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Hollywood & Cultural Imperialism Fall 2013 Prof. Karl J. Skutski Department of Modern Languages & Literatures.

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Presentation on theme: "Hollywood & Cultural Imperialism Fall 2013 Prof. Karl J. Skutski Department of Modern Languages & Literatures."— Presentation transcript:

1 Hollywood & Cultural Imperialism Fall 2013 Prof. Karl J. Skutski Department of Modern Languages & Literatures

2 The World Cinema Market: Admissions, worldwide India2.9 billion North America1.4 billion European Union951 million China217 million France201 million United Kingdom173 million Japan160 million Germany146 million Italy111 million Spain106 million Source: Focus 2010 World Cinema Market Trends, Marche du Film Festival de Cannes

3 The World Cinema Market: Number of screens (sample listing—not ranking) United States39,028 European Union29,202 India10,120 France5,522 Germany4,734 China4,723 Mexico4,430 Italy3,208 Spain4.083 United Kingdom3,696 Japan3,396 Russia2,101 Australia1,989 Poland1.043 Philippines770

4 The World Cinema Market: Number of feature films produced European Union India United States China Japan France Spain Italy93101 Argentina96101 Germany7787 United Kingdom7071 Poland3031 Morocco15

5 The World Cinema Market: Market share SpainUnited KingdomRussia European UnionFranceGermanyItaly National US

6 The World Cinema Market: Market share TurkeyJapan North AmericaIndiaChina National Other

7 The World Cinema Market: Top-grossing films, worldwide Country of originUSD ($millions) 1. Harry Potter and the Half-Blood PrinceUK/US AvatarUS/UK Ice Age: Dawn of the DinosaursUS Transformers: Revenge of the FallenUS US/CA UpUS New MoonUS Angels and DemonsUS The HangoverUS/DE Night at the Museum: Battle of the SmithonianUS/CA Star TrekUS Monsters vs. AliensUS X-Men Origins: WolverineUS375 14: Terminator SalvationUS Fast and FuriousUS Inglorious BasterdsUS/DE The ProposalsUS A Christmas CarolUS GI Joe: The Rise of CobraUS/CZ G. ForceUS (all time) (all time) 2012

8 The World Cinema Market: Top-grossing films of all time 1. Avatar (2009) $2,781,505, Titanic (1997) $1,835,300, The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King (2003) $1,129,219, Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man's Chest (2006) $1,065,896, Toy Story 3 (2010) $1,062,984, Alice in Wonderland (2010) $1,023,285, The Dark Knight (2008) $1,001,921, Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone (2001) $968,657, Pirates of the Caribbean: At World's End (2007) $958,404, Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix (2007) $937,000, Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince (2009) $933,956, Star Wars: Episode I - The Phantom Menace (1999) $922,379, The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers (2002) $921,600, Jurassic Park (1993) $919,700, Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire (2005) $892,194, Ice Age: Dawn of the Dinosaurs (2009) $887,773, Spider-Man 3 (2007) $885,430, Shrek 2 (2004) $880,871, Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets (2002) $866,300, Finding Nemo (2003) $865,000,000

9 The World Cinema Market: “The Yanks have colonized our subconscious.” --Wim Wenders German director

10 The World Cinema Market: “Americans have turned every cinema in the world into the equivalent of an American consulate.” --UK government report

11 The World Cinema Market: “ The average Western film requires nothing from the viewer. Its narrative sets up a series of questions in order to preserve an air of suspense...“Will Lassie bring the insulin to the diabetic hunter with the broken leg before he dies?” Then it logically answers each question...Thus the typical Western film gives us what we want by telling us what we already know.” --Stuart Hancock

12 The Hollywood Machine Production Distribution Megaplexes Video sales Video rentals Cable and pay-per view Merchandise

13 The Hollywood Machine Titanic Harry Potter Star Wars Forest Gump Matrix Oceans 11 Meet the Parents $1.8 billion $1.0 billion 900 million 700 million 500 million 400 million 300 million

14 The Hollywood Machine Titanic Harry Potter Star Wars Forest Gump Matrix Oceans 11 Meet the Parents Trainspotting Secrets & Lies Run Lola Run Red No Man’s Land $1.8 billion $1.0 billion 900 million 700 million 500 million 400 million 300 million 80 million 20 million 7 million 4 million 1 million

15 The World Cinema Market: Representative listing of “foreign” films in the world market 2009 ($millions) Slumdog Millionaire (UK)363 The Full Monty (UK)256 Trainspotting (UK)72 Secrets and Lies (UK)52 Amelie (France)32 Monsoon Wedding (India)14 Run Lola Run7 Red (Poland)4 The Class (France)4 Water (India)3 Ran (Japan)3 Source: worldwideboxoffice.com

