Presentation on theme: "Interest Groups Chapter 11 Edwards, Wattenberg, and Lineberry"— Presentation transcript:
1 Interest Groups Chapter 11 Edwards, Wattenberg, and Lineberry Government in America: People, Politics, and PolicyFourteenth Edition
2 Roots of Interest Groups First national groups emerge in 1830s.Business interests play larger role after Civil War.Groups begin to send lobbyists to WashingtonProgressive era leads to an explosion of groups.Growth of labor and trade associations.
3 The Interest Group State Expansion of civil rights and groups in 1960s.Development of conservative and religious groups.Evolution of new business groups dedicated to lobbying.Declining power of organized labor.
4 HISTORY & INTEREST GROUP FORMATION INTEREST GROUPSHISTORY & INTEREST GROUP FORMATIONINTEREST GROUPS SEEK TOINFLUENCE PUBLIC POLICY.THE U.S. HAS MANYINTEREST GROUPS BECAUSE…1-GREAT NUMBER OF SOCIAL CLEAVAGES2-FEDERALISM ( 3 layers of gov’t)3-SEPERATION OF POWERS (3 branches)4-THE DECLINE OF POLITICAL PARTIES
9 The Role of Interest Groups An organization of people with shared policy goals entering the policy process at several points to try to achieve those goalsInterest groups pursue their goals in many arenas.Interest groups are distinct from parties.Political parties fight election battles;Interest groups do not field candidates for office but may choose sides.Interest groups are policy specialists; political parties are policy generalists.
10 INTEREST GROUPS IN ACTION INTEREST GROUPS ARE REGULATED BY THE GOV’T MUST REGISTER WITH CONGRESSMUST FILE FINANCIAL REPORTSCAN LOSE TAX-EXEMPT STATUSIF THEY LOBBY “TOO MUCH”OR BREAK RULES
11 Theories of Interest Group Politics: Hyperpluralism SubgovernmentsNetworks of groups that exercise a great deal of control over specific policy areas.Consist of interest groups, government agency, and congressional committees that handle particular policiesAlso known as iron trianglesThe hyperpluralist critiqueGroups have become too powerful as the government tries to appease every interest.Many subgovernments (iron triangles) aggravate the process.Trying to please every group results in contradictory policies.
13 What Makes an Interest Group Successful? Potential group: all the people who might be interest group members because they share a common interestActual group: the part of the potential group consisting of members who actually joinCollective good: something of value that cannot be withheld from a group member
14 What Makes an Interest Group Successful? IntensitySingle-Issue groups: groups that focus on a narrow interest, dislike compromise, and often draw membership from people new to politics.Groups may focus on an emotional issue, providing them with a psychological advantage.Intensity encourages non-conventional means of participation, i.e.—protests
15 Financial Resources Not all groups have equal amounts of money. Monetary donations usually translate into access to the politicians, such as a phone call, meeting, or support for policy.Wealthier groups have more resources—and presumably more access—but they do not always win on policy.
17 INTEREST GROUPSINTEREST GROUP BIASAMERICANS JOIN GROUPS A LOT OUT OF A SENSE OF CIVIC DUTY & POLITICAL EFFICACY.JOINERS TEND TO BE HIGH-STATUS, WEALTHY, HAVE FREE TIME, & CONNECTIONS.
18 Olson’s law of large groups: Free-Rider ProblemSome people don’t join interest groups because they benefit from the group’s activities without officially joining.The bigger the group, larger the problemLarge groups are difficult to organizeOlson’s law of large groups:“The larger the group, the further it will fall short of providing an optimal amount of a collective good.”Attempt to overcome Olson’s law by providing selective benefits: Goods that a group can restrict to those who pay their annual dues
19 Small groups are better organized and more focused on the group’s goals. Multinational corporations are successful because there are few of them and, therefore, have an easier time organizing for political action.Consumer groups have a difficult time getting significant policy gains because the benefits are spread over the entire population.Public interest lobbies seek “a collective good, the achievement of which will not selectively and materially benefit the membership activities of the organization.”
