Presentation on theme: "Interest Groups Chapter 11 Edwards, Wattenberg, and Lineberry Government in America: People, Politics, and Policy Fourteenth Edition."— Presentation transcript:
Interest Groups Chapter 11 Edwards, Wattenberg, and Lineberry Government in America: People, Politics, and Policy Fourteenth Edition
Roots of Interest Groups First national groups emerge in 1830s. Business interests play larger role after Civil War. Groups begin to send lobbyists to Washington Progressive era leads to an explosion of groups. Growth of labor and trade associations.
The Interest Group State Expansion of civil rights and groups in 1960s. Development of conservative and religious groups. Evolution of new business groups dedicated to lobbying. Declining power of organized labor.
INTEREST GROUPS SEEK TO INFLUENCE PUBLIC POLICY. THE U.S. HAS MANY INTEREST GROUPS BECAUSE… 1-GREAT NUMBER OF SOCIAL CLEAVAGES 2-FEDERALISM ( 3 layers of gov’t) 3-SEPERATION OF POWERS (3 branches) 4-THE DECLINE OF POLITICAL PARTIES
THERE ARE MORE INTEREST GROUPS
AND THEY ARE DONATING MORE MONEY
The Role of Interest Groups Interest group An organization of people with shared policy goals entering the policy process at several points to try to achieve those goals Interest groups pursue their goals in many arenas. Interest groups are distinct from parties. Political parties fight election battles; Interest groups do not field candidates for office but may choose sides. Interest groups are policy specialists; political parties are policy generalists.
INTEREST GROUPS ARE REGULATED BY THE GOV’T MUST REGISTER WITH CONGRESS MUST FILE FINANCIAL REPORTS CAN LOSE TAX-EXEMPT STATUS IF THEY LOBBY “TOO MUCH” OR BREAK RULES
Theories of Interest Group Politics: Hyperpluralism Subgovernments Networks of groups that exercise a great deal of control over specific policy areas. Consist of interest groups, government agency, and congressional committees that handle particular policies Also known as iron triangles The hyperpluralist critique Groups have become too powerful as the government tries to appease every interest. Many subgovernments (iron triangles) aggravate the process. Trying to please every group results in contradictory policies.
What Makes an Interest Group Successful? Potential group: all the people who might be interest group members because they share a common interest Actual group: the part of the potential group consisting of members who actually join Collective good: something of value that cannot be withheld from a group member
Intensity Single-Issue groups: groups that focus on a narrow interest, dislike compromise, and often draw membership from people new to politics. Groups may focus on an emotional issue, providing them with a psychological advantage. Intensity encourages non-conventional means of participation, i.e.—protests What Makes an Interest Group Successful?
Financial Resources Not all groups have equal amounts of money. Monetary donations usually translate into access to the politicians, such as a phone call, meeting, or support for policy. Wealthier groups have more resources— and presumably more access—but they do not always win on policy.
AMERICANS JOIN GROUPS A LOT OUT OF A SENSE OF CIVIC DUTY & POLITICAL EFFICACY. JOINERS TEND TO BE HIGH- STATUS, WEALTHY, HAVE FREE TIME, & CONNECTIONS.
Free-Rider Problem Some people don’t join interest groups because they benefit from the group’s activities without officially joining. The bigger the group, larger the problem Large groups are difficult to organize Olson’s law of large groups: “The larger the group, the further it will fall short of providing an optimal amount of a collective good.” Attempt to overcome Olson’s law by providing selective benefits: Goods that a group can restrict to those who pay their annual dues
Small groups are better organized and more focused on the group’s goals. Multinational corporations are successful because there are few of them and, therefore, have an easier time organizing for political action. Consumer groups have a difficult time getting significant policy gains because the benefits are spread over the entire population. Public interest lobbies seek “a collective good, the achievement of which will not selectively and materially benefit the membership activities of the organization.”
