2Hrothulf Shaper Grendel “By deeds worth praise/ a man can, in any kingdom, prosper!”Grendel“theorem” [sic]: “Any action (A) of the human heart/ must trigger an equal and opposite reaction. (A1).” (Gardner 113).Will repay king’s kindness with greedPlease Grendel
3Hrothluf"The law of the world is a winter law, and casual” (Gardner 115).Tree shades plants and kills themSymbolizes the power of HrothgarPeasants used to make king richerThey suffer injusticesHrothluf can be as powerful as Hrothgar
4Characterization Red Horse “had a perpetually startled look, round, red eyes and mouth, white hair that flared around his high, empty dome like the beams of the sun…” (Gardner ).Parallels the dragonHrothluf’s advisorGRendel hates him
5Red Horse"If the Revolution comes to grief, it will be because you and those you lead have become alarmed at your own brutality" (Gardner 117).Violence occurs when current events make it unavoidable, then violence becomes heroic.He saw this as natural and good--it is sometimes the only way to change things.Revolutions are another way of getting power.
6Red Horse’s Views Kingdom “[s]ave the values of the community [and] improve the quality of the commonwealth”(Gardner 118)A kingdom protects the power of the people in power and rewards the people who fit into the systemRepresents Hrothgar’s Kingdom
7Hrothluf & Red HorseHrothluf: no one would say that violence is good, no matter what the result of it was.Red Horse disagrees that's just what he believed. "All systems are evil” (Gardner 120)He said he didn't believe in justice.Hrothulf says nothing, looking thoughtful.
8Grendel’s Reaction Hrothgar now only worries about Grendel Sees worry in WealthowShe knows same worries and fears"How, if I know all this, you may ask, could I hound him--shatter him again and again, drive him deeper and deeper into woe? I have no answer, except perhaps this: why should I not?" (Gardner 122).Knows they will never be friendsHe’s a monster, so he can act like one
9Hrothgar’s Dream“The Two trunks in their infinitesimal dance of growth/ Have turned completely about one another, their join/ A slowly twisted scar…” (Gardner 124)SymbolismRepresents first time Grendel met humansHrothgar’s lifeGood intertwined with evilAt end kingdom is destroyed with a sword
11Grendel’s Uneasiness Chapter focuses on death The trees are dead nowThe day’s an arrow in a dead man’s chestApocalypticDead wolvesHe senses that the end is nearHis own end is near
12Images of Death Image of hunter and deer “December, approaching the year’s darkest night, and the only way out of the dream is down and though it. The trees are dead now. The day’s are an arrow in a dead man’s chest” (125).Image of hunter and deer“The image clings to my mind like a growth. I sense some riddle in it" (Gardner 127).
13Foreshadowing“Something is coming, strange as spring. I am afraid. I imagine muffled footsteps overhead” (126).His end, BeowulfViolence begets violence
14Christianity Taking Over Beginning to not like rituals“In the old days they used to kill virgins. Religion is sick.” (128)They only do rituals for showmanship“The weak observe the rituals…” “The strong – old Hrothgar, Unferth- ignore the images.” (128)Grendel and Hrothluf disgusted by ritualsWhen Grendel destroyed pagan idols, no one but priests cared.
15The King of Gods ultimate limitation no rational explanation b/c beyond rational thoughtcreates humans’ existence"He is the eternal urge of desire establishing the purposes of all creatures" (132).to be human is to be limited and eventually dieUltimate wisdom is to know the way things are connectedThings fade and alternatives excludeNothing is lost
16Ultimate Evil“The ultimate evil is that Time is perpetual perishing, and being actual involves elimination” (132).Everything in man’s is life is temporaryWhatever exists will be eliminatedUltimate evil is not lastingGrendel’s death
17Ultimate Wisdom“…lies in the perception that the solemnity and grandeur of the universe rise through the slow process of unification in which the diversities of existence are utilized, and nothing, nothing is lost” (133).Natural process in the universelife seems to end, but as it fades, it becomes part of the universe.Conflict in life is necessarydiscord creates new ways of being, which leads to the ultimate unification of all things.Nothing is ever lost
18Deals with the theme of the search for meaning: Chapter 9 OverviewDeals with the theme of the search for meaning:Grendel was once intimidated by a huge & accidental universe. His life was without meaningHe understands the basis of truth & life but still lives his life as if it were a machine- irrelevantWeak humans search for truth in pagan godsStrong humans search through violence & power- thinking themselves “god-like”Shows their insecurity & uncertaintyOrk: god serves as his source of comfort & w/o god the world would lose order & become chaotic