23 How Groups Try to Shape Policy LobbyingElectioneeringLitigationGoing Public
24 Lobbying Target Congress through research, money, or testimony. Also target bureaucratic agencies and the president.Lobby courts through sponsorship or amicus briefs.Can use grassroots techniques, such as petitions.May also resort to protests and activism.
25 How Groups Try to Shape Policy Lobbying“communication by someone other than a citizen acting on his own behalf, directed to a governmental decisionmaker with the hope of influencing his decision”Two basic types of lobbyists:1-Regular, paid employees of a group2-Temporary hires
26 whether lobbying works Lobbyists:*are a source of information*help politicians plan political strategies for… legislationcampaigns*are a source of ideas and innovationsMixed evidence as towhether lobbying works
27 ElectioneeringDirect group involvement in the election processGroups can help fund campaigns, provide testimony, and get members to work for candidates; some form PACs.Political Action Committee (PAC): PACs are used by interest groups to donate money to candidates.PACs help pay the bill for increasing campaign costs.Most PAC money goes to incumbents.
28 Election Activities Recruiting and endorsing candidates. Organizing get out the vote efforts.Rating candidates and office holders.Establishing political action committees.
30 LitigationIf an interest group fails in one arena, the courts may be able to provide a remedy.Interest groups can file amicus curiae briefs to influence a court’s decision.Class Action lawsuits permit a small number of people to sue on behalf of all other people similar situated.
31 Because public opinion matters, groups try to: Going PublicBecause public opinion matters,groups try to:-cultivate a good public image to build a reservoir of goodwill with the public-use marketing strategies to influence public opinion of the group and its issues-advertise to motivate and inform the public about an issue
35 Types of Interest Groups Economic InterestsLaborAgricultureBusinessEnvironmental InterestsEquality InterestsConsumer and Public Interest Lobbies
36 Types of Organized Interests Public interest groups (i.e. NARAL, NRA).Economic interest groups (i.e. AFL-CIO, NAM).Governmental units, who lobby for earmarks.Political action committees (i.e. EMILY’s List).Multi-issue versus single-issue groups.
37 INTEREST GROUPS INTEREST GROUP BIAS BUSINESS & PROFESSIONAL INTEREST GROUPS ARE MORE INFLUENTIAL & BETTER FINANCED THAN OTHERS.INTEREST GROUPS DON’T ALWAYS REPRESENT THE INTERESTS OF THEIR MEMBERS.
38 Understanding Interest Groups Interest Groups & the Scope of Govern’tInterest groups seek to maintain policies and programs that benefit them.Interest groups continue to pressure government to do more things.As the government does more, does this cause the formation of more groups?
39 INTEREST GROUPS INTEREST GROUP BIAS WHAT INFLUENCES THE POSITIONS OF I.G.?GENERAL PHILOSOPHY & SPECIFIC GOALSHOMOGENITY OF THE GROUPPEOPLE’S MOTIVES FOR JOININGTHE SIZE OF STAFFSTAFF (ELITES) OFTEN SHAPE POLICYLEVEL OF MEMBERS ACTIVITY/ MILITANCE
43 Theories of Interest Group Politics Pluralist TheoryPolitics is mainly a competition among groups, each one pressing for its own preferred policies.Elite TheorySocieties are divided along class lines and an upper-class elite rules, regardless of the formal niceties of governmental organization.Hyperpluralist TheoryGroups are so strong that government is weakened. This is an extreme, exaggerated form of pluralism.
44 Understanding Interest Groups Interest Groups and DemocracyJames Madison’s solution to the problems posed by interest groups (factions) was to create a wide-open system in which groups compete.Pluralists believe that the public interest would prevail from this competition.Elite theorists point to the proliferation of business PACs as evidence of interest group corruption.Hyperpluralists maintain that group influence has led to policy gridlock.
45 SummaryGroup theories: pluralism, elitism, and hyperpluralismA number of factors influence a group’s success, i.e., being smallInterest groups affect policy process through lobbying, electioneering, litigation, and going public.