HOW DO INTEREST GROUPS ATTEMPT TO INFLUENCE? PROVIDE CREDIBLE INFORMATION ORGANIZE PUBLIC SUPPORT / PROTEST DONATE MONEY / JOBS (REVOLVING DOOR)
The Interest Group Explosion
How Groups Try to Shape Policy LobbyingElectioneeringLitigation Going Public
Lobbying Target Congress through research, money, or testimony. Also target bureaucratic agencies and the president. Lobby courts through sponsorship or amicus briefs. Can use grassroots techniques, such as petitions. May also resort to protests and activism.
How Groups Try to Shape Policy Lobbying “communication by someone other than a citizen acting on his own behalf, directed to a governmental decisionmaker with the hope of influencing his decision” Two basic types of lobbyists: 1-Regular, paid employees of a group 2-Temporary hires
Lobbyists: *are a source of information *help politicians plan political strategies for… legislation campaigns campaigns *are a source of ideas and innovations Mixed evidence as to whether lobbying works
Electioneering Direct group involvement in the election process Groups can help fund campaigns, provide testimony, and get members to work for candidates; some form PACs. Political Action Committee (PAC): PACs are used by interest groups to donate money to candidates. PACs help pay the bill for increasing campaign costs. Most PAC money goes to incumbents.
Election Activities Recruiting and endorsing candidates. Organizing get out the vote efforts. Rating candidates and office holders. Rating candidates and office holdersRating candidates and office holders Establishing political action committees.
Litigation If an interest group fails in one arena, the courts may be able to provide a remedy. Interest groups can file amicus curiae briefs to influence a court’s decision. Class Action lawsuits permit a small number of people to sue on behalf of all other people similar situated.
Going Public Because public opinion matters, groups try to: -cultivate a good public image to build a reservoir of goodwill with the public -use marketing strategies to influence public opinion of the group and its issues -advertise to motivate and inform the public about an issue
Types of Interest Groups Economic Interests Labor Labor Agriculture Agriculture Business Business Environmental Interests Equality Interests Consumer and Public Interest Lobbies
Types of Organized Interests Types of Organized Interests Public interest groups (i.e. NARAL, NRA). Economic interest groups (i.e. AFL-CIO, NAM). Governmental units, who lobby for earmarks. Political action committees (i.e. EMILY’s List). Multi-issue versus single-issue groups.
BUSINESS & PROFESSIONAL INTEREST GROUPS ARE MORE INFLUENTIAL & BETTER FINANCED THAN OTHERS. INTEREST GROUPS DON’T ALWAYS REPRESENT THE INTERESTS OF THEIR MEMBERS.
Understanding Interest Groups Interest Groups & the Scope of Govern’t Interest groups seek to maintain policies and programs that benefit them. Interest groups continue to pressure government to do more things. As the government does more, does this cause the formation of more groups?
WHAT INFLUENCES THE POSITIONS OF I.G.? GENERAL PHILOSOPHY & SPECIFIC GOALS HOMOGENITY OF THE GROUP PEOPLE’S MOTIVES FOR JOINING THE SIZE OF STAFF STAFF (ELITES) OFTEN SHAPE POLICY LEVEL OF MEMBERS ACTIVITY/ MILITANCE
Theories of Interest Group Politics: Elitism
Theories of Interest Group Politics Pluralist Theory Politics is mainly a competition among groups, each one pressing for its own preferred policies. Elite Theory Societies are divided along class lines and an upper-class elite rules, regardless of the formal niceties of governmental organization. Hyperpluralist Theory Groups are so strong that government is weakened. This is an extreme, exaggerated form of pluralism.
Understanding Interest Groups Interest Groups and Democracy James Madison’s solution to the problems posed by interest groups (factions) was to create a wide-open system in which groups compete. Pluralists believe that the public interest would prevail from this competition. Elite theorists point to the proliferation of business PACs as evidence of interest group corruption. Hyperpluralists maintain that group influence has led to policy gridlock.
Summary Group theories: pluralism, elitism, and hyperpluralism A number of factors influence a group’s success, i.e., being small Interest groups affect policy process through lobbying, electioneering, litigation, and going public.