16 The Hollywood Machine AT Austria GR Greece BE Belgium IE Ireland DK Denmark IT Italy FR France LU Luxembourg FI Finland NL Netherlands DE Germany NO Norway SEAustriaGreeceBelgiumIrelandDenmarkItalyFranceLuxembourgFinlandNetherlandsGermanyNorway SwedenSweden PT Portugal CH Switzerland ES Spain CEE Central Europe & Turkey UK United KingdomPortugalSwitzerlandSpainCentral Europe & TurkeyUnited Kingdom

17 The Hollywood Machine

18 US = 36,000

19 The Hollywood Aesthetic The aesthetic of pretense Studio system (films as products) Star-centric Formula approach to narrative –Hero - Problem - Overcome- Happy Ending Rapid montage editing Special effects Non-diegetic music

20 HollyŁódź: “It’s all about how we have suffered and been oppressed” No middle class Struggle for survival; pursuit of tolerable dignified existence Wars happen here Distrust of all governments Film as mirror of harsh existence Not many happy endings “Dark, somber, ironic, existential” Life can be tough Hollywood “It’s all about me”/ Star-centric Obsession with status, personal success and freedoms Pursuit of happiness Wars happen elsewhere America is the greatest Film as entertaining products Formula, “happy-ending” plots Aesthetic of pretense All is well

21 A Matter of National & Cultural Identity  Migration of international directors to Hollywood (e.g., Forman, Polanski)  Expatriate productions (e.g., Nair, Mehta)  Co-national productions  International financing  Anti-Hollywood quotas (pro-national)  Government subsidization  TV as a funding and creative outlet (e.g., BBC Films and Film 4)  The Hollywoodization of world cinema  Globalization (e.g., SONY Pictures)

22 Cultural Imperialism, Globalization & Contemporary World Cinema Contemporary World Cinema Spring 2011

23 Cultural Imperialism Cultural Imperialism: A critical introduction, defines the term as "the use of political and economic power to exalt and spread the values and habits of a foreign culture at the expense of a native culture. ”

24 Cultural Imperialism Cultural imperialism proposes that a society is brought into the modern world system when its dominating stratum is attracted, pressured, forced, and sometimes bribed into shaping its social institutions to correspond to, or even promote, the values and structures of the dominating center of the system. (Hebert Schiller, 1976).

25 Cultural Imperialism Cultural Imperialism Theory states that Western nations dominate the media around the world which in return has a powerful effect on Third World Cultures by imposing on them Western views and therefore destroying their native cultures. (Theorist: Herb Schiller) Source, White, Livingston. “Reconsidering cultural imperialism theory.” Florida State University

26 Cultural Imperialism or Globalization? Irving Kristol, in The Emerging American Imperialism, presents imperialism as an unintended consequence of market expansion rather than a conscious goal…he later argues that…in fact many nations have facilitated and welcomed American cultural values along with American products and ways of life: "it happened because the world wanted it to happen." To him, the American missionaries live in Hollywood, which is different from the Old European imperialism, which was based on bureaucratic colonial governments and resource extraction. Source, White, Livingston. “Reconsidering cultural imperialism theory.” Florida State University

27 Cultural Imperialism or Globalization? Some theories of globalization see, instead of cultural imperialism, the movement of products and ideas from across national and cultural borders in ways that produce real changes in cultures like that of the United States. In 1994, MacQuail wrote in his book Mass Communication Theory that not only was United States influencing other cultures, but other cultures were also influencing the US…In that perspective, we can talk about an interpenetration of cultures instead of the invasion of American culture in the world. Source, White, Livingston. “Reconsidering cultural imperialism theory.” Florida State University

28 Major Cinema Capitals of the World

29 American Cinema’s Spheres of Influence

30 The World Cinema Market: Market share SpainUnited KingdomRussia European UnionFranceGermanyItaly National US

31 The World Cinema Market: Market share TurkeyJapan North AmericaIndiaChina National Other

32 Parallels the Spread of Western Values

33 Free market economics Democracy Secularism Cultural materialism Multiculturalism Gender equality Religious tolerance Postmodernism Artistic freedom

34 Parallels the Spread of Western Values Free market economics Democracy Secularism Cultural materialism Multiculturalism Gender equality Religious tolerance Postmodernism Artistic freedom Plus impact of technology and communications - Internet - Social media - Satellite TV

35 Significant “National” Cinemas

36 A Matter of National Identity “Recent national cinema studies emphasize that national identity is not a fixed and unchanging ‘essence’ but is actively constructed in films, which project national imaginaries, creating imaginary bounds holding the nation together.” Source: Chaudhuri, Shohini. Contemporary World Cinema. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2005.

37 A Matter of National Identity “There are a number of similar themes across the region’s [Europe’s] cinema. These include nationalism and national identity, borders and frontiers, migration…” Source: Chaudhuri, Shohini. Contemporary World Cinema. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2005.