46 Theories of Interest Group Politics Pluralism and Group TheoryGroups provide a key link between the people & government.Groups compete and no one group will become too dominant.Groups play by the “rules of the game.”Groups weak in one resource may use another.Lobbying is open to all so is not a problem.
47 Elites Theory (The Denial of Pluralism) Real power is held by the relatively few.The largest corporations hold the most power.Other groups may win many minor policy battles, but elites prevail when it comes to big policy decisions.Lobbying is a problem because it benefits the few at the expense of the many.
48 AP CHAPTER 11 - INTEREST GROUPS OBJECTIVES 1-EXPLAIN WHY THE CHARACTERISTICS OF AMERICAN SOCIETY AND GOVERNMENT ENCOURAGE A MULTIPLICITY OF INTEREST GROUPS.2-INDICATE THE HISTORICAL CONDITIONS UNDER WHICH INTEREST GROUPS ARE LIKELY TO FORM.
49 AP CHAPTER 11 - INTEREST GROUPS OBJECTIVES 3-DO THE SENTIMENTS OF INTEREST GROUP MEMBERS DETERMINE THE ACTIONS OF INTEREST GROUP LEADERS?4-DESCRIBE THE METHODS THAT INTEREST GROUPS USE TO CARRY OUT THEIR OBJECTIVES. MAKE SURE YOU INCLUDE LOBBYING TECHNIQUES AND THE USE OF COURTS.5-LIST THE LAWS REGULATING CONFLICT OF INTEREST AND DESCRIBE THE PROBLEMS INVOLVED WITH REVOLVING DOOR GOVERNMENT EMPLOYMENT.
50 AP CHAPTER 11 - INTEREST GROUPS IMPORTANT TERMS CLIENT POLITICSCUE (POLITICAL)“DIRTY DOZEN”FEDERAL REGULATION OF LOBBYING ACT OF 1946GRASSROOTS SUPPORTIDEOLOGICAL INTEREST GROUPSINCENTIVE (POILITICAL)INSTITUTIONAL INTERESTS
51 AP CHAPTER 11 - INTEREST GROUPS IMPORTANT TERMS LOBBISTMATERIAL BENEFIT INCENTIVESMEMBERSHIP INTERESTSP.A.C.SP.I.R.G.S
52 AP CHAPTER 11 - INTEREST GROUPS IMPORTANT TERMS PUBLIC-INTEREST GROUPPURPOSIVE INCENTIVERATINGREVOLVING-DOOR INFLUENCESOCIAL MOVEMENTSOLIDARY INCENTIVE
53 AP CHAPTER 11 - INTEREST GROUPS QUESTIONS 1-WHY HAVE INTEREST GROUPS GROWN STRONGER AS POLITICAL PARTIES HAVE GROWN WEAKER?2-WHICH HAVE BEEN MORE IMPORTANT IN THE FORMATION OF INTEREST GROUPS: CHANGES IN THE ECONOMIC STRUCTURE OF THE UNITED STATES OR CHANGES IN PEOPLE’S IDEAS AND BELIEFS?3-THEODORE LOWI PRESENTED THE THEORY THAT PUBLIC POLICY IS FORMULATED BY BUREAUCRATS IN CONJUCTION WITH INTEREST GROUPS. DO YOU AGREE?
54 AP CHAPTER 11 - INTEREST GROUPS QUESTIONS 4-WHICH INCENTIVE -MATERIAL, PURPOSIVE, SOLIDARY - IS THE MOST IMPORTANT IN JOINING AN INTEREST GROUP?5-PACs HAVE BEEN CALLED COLLECTION AGENCIES FOR INTEREST GROUPS. THEY WERE CREATED TO EVADE LAWS THAT FORBID CORPORATIONS AND LABOR UNIONS FROM GIVING MONEY “DIRECTLY” TO FEDERAL CANDIDATES. WHY DOES CONGRESS PERMIT THE LAW TO BE TRAMPLED BY ALLOWING PACs? DO PACs THREATEN THE CONSTITUTIONAL ORDER?