Theories of Interest Group Politics Pluralism and Group Theory Groups provide a key link between the people & government. Groups compete and no one group will become too dominant. Groups play by the “rules of the game.” Groups weak in one resource may use another. Lobbying is open to all so is not a problem.
Elites Theory (The Denial of Pluralism) Real power is held by the relatively few. The largest corporations hold the most power. Other groups may win many minor policy battles, but elites prevail when it comes to big policy decisions. Lobbying is a problem because it benefits the few at the expense of the many.
AP CHAPTER 11 - INTEREST GROUPS OBJECTIVES 1-EXPLAIN WHY THE CHARACTERISTICS OF AMERICAN SOCIETY AND GOVERNMENT ENCOURAGE A MULTIPLICITY OF INTEREST GROUPS. 2-INDICATE THE HISTORICAL CONDITIONS UNDER WHICH INTEREST GROUPS ARE LIKELY TO FORM.
AP CHAPTER 11 - INTEREST GROUPS OBJECTIVES 3-DO THE SENTIMENTS OF INTEREST GROUP MEMBERS DETERMINE THE ACTIONS OF INTEREST GROUP LEADERS? 4-DESCRIBE THE METHODS THAT INTEREST GROUPS USE TO CARRY OUT THEIR OBJECTIVES. MAKE SURE YOU INCLUDE LOBBYING TECHNIQUES AND THE USE OF COURTS. 5-LIST THE LAWS REGULATING CONFLICT OF INTEREST AND DESCRIBE THE PROBLEMS INVOLVED WITH REVOLVING DOOR GOVERNMENT EMPLOYMENT.
AP CHAPTER 11 - INTEREST GROUPS IMPORTANT TERMS CLIENT POLITICS CUE (POLITICAL) “DIRTY DOZEN” FEDERAL REGULATION OF LOBBYING ACT OF 1946 GRASSROOTS SUPPORT IDEOLOGICAL INTEREST GROUPS INCENTIVE (POILITICAL) INSTITUTIONAL INTERESTS
INTEREST GROUP LOBBIST MATERIAL BENEFIT INCENTIVES MEMBERSHIP INTERESTS P.A.C.SP.I.R.G.S AP CHAPTER 11 - INTEREST GROUPS IMPORTANT TERMS
PUBLIC-INTEREST GROUP PURPOSIVE INCENTIVE RATING REVOLVING-DOOR INFLUENCE SOCIAL MOVEMENT SOLIDARY INCENTIVE AP CHAPTER 11 - INTEREST GROUPS IMPORTANT TERMS
AP CHAPTER 11 - INTEREST GROUPS QUESTIONS 1-WHY HAVE INTEREST GROUPS GROWN STRONGER AS POLITICAL PARTIES HAVE GROWN WEAKER? 2-WHICH HAVE BEEN MORE IMPORTANT IN THE FORMATION OF INTEREST GROUPS: CHANGES IN THE ECONOMIC STRUCTURE OF THE UNITED STATES OR CHANGES IN PEOPLE’S IDEAS AND BELIEFS? 3-THEODORE LOWI PRESENTED THE THEORY THAT PUBLIC POLICY IS FORMULATED BY BUREAUCRATS IN CONJUCTION WITH INTEREST GROUPS. DO YOU AGREE?
AP CHAPTER 11 - INTEREST GROUPS QUESTIONS 4-WHICH INCENTIVE -MATERIAL, PURPOSIVE, SOLIDARY - IS THE MOST IMPORTANT IN JOINING AN INTEREST GROUP? 5-PACs HAVE BEEN CALLED COLLECTION AGENCIES FOR INTEREST GROUPS. THEY WERE CREATED TO EVADE LAWS THAT FORBID CORPORATIONS AND LABOR UNIONS FROM GIVING MONEY “DIRECTLY” TO FEDERAL CANDIDATES. WHY DOES CONGRESS PERMIT THE LAW TO BE TRAMPLED BY ALLOWING PACs? DO PACs THREATEN THE CONSTITUTIONAL ORDER?