Presentation on theme: "Grendel Chapter 8. Hrothulf Shaper – “By deeds worth praise/ a man can, in any kingdom, prosper!” Grendel –“theorem” [sic]: “Any action (A) of the human."— Presentation transcript:
Grendel Chapter 8
Hrothulf Shaper – “By deeds worth praise/ a man can, in any kingdom, prosper!” Grendel –“theorem” [sic]: “Any action (A) of the human heart/ must trigger an equal and opposite reaction. (A1).” (Gardner 113). Will repay king’s kindness with greed Please Grendel
Hrothluf "The law of the world is a winter law, and casual” (Gardner 115). –Tree shades plants and kills them –Symbolizes the power of Hrothgar Peasants used to make king richer They suffer injustices Hrothluf can be as powerful as Hrothgar
Characterization Red Horse “had a perpetually startled look, round, red eyes and mouth, white hair that flared around his high, empty dome like the beams of the sun…” (Gardner ). –Parallels the dragon –Hrothluf’s advisor –GRendel hates him
Red Horse "If the Revolution comes to grief, it will be because you and those you lead have become alarmed at your own brutality" (Gardner 117). –Violence occurs when current events make it unavoidable, then violence becomes heroic. –He saw this as natural and good--it is sometimes the only way to change things. –Revolutions are another way of getting power.
Red Horse’s Views Kingdom –“[s]ave the values of the community [and] improve the quality of the commonwealth” (Gardner 118) A kingdom protects the power of the people in power and rewards the people who fit into the system Represents Hrothgar’s Kingdom
Hrothluf & Red Horse Hrothluf: no one would say that violence is good, no matter what the result of it was. Red Horse disagrees that's just what he believed. "All systems are evil” (Gardner 120) He said he didn't believe in justice. –Hrothulf says nothing, looking thoughtful.
Grendel’s Reaction Hrothgar now only worries about Grendel Sees worry in Wealthow –She knows same worries and fears "How, if I know all this, you may ask, could I hound him--shatter him again and again, drive him deeper and deeper into woe? I have no answer, except perhaps this: why should I not?" (Gardner 122). –Knows they will never be friends –He’s a monster, so he can act like one
Hrothgar’s Dream “The Two trunks in their infinitesimal dance of growth/ Have turned completely about one another, their join/ A slowly twisted scar…” (Gardner 124) –Symbolism Represents first time Grendel met humans Hrothgar’s life Good intertwined with evil At end kingdom is destroyed with a sword
Grendel Chapter 9
Grendel’s Uneasiness Chapter focuses on death –The trees are dead now –The day’s an arrow in a dead man’s chest –Apocalyptic –Dead wolves He senses that the end is near His own end is near
Images of Death “December, approaching the year’s darkest night, and the only way out of the dream is down and though it. The trees are dead now. The day’s are an arrow in a dead man’s chest” (125). Image of hunter and deer – “The image clings to my mind like a growth. I sense some riddle in it" (Gardner 127).
Foreshadowing “Something is coming, strange as spring. I am afraid. I imagine muffled footsteps overhead” (126). –His end, Beowulf –Violence begets violence
Christianity Taking Over Beginning to not like rituals “In the old days they used to kill virgins. Religion is sick.” (128) They only do rituals for showmanship “The weak observe the rituals…”“The strong – old Hrothgar, Unferth- ignore the images.” (128) Grendel and Hrothluf disgusted by rituals – When Grendel destroyed pagan idols, no one but priests cared.
The King of Gods ultimate limitation no rational explanation b/c beyond rational thought creates humans’ existence –"He is the eternal urge of desire establishing the purposes of all creatures" (132). to be human is to be limited and eventually die Ultimate wisdom is to know the way things are connected – Things fade and alternatives exclude – Nothing is lost
Ultimate Evil “The ultimate evil is that Time is perpetual perishing, and being actual involves elimination” (132). –Everything in man’s is life is temporary –Whatever exists will be eliminated Ultimate evil is not lasting –Grendel’s death
Ultimate Wisdom “…lies in the perception that the solemnity and grandeur of the universe rise through the slow process of unification in which the diversities of existence are utilized, and nothing, nothing is lost” (133). –Natural process in the universe life seems to end, but as it fades, it becomes part of the universe. –Conflict in life is necessary discord creates new ways of being, which leads to the ultimate unification of all things. –Nothing is ever lost
Chapter 9 Overview Deals with the theme of the search for meaning: Grendel was once intimidated by a huge & accidental universe. His life was without meaning He understands the basis of truth & life but still lives his life as if it were a machine- irrelevant Weak humans search for truth in pagan gods Strong humans search through violence & power- thinking themselves “god-like” Shows their insecurity & uncertainty Ork: god serves as his source of comfort & w/o god the world would lose order & become chaotic