2 After reading the material in this chapter, you should be able to: Define the term conflict, distinguish between functional and dysfunctional conflict, and identify three desired outcomes of conflict.Define personality conflicts, and explain how they should be managed.Discuss the role of in-group thinking in intergroup conflict, and explain what can be done to avoid cross-cultural conflict.
3 After reading the material in this chapter, you should be able to: Explain how managers can program functional conflict, and identify the five conflict handling styles.Identify and describe at least four alternative dispute resolution (ADR) techniques.Draw a distinction between distributive and integrative negotiation, and explain the concept of added-value negotiation.
4 Major Trends that Make Conflict Inevitable Constant changeGreater employee diversityMore teams (virtual and self-managed)Less face-to-face communicationGlobal economy with increased cross-cultural dealings
5 A Modern View of Conflict process in which one party perceives its interests are being opposed or set back by another party
7 Antecedents of Conflict Incompatible personalities or value systems.Overlapping or unclear job boundaries.Competition for limited resources.Interdepartment/intergroup competition.Inadequate communication.Interdependent tasks.Organizational complexity
8 Antecedents of Conflict Unreasonable or unclear policies, standards, or rules.Unreasonable