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Grammar Tutorial* Sentence Combining

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1 Grammar Tutorial* Sentence Combining
*Primary source for this tutorial is: Degen, Michael. Crafting Expository Argument: Practical Approaches to the Writing Process for Students and Teachers. Dallas: Telemachos, 2004.

2 Table of Contents Subordinate Clauses Subordinating Conjunctions
Adverb Clauses Adjective Clauses Relative Pronouns Noun Clauses

3 Rationale “Combining sentences helps eliminate wordiness, helps extend the elaboration of a single idea, and helps remove unnecessary breaks in thought” (71).

4 Subordinate Clause Contains a subject and verb but do not express a complete thought. Begin with a subordinating conjunction. Can be anywhere in the sentence, usually before or after the independent clause.

5 Subordinating Conjunctions
Place: where, wherever Time: when, whenever, while, after, before, since, till, until, once, now, as soon as, as long as Reason: because, as, since, for, although, though, to, in order to, so as to, so that Similarity and contrast: as, than, whereas, while, although, even though Condition: if, unless, provided

6 Adverb Subordinate Clause
ADVSC tells how? when? where? why? to what extent? or under what conditions? about the word being modified.

7 Punctuation Rules: If ADVSC begins the sentence, always place a comma after it. Because I did not study for the test sufficiently, I barely passed. Unless the couple can raise the money, they will lose their newly renovated home to foreclosure.

8 Punctuation Rules If the ADVSC is located after the independent clause, a comma is not usually needed. My sister will need to do the dishes as soon as she can so that she will be ready when her friends arrive.

9 Another Example Even though we were told to be here at five o’clock, I want to arrive early so that we can be there before the doors open and the crowd forms. Notice that a comma is used with the clause at the beginning of the sentence but not with the ones that follow the independent clause.

10 Example from Reading: “When in the Course of human events it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.” --Thomas Jefferson, The Declaration of Independence

11 Example from Reading: THE BOY WITH FAIR HAIR LOWERED HIMSELF down the last few feet of rock and began to pick his way toward the lagoon. Though he had taken off his school sweater and trailed it now from one hand, his grey shirt stuck to him and his hair was plastered to his forehead. All round him the long scar smashed into the jungle was a bath of heat. He was clambering heavily among the creepers and broken trunks when a bird, a vision of red and yellow, flashed upwards with a witchlike cry; and this cry was echoed by another.” --William Golding, Lord of the Flies

12 Practice: Combine the following pairs of sentences beginning with a subordinating conjunction. Remember: use the subordinating conjunctions, not other types of conjunctions.

13 Combine the two sentences:
Janice was late for the show. We had to sit in the back. Since Janice was late for the show, we had to sit in the back. You could have also used because (cause/effect) or after (time). Note the comma!

14 For more practice: Crafting Expository Argument pages 162, 164.
Go to this site then to ”Practice in Building Sentences with Adverb Clauses” Go here and read and scroll to the worksheet. Feel free to print and write on it for future reference.

15 Adjective Subordinate Clause
These clauses modify nouns or pronouns. (tells what kind? or which one?) Always follows the noun or pronoun being modified.

16 Adjective Subordinate Clause
These clauses can be essential (do not use commas) to the meaning of the sentence, or not essential to the meaning (use commas to separate it from the rest of the sentence).* May begin with relative pronouns plus, at times, where and when. *Punctuation in parentheses above

17 Relative Pronouns that, how, what, who, whom, which, whichever, whoever, whomever, whose, whether, why (may also begin with the subordinating conjunctions when and where)

18 Essential vs Nonessential
The student who was running down the hallway slipped on a banana peel. (Clause is necessary to identify which student is being referred to.) Carlton, who was running down the hallway, slipped on a banana peel. (Clause is not essential. Reader already knows who slipped on the peel.)

19 Example from Reading: “The women, who were now standing about the prison-door, stood within less than half a century of the period when the man-like Elizabeth had been the not altogether unsuitable representative of the sex. They were her countrywomen; and the beef and ale of their native land, with a moral diet not a whit more refined, entered largely into their composition. The bright morning sun, therefore, shone on broad shoulders and well-developed busts, and on round and ruddy cheeks, that had ripened in the far-off island, and had hardly yet grown paler or thinner in the atmosphere of New England. There was, moreover, a boldness and rotundity of speech among these matrons, as most of them seemed to be, that would startle us at the present day, whether in respect to its purport or its volume of tone.” --Nathaniel Hawthorne, The Scarlet Letter

20 Example from Reading: “He stepped over the man nearest the exit and turned off the alarm that had summoned him. Once finished, he stooped to examine the first intruder. The man's chest was crushed. Even if that hadn't been enough to kill him instantly, the gaping wound on his forehead would have sufficed. The massive amount of blood on the man's body had resulted from the sudden large breaks in the skin, not from a single wound that had kept bleeding as the intruder slowly died. Death had not lingered here.” --John E. Stith, Memory Blank

21 Combine the two sentences making one an adjective subordinate clause that modifies the bold faced word: Yvette has a belief regarding wealth. Acquiring wealth is extremely necessary for success in life. Yvette has a belief that acquiring wealth is extremely necessary for success in life.

22 Two more to combine. How you combine depends on which part of the sentence you want to emphasize:
Ariel is an ethereal spirit in Shakespeare’s The Tempest. Ariel serves the magician Prospero. Ariel, who is an ethereal spirit in Shakepeare’s The Tempest, serves the magician Prospero. Ariel, who serves the magician prospero, is an ethereal spirit in Shakespeare’s The Tempest.

23 Need More Practice with Adjective Clauses?
Crafting Expository Argument pages 163, 164 Go here for more practice.

24 Noun Subordinate Clauses
These function as any noun can function: subject, predicate nominative, direct object, indirect object, object of the preposition, or an appositive. (You might have to look up some of these!)

25 Examples How you made it through that maze is totally amazing!
Ms. Kramer will give whoever replies to the an extra fifty points. A solution to the problem is what I am seeking.

26 Example from Reading: “He leaned against the wall of the glass-sided station-platform shelter, out of reach of the light, chill east wind, and thought about the morning's class schedule. This was his second year of a putative three years at London Guildhall University, up in the City. He was well on his way toward a degree in mathematics with business applications, though what good that was really going to do him, at the end of the day, he wasn't certain. There would be time to start worrying about job hunting, though, next year. Right now Patel was doing well enough, his student grant was safe, and whatever attention he wasn't spending on his studies was mostly directed toward making sure he had enough money to get by. Though he didn't have to worry about rent as yet, courtesy of his folks, there were other serious matters at hand: clothes, textbooks, partying.” Diane Duane, To Visit the Queen.

27 Need Addition Practice?
Crafting Expository Argument page 165 Go here: Go here: (This one has definitions of the functions of nouns, too).


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