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Www.coneval.gob.mx. Content Social Development Law (2004) Social Development Law (2004) Evaluation of Social Development Policy Multidimensional Poverty.

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Presentation on theme: "Www.coneval.gob.mx. Content Social Development Law (2004) Social Development Law (2004) Evaluation of Social Development Policy Multidimensional Poverty."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Content

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4 Social Development Law (2004) Social Development Law (2004) Evaluation of Social Development Policy Multidimensional Poverty Measurement CONEVAL Public institution Academic researchers Technical autonomy CONEVAL Public institution Academic researchers Technical autonomy

5 Rights to social development “..to guarantee the full exercise of the social rights set forth in the Political Constitution of the United Mexican States, ensuring access to social development to the population as a whole ”

6 Measuring poverty by mandate of the Law Social Development Law Dimensions for poverty measurement Current income per capita Educational gap Access to health services Access to social security Quality of living spaces Housing access to basic services Access to food Degree of social cohesion Periodicity States (2 years) Municipalities (5 years) Periodicity States (2 years) Municipalities (5 years)

7 Data delivery Data delivery Process Discussions, criteria & design of data sources Five Specific consultations Five Specific consultations Consultation with experts Consultation with experts Consultation about indicators, thresholds, questions with public inst. Consultation about indicators, thresholds, questions with public inst. Survey Design Survey Design National and international seminars National and international seminars Building the methodology Data Collection Data Collection Presentation (December) Presentation (December) Discussions of proposals Discussions of proposals Final discussions & results of studies Final discussions & results of studies Bourguignon,Thorbecke, Kakwani, Lustig,Skoufias, Walton, Khander, Reddy, Feres, López-Calva, … among others. Julio Boltvinik Satya Chakravarty James Foster, Sabine Alkire David Gordon Rubén Hernández and Humberto Soto

8 8 Consulted Institutions

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10 Measuring poverty Lack of resources Concept Capabilities Unmet needs Human Rights “…A human rights approach adds value because it provides a normative framework of obligations that has the legal power to render governments accountable” Mary Robinson

11 Measuring poverty (Sen, 1976) Identification Who is poor? Identification Who is poor? Theoretical framework (poverty indicator) Theoretical framework (poverty indicator) Unidimensional Aggregation FGT measures Population groups Aggregation FGT measures Population groups Identification criteria (threshold) Identification criteria (threshold) Incidence Intensity Severity

12 Measuring poverty Relevant dimensions Each specific dimension Each specific dimension Multidimensional Relative importance Overall cut-off Thresholds Dual cut-off method Thresholds Dual cut-off method Weighting

13 Principles of human rights Universal Inalienable Interdependent Indivisible Interrelated Absolute Inherent Inviolable Irreversible Progressive Universal Inalienable Interdependent Indivisible Interrelated Absolute Inherent Inviolable Irreversible Progressive Interdependent Unfulfillment of any right affects the others Interdependent Unfulfillment of any right affects the others Indivisible All rights have equal status and cannot be positioned in a hierarchical order Indivisible All rights have equal status and cannot be positioned in a hierarchical order Universal Everybody is entitled to them Universal Everybody is entitled to them

14 Coneval. Human rights based approach to poverty measurement Unit of analysis Dimension specific thresholds Overall cut-off threshold Weighting & Summary Data sources Individuals Titularity of human rights Universality principle Individuals Titularity of human rights Universality principle At least one social deprivation Interdependence principle At least one social deprivation Interdependence principle Legal norms Institutional criteria Legal norms Institutional criteria All dimensions equally important. Adding deprivations. Indivisibility principle All dimensions equally important. Adding deprivations. Indivisibility principle Information from Inegi Relevant dimensions Constitutional Human Rights

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16 Methodological approach Poverty Measurement Social Rights Economic Wellbeing Constitutional guarantees Poverty associated with social deprivation Economic policy and income have an impact on social development

17 Degree of social cohesion Territorial What are the main features of the methodology? Social Rights Social Deprivation Index (SDI) Mexican Population Wellbeing Income Current income per capita Educational gap Access to Health Access to Social Security Housing Quality of living spaces Access to Food Educational gap Access to Health Access to Social Security Housing Quality of living spaces Access to Food

18 Social Rights Deprivations Main features (simple to understand) EWL Population with social deprivations Economic wellbeing line Without DeprivationsDeprivations MULTIDIMENSIONAL POOR Vulnerable people by social deprivations Vulnerable people by income Not poor and not vulnerable Public policy

19 Social Rights Deprivations Aggregation: the headcount ratio EWL Sin H= q n _

20 Social Rights Deprivations Aggregation: Depth & intensity of poverty EWL Sin Average number of deprivations

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22 Social rights Deprivations Population with at least one social deprivation, Mexico, 2008 Population with social deprivations Without DeprIvatiosDeprIvatios Wellbeing Income 77.2 % 82.4 millions 2.4 deprivations on average 22.8 % 24.3 millones Source: estimates of the CONEVAL based on the MCS-ENIGH 2008.

23 MODERATE POVERTY Social Rights Deprivations Wellbeing Income Vulnerable people by social deprivations Total population 2008 (106,680,526) 33.0% 35.2 millions 2.0 deprivations on average EXTREME POVERTY Source: estimates of the CONEVAL based on the MCS-ENIGH Vulnerable people by income 4.5 % 4.8 millions 18.3% 19.5 millions MULTIDIMENSIONAL POVERTY 44.2% 47.2 millions 2.7 deprivations on average Not poor and not vulnerable

24 Indigenous and non-indigenous population Percentage of population in multidimensional poverty depending on whether they speak or not an indigenous language Source: estimates of the CONEVAL based on the MCS-ENIGH 2008.

