had an effect on something you did?
25Ideology and Public Opinion Political Ideology effects how an individual approaches issues in public policy.Liberal—believes gov’t should actively promote health, education, and justiceConservative—believes in limiting the role of gov’t except in supporting traditional moral valuesModerates—fall somewhere in the middle
26Measuring Public Opinion Political Party membershipParticipation in Interest GroupsResponses to Mass MediaLetter Writing VolumeElectronic Access***Scientific Polling***How many people belong to the particular parties/major shifts in party affiliation indicate how people feel about the parties and their policies.Membership in terms of #’s in interest groups give indication of public opinionHow people responds to, for example, certain issues covered in the media will determine the coverage designated.#’s of letters written to public officials indicate how the public feels on certain issuesVolume of /faxes received
27ConclusionWhy do we care about interest groups and public opinion? Because research shows that the government is indeed responsive to the desires of the public.Interest groups, political parties, mass media and the public opinion all weigh heavily on government officials when designing public policy.