38 A Matter of National Identity Source: Chaudhuri, Shohini. Contemporary World Cinema. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, “A rich vein running through these films…is their enlarged definition of Britishness.”

39 A Battle of World Views Fundamentalism Communism

40 National “Defense” Strategies  Government subsidies  Government-supported film schools  Government protection (quotas on national productions versus foreign imports)  Taxes on foreign films  Censorship boards  National festivals  Co-production with other nations  1993: Uruguay GATT discussions (French led campaign to exempt films from trade agreements) Source: Chaudhuri, Shohini. Contemporary World Cinema. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2005.

41 Globalization of Cinema

42

43

44 Co-Productions  UK: Director, Danny Boyle Celador Films (production) Film 4 (production) Fatts (post-production)  France: Pathe Pictures (production)  US: Modern Video Film (post-production) Fox, Warner (distribution)  India: Actors Take One Productions (production services) Financing Music production

45 Battle of World Views First World Nations - United States - Europe - Australia - Japan - S. Korea Second World - Russia -Eastern Europe -China Third World - India - Africa - Parts of S. America

46 Seven Worlds Theory Liberal Democracy Communist & Post- Communist Newly Industrialized Less Developed Islamic WorldMarginal States Mirco States Australia Canada England France New Zealand Sweden Spain Germany Israel Japan S. Korea United States China Russia Poland Hungary Viet Nam Cuba North Korea Algeria Brazil India Indonesia Mexico Thailand Egypt Philippines South Africa Turkey Latin America Nigeria Bangladesh Brunei Iran Oman Pakistan Saudi Arabia Syria Yemen Afghanistan Burma Haiti Iraq Somalia Sudan Zimbabwe Barbados The Bahamas Luxembourg Malta Monaco Singapore Vatican City

47 Seven Worlds Theory Liberal Democracy Communist & Post- Comminist Newly Industrialized Less Developed Islamic WorldMarginal States Mirco States Australia Canada England France New Zealand Sweden Spain Germany Israel Japan S. Korea United States China Russia Poland Hungary Cuba Viet Nam Algeria Brazil India Indonesia Mexico Thailand Egypt Philippines South Africa Turkey Latin America Nigeria Bangladesh Brunei Iran Oman Pakistan Saudi Arabia Syria Yemen Afghanistan Burma Haiti Iraq Somalia Sudan Zimbabwe Barbados The Bahamas Luxembourg Malta Monaco Singapore Vatican City

48 Seven Worlds Theory Liberal Democracy Islamic WorldMarginal States Australia Canada England France New Zealand Sweden Spain Germany Israel Japan S. Korea United States Brunei Iran Oman Pakistan Saudi Arabia Syria Yemen Afghanistan Burma Haiti Iraq Somalia Sudan Zimbabwe India Secularism Democracy Cultural materialism Globalization Multiculturalism Fundamentalism Theocracy Monoculturalism

49 Third Cinema Theory  First Cinema: Commercial, studio-based cinema based upon the Hollywood model (including Bollywood)  Second Cinema: European art cinema and cinema of “auteurs”  Third Cinema: Third-world production that is ideologically opposed to the filmmaking practices of both the First and Second Cinema - Manifesto by Argentinian film directors - Anti-American-European discourse - Post-colonial (celebration of “the Other”) - Africa, Latin America, and Asia - “Militant” (freedom for the repressed) - Political

50 Cultural Imperialism, Globalization …or the Dynamic Nature of Cultures?

51 The Middle East Today Sources: Paul Starobin and Catherine Belton, Business Week, International Edition, July 24, 2000; Wikipedia. Hollywood & European cinema Blackmarket DVDs & VHS Satellite TV Internet Social media Western media & technology could “tip the scale” toward democracy and against dictatorial regimes and fundamentalism in: Egypt Yemen Algeria Morocco Iran Bahrain Tunisia Jordan West Bank

52 The Middle East Today Sources: Paul Starobin and Catherine Belton, Business Week, International Edition, July 24, 2000; Wikipedia. Hollywood & European cinema Blackmarket DVDs & VHS Satellite TV Internet Social media Western media & technology could “tip the scale” toward democracy and against dictatorial regimes and fundamentalism in: Egypt Yemen Algeria Morocco Iran Bahrain Tunisia Jordan West Bank “A revolution of the social media generation.”

53 The Middle East Today Sources: Paul Starobin and Catherine Belton, Business Week, International Edition, July 24, 2000; Wikipedia. “Despite bans on most movies and records, Iranian youth still manage to acquire pirated or black market American DVDs and CDs. They do not get their news from the state-run television or radio but from CNN, Voice of America, and Radio Israel.” --Hoover Institution, Stanford University

54 The Black Market for DVDs Sources: Paul Starobin and Catherine Belton, Business Week, International Edition, July 24, 2000; Wikipedia.

55 Cinema is changing the world!


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