25 CHIAPAS Multidimensional poverty by state Ranks Total of States Source: estimates of the CONEVAL based on the MCS-ENIGH 2008.

26 Percentage of population with social deprivations. Mexico, 2008 Social deprivationPercentage Access to social security 64.7 Access to health services 40.7 Educational gap 21.7 Access to food 21.6 Housing access to basic services 18.9 Quality of living spaces 17.5 Source: estimates of the CONEVAL based on the MCS-ENIGH 2008.

27 Contribution of social deprivations Source: estimates of the CONEVAL based on the MCS-ENIGH 2008.

28 Population groups decomposable Dimension decomposable Comparability across time In the space of social rights, equivalent to the M 0 =H·A Multidimensional poverty measures Properties The Social Deprivation Index (SDI) and MD Poverty Measures Rigorousity Satisfy a set of axiomatic properties (Alkire y Foster, 2007) The SDI also satisfies the validity, reliability and additivity properties (Gordon; 2007,2010)

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30 Using the methodology It is now possible to evaluate the effect of social policy not only on income poverty but also on specific social deprivations. A remarkable feature of the methodology is that it does not only identify poverty (priority), but also it identifies the whole population without full access to social rights, which is a comprehensive way of evaluating public policies. We’re starting to evaluate social programs using this approach. By linking social rights deprivations with poverty, policy recommendations are strengthened.

31 Research Agenda ENAPOS. Access to social security Deepen knowledge of dimensions Access to health services Right to Education (INEE) ENIGH-MCS Comparison (July) Municipality MDP estimates (December) Municipality MDP estimates (December) National System of Social Development Indicators National System of Social Development Indicators Reform to the LGDS To measure the degree of full exercise of social rights Reform to the LGDS To measure the degree of full exercise of social rights

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33 Consejo Nacional de Evaluación de la Política de Desarrollo Social (CONEVAL) Boulevard Adolfo López Mateos No.160 Col. San Ángel Inn, Delegación Álvaro Obregón, C.P , México, D.F. Contact information Ricardo Aparicio Director, Poverty Analysis

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36 Examples MODERATE POVERTY Social Rights Deprivations Wellbeing Income EXTREME POVERTY MULTIDIMENSIONAL POVERTY

37 Examples POBREZA EXTREMA POBREZA MODERADA Social Rights Deprivations Wellbeing Income EXTREME POVERTY

38 Examples Social Rights Deprivations Wellbeing Income Vulnerable by social deprivation

39 Examples Vulnerable by income Social Rights Deprivations Wellbeing Income

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41 Social Rights Deprivations What policies should be carried out? EWL Sin MWL Economic Policies: Economic growth Job creation

42 Social Rights Deprivations What policies should be carried out? EWL Sin MWL Social Policies: Health Education Housing

43 Social Rights Deprivations What policies should be carried out? EWL Sin MWL Targeted policies Social Programs for the population in poverty

44 Social Rights Deprivations What policies should be carried out? EWL Sin MWL Universal policies Social Security Education for all Access to health services Economic growth

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46 Legal criteria Experts criteria Experts criteria How to determine thresholds? Social rights Consultation with specialists Use of legal norms, if they exist Use of legal norms, if they exist Public institutions Health, Housing, Social Security, Education Public institutions Health, Housing, Social Security, Education

47 Educational gap Educational gap Population aged 3-15 years Population aged 16 years or older Population aged 16 years or older She or he is not attending a formal educational center When someone was born before 1981 and lacks the mandatory basic education current at the time he or she should have completed it. Primary When someone was born before 1982 and lacks the mandatory basic education current at the time she should have completed it. Secondary How to determine thresholds of social deprivations?

48 When a person is not enrolled in or not entitled to receive medical services from: Popular Insurance A social security public institution A private medical service A private medical service Acces to health services Acces to health services How to determine thresholds of social deprivations?

49 Access to social security Access to social security If the worker does not receive medical services as a work benefit or through voluntary enrollment and a retirement investment plan Direct access Direct access Family nucleus Other family nucleus and voluntary enrollment If a person is not enrolled in an institution that provides medical services by voluntary enrollment. If the spouse,child, parent, -law of the head of household is not enrolled in an medical institution If the person does not have a relative who has access to social security If the person is not beneficiary of a social program of pensions for senior citizens How to determine thresholds of social deprivations?

50 Quality of living spaces When the material is cardboard sheets or residue material Roofs Walls Floors Overcrowding When the material is mud or daub&wattle; reed, bamboo or palm; cardboard, metal or asbestos sheets; residue material When the material of the floor is soil When the ratio of people per room is greater than 2.5 How to determine thresholds of social deprivations?

51 Housing access to basic services Housing access to basic services When it is obtained from a well, river, lake, stream, or truck. When piped water is carried from another dwelling or gotten at a public faucet or hydrant Water Drainage service Electricity No drainage service. When the drain is connected to pipes leading to a river, lake, sea, ravine or crack When there is no electricity How to determine thresholds of social deprivations?

52 Food security Food insecurity Acess to food Acess to food Deprivation due to lack of access to food Slight Moderate Severe How to determine thresholds of social deprivations?

53 Food basket Non food basket Minimum economic wellbeing line Changes on current consumption patterns Calorics requirements & micronutrients Calorics requirements & micronutrients Rural & urban settings Economic wellbeing How to determine thresholds? Economic Wellbeing Goods and services have an income elasticity<1 Necessary goods & services Necessary goods & services Rural & urban settings


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