Presentation on theme: "1950s - Late 60s: Studio Decline"— Presentation transcript:
11950s - Late 60s: Studio Decline 1963: Worst year for US film prod. w/ 121 films1969: Hello, Dolly! flops, ends Gene Kelly’s careerLate 60s - Late 70s: “New Hollywood” EraHollywood goes bankrupt; Auteurs go mainstreamLate 70s - Present: “Blockbuster” Era1970s: Jaws, Star Wars bring back big movies1980s: Home Video Helps Studios and Indies1990s: Emergence of “Indiewood”The Tarantino Effect: New Money for Odd Movies2000s: “You wanna just stay home?”Netflix, On Demand, New Markets?
2American History Cliffs Notes : Vietnam War1964: Civil Rights Act: Assassinations of Malcolm X, MLK, Bobby Kennedy1969: Stonewall Rebellion1974: Nixon Resigns: Reagan1981: First U.S. AIDS Case1980s: “War on Drugs”1989/1991: Fall of Berlin Wall/Fall of USSR: Clinton
3New Hollywood Era Who Makes Hollywood “New”? Independent, Film-School-Educated, Auteur-Style Directors like Coppola, Scorsese, Kubrick, Woody AllenThematicallyMoral Ambiguity, Rebellion and Anti-HeroismSex, Drugs, Rock n RollRevision of Established GenresEx. McCabe and Mrs. Miller (Western), Bonnie and Clyde (Gangster Picture), Chinatown (Film Noir)AestheticallyExperimental use of sound (rock n roll!)Flashback and forward, Jump Cuts, Long takesLyrical treatment of violencePoliticallyParanoia and General Distrust of AuthoritySkepticism Toward “American Dream”Disillusionment with Consumerism
4Hollywood Blockbuster Era Growing Budgets:Batman (1989): 50 MillionTitanic (1997): 200 MillionPirates (2007): 300 Million“Franchise” pictures:Sequels, Action/Adventure MoviesTarget Audience: year-olds (75%)Fast-Paced, Special effects-driven:CGI, Motion Capture, Digital Sound, 3-D & 3-D AnimationQuick Cuts: Fom 4-6 seconds/shot in ‘85 to 2-3 seconds/shot in 2000s
51970s 1980s Star Wars (1977) Jaws (1975) The Exorcist (1973) Grease (1978)The Sting (1973)National Lampoon's Animal House (1978)The Godfather (1972)Superman (1978)Close Encounters of the Third Kind (1977/80)Smokey and the Bandit (1977)E.T (1982)Return of the Jedi (1983)The Empire Strikes Back (1980)Batman (1989)Raiders of the Lost Ark (1981)Ghostbusters (1984)Beverly Hills Cop (1984)Back to the Future (1985)Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (1989)Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom (1984)Harrison Ford stars in five of the top ten movies of the 1980s.
61990s 2000s Avatar (2009) Titanic (1997) The Dark Knight (2008) Shrek 2 (2004)Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man's Chest (2006)Spider-Man (2002)Transformers 2 (2009)Star Wars: Episode III - Revenge of the Sith (2005)The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King (2003)Spider-Man 2 (2004)The Passion of the Christ (2004)Titanic (1997)Star Wars: Episode I - The Phantom Menace (1999)Jurassic Park (1993)Forrest Gump (1994)The Lion King (1994)Independence Day (1996)The Sixth Sense (1999)Home Alone (1990)Men in Black (1997)Toy Story 2 (1999)
7What makes a movie independent? Its Funding:Does funding from a major studio disqualify a film from the ‘independent’ category?Its Audience:Smart people and cinephiles? A micro-targeted market segment?Its Distribution:Does it get a theatrical release? Does it play in multiplexes? Art house theaters?Its Director/Writer/Actors:Are auteur-driven films independent? Is a David Lynch movie ‘automatically’ independent? What about Michael Mann?Its Aesthetics:Does deviation from classical Hollywood conventions make a film independent?
9History of the Indie Late 1970s: U.S. Alternative/Art films go undergroundEx. Eraserhead (1977)1980s:‘Mini-Majors’ and Major IndiesEx. Sex, lies, and videotape (1989)1990s:Hollywood conglomerates establish ‘specialty’ divisionsEx. Pulp Fiction (1994)2000s:Most ‘Indies” are produced and/or distributed through major studios;“Indie” becomes a genre descriptorEx. Juno (2007)
10Why The American Indie Grew 1. Home Video1976: VHS introduced1988: Majority of U.S. Households own VCR1997: DVD Introduced; Netflix launches, currently at 23 million subscribers2000: Hollywood takes in $20 billion in home video revenue (3x domestic box office)2010: Blockbuster Video files for bankruptcy2. Hollywood Funders Seek Niche MarketsBig pictures dominate, but there’s still money on the tableMini-Majors, Specialty Divisions, “Indiewood”3. Film Festivals Connect Buyers and SellersConnecting independent films and major distributorsEx. Steven Soderbergh’s sex, lies, and videotape debuts at Sundance 1989, Grosses $100 million
11What Does a Typical “Indie” Film Look Like? ThematicallyFocus on the “offbeat” and “quirky”Marketed to audiences not served by BlockbustersMore likely to have:Anti-heroes, Ambiguity, Non-Mainstream Values and PoliticsAestheticallyFormal “flourishes” (i.e., discontinuous editing)But usually w/ some kind of narrative or character-based justificationStrong personal vision of directorLower budgetsNon-Professional and Character ActorsPoliticallyAll over the map, reallyOften designed to challenge viewers, make them think
12This Week: The Watermelon Woman (1996) Director: Cheryl DunyeCountry: United States (filmed in Philadelphia)Movement: New Queer CinemaFormal Focus: Sound (Ch. 9)Why Are We Watching It?Good intro to the low-budget American “indies” of the 1990s (think Clerks, Reservoir Dogs, etc.)Raises questions about race and sexuality in American cinemaIt works well in dialogue with other films we’ve watched, esp. Perfumed Nightmare, 8½, and Sherlock Jr.It’s smart and fun
13The Watermelon Woman (1996) In Three Claims 1. Cinema is a way of creating and validating personal identity.2. American Film History does not represent the history and lived experiences of African-Americans or LGBT people.3. When your history seems to be absent, you either have to dig it up or create a totally new history.
14African Americans And Hollywood History of Hollywood Racisme.g. Al Jolson in The Jazz Singer (1927), Disney’s Song of the South (1946)All-Black Film Productions:Oscar Micheaux (1920s and 30s)Black Actors in HollywoodHattie McDaniel (1939), Sidney Poitier (1963)Blaxploitation and African-American IndiesSweet Sweetback’s Baadasssss Song (1971), Shaft (1971), Foxy Brown (1974)William Greaves’s Symbiopsychotaxiplasm (1968), Burnett’s Killer of Sheep (1977)African-American Indies in the 1990s:Spike Lee’s Do The Right Thing (1989), Malcolm X (1992); John Singleton’s Boyz n the Hood (1991)
15New Queer Cinema Avant-Garde Roots: Kenneth Anger’s “Fireworks” (1947) Early 1990s: “New Queer Cinema”Todd Haynes’s Poison (1991), Gus van Sant’s My Own Private Idaho (1991), Rose Troche’s Go Fish (1994)Themes:Documenting (mostly young, mostly urban) LGBT Life and Love: “We Exist”Often subtle critiques of discrimination, Response to AIDSThe NEA Debates (1990s)Some “New Queer” films funded by federal grants; Congress defunds NEA2000s: Queer Cinema Goes Mainstream:Brokeback Mountain (2005), Milk (2008)
16Questions To ConsiderWhy does Cheryl want to find the Watermelon Woman?When is the sound conspicuous? When is it diegetic and when nondiegetic?How does this film compare with other films we’ve watched to this point?What makes this movie “Indie”?