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85 CHAPTER 3: MODELS Shuftan Process The image of a miniature model is reflected into the camera via a mirror. Where the image of the miniature is not.

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Presentation on theme: "85 CHAPTER 3: MODELS Shuftan Process The image of a miniature model is reflected into the camera via a mirror. Where the image of the miniature is not."— Presentation transcript:


2 85 CHAPTER 3: MODELS Shuftan Process The image of a miniature model is reflected into the camera via a mirror. Where the image of the miniature is not desired, that portion of the mirror silvering is scraped away, allowing the camera to see through the clear glass and photograph the primary scene, which is usually the foreground and live action. The chase through the British Museum in Hitchcock’s Blackmail (1929)

3 86 CHAPTER 3: MODELS Depth of Field The range of distances that remain in focus, the depth of field, is inversely proportional to the size of the lens aperture. Imperial Palace miniature model for Lynch’s Dune (1984) Using a small aperture is therefore necessary for miniature models, requiring them to be lit intensely.

4 87 CHAPTER 3: MODELS Forced Perspective By using small models close to the camera (or large models far from the camera), the illusion of greater distance (or proximity) can be produced. Laurel & Hardy in Brats (1930) The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King (2003)

5 88 CHAPTER 3: MODELS Cityscapes & Natural Environments Elaborate models are created to simulate many external scenes on film. King Kong (2005) These models add a realistic atmosphere to films that frees the filmmaker from the restrictions (and the expense) of filming in the actual city or natural locale.

6 89 CHAPTER 3: MODELS Computer Models: Subdivision Surfaces Polyhedral grids are used to model solid objects within a computer. Geri’s Game (1997) By refining the quantity of grid points to a smaller number when a model is being viewed from afar, substantial savings in processor usage may occur.

7 90 CHAPTER 3: MODELS Computer Models: Procedural Modeling When repetitive patterns are needed in a model, those patterns may be produced automatically within a computer. 101 Dalmatians (1996) - Fur modeling (all puppies are CGI) Twister (1996) - Particle system

8 91 CHAPTER 3: MODELS Computer Models: Texture Mapping To inexpensively provide depth and contour to polyhedral computer models, 2D textures are “wallpapered” over them. Terminator 2: Judgment Day (1991) The Mummy (1999) Displacement maps alter the 2D textures with each frame, taking into account the orientation of the underlying 3D model and the position of any lights in the scene. Environment mapping essentially maps the computer model’s surroundings onto its surface, producing a simulated reflection effect without the expense of computing actual reflections across the surface.

9 92 CHAPTER 4: ANIMATION Replacement Animation One variation on stop-motion animation is the use of replacement body parts to exhibit a model’s various actions and moods. Corpse Bride (2005) Wallace & Gromit: The Curse of the Were-Rabbit (2005) To avoid leaving fingerprints on the surface of certain models, lever- based mechanisms are used to reposition them.

10 93 CHAPTER 4: ANIMATION Motion Blur By including a slight afterimage of an object’s position from the previous few frames, the illusion of fast motion can be created. Superman Returns (2006) Transformers (2007)

11 94 CHAPTER 4: ANIMATION Digital Sculpting Software tools have been developed that enable modelers to manipulate 3D meshes like clay, generating geometric models with as much detail as desired.

12 95 CHAPTER 4: ANIMATION Subsurface Scattering When light enters a translucent material, it scatters under its surfaces and reemerges at a somewhat different location. Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets (2002) Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man’s Chest (2006) A variation on texture mapping provides a reasonable estimate of this effect, producing a kind of internal glow that characterizes skin-like surfaces.

13 96 CHAPTER 4: ANIMATION Motion Capture By placing actors in body suits covered with markers that can be distinguished when filmed, moviemakers may animate characters in very lifelike manners without having to develop complex mathematical models. Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers (2002)

14 97 CHAPTER 4: ANIMATION Facial Animation Motion capture has also been successfully applied to facial animation, with small, computer-trackable markers placed on actors’ faces at key expressive positions. Monster House (2006) While the complexion and size of the character’s face may be altered, the overall dimensions cannot be effectively modified when this technique is employed.

15 98 CHAPTER 5: MATTE PAINTINGS Digital Matte Paintings While traditional matte paintings served as still backgrounds, digital advances have made more dynamic 3D backgrounds possible. Casino (1995) The Aviator (2004) Graphics editors like Adobe Photoshop make the development of such elaborate digital models possible to artists without requiring extensive technical expertise.

16 99 CHAPTER 6: MAKE-UP Digital Make-Up Graphics editors also enable digital artists to enhance or replace facial characteristics, without the time- consuming ordeal suffered with traditional make-up. Actor Doug Jones went through hours of make-up for his roles in Pan’s Labyrinth (2006), but was aided by digital enhancements in Hellboy (2004) and Fantastic Four: Rise of the Silver Surfer (2006).

17 100 CHAPTER 7: PHYSICAL EFFECTS Digital Explosions Particle systems, motion blur, illumination effects, and depth of field are all provided in modern graphics editors, making the modeling of visually compelling explosions feasible. 24 (2006)

18 101 CHAPTER 7: PHYSICAL EFFECTS Water Effects By combining fluid dynamics equations and particle systems, sophisticated simulations of wave motion and splashing can be modeled. The Perfect Storm (2000) Shaded model of boatTextured model of boatSimulated wave motion Run-off from crashing waveParticle wave from boat’s motionSplash when wave crashes into boat Illumination effectsFinal composited scene

19 102 CHAPTER 8: SOUND Digital Sound Modern sound systems permit multiple sound sources to be recorded on separate channels, digitally encoded onto a common medium, and then separated to different speakers when played. To accommodate modern sound systems, multiplex cinemas need baffle walls (screen-sized surfaces that prevent sound reflection), similar acoustical paneling on the walls, and layered materials between adjacent theatres.

20 103 CHAPTER 9: CONCLUSION 3D Stereoscopic eyewear and display technology has improved to the point that 3D production is affordable and 3D viewing is enjoyable.

21 104 CHAPTER 9: CONCLUSION IMAX (Image Maximum) Using film that is ten times bigger per frame than traditional 35mm film, as well as 48 frame per second recording (compared to the traditional 24 fps), IMAX produces films that are much more detailed and that can be shown on much larger screens. IMAX Dome (or OMNIMAX) screens are shown on hemispherical screens, producing a 180-degree field of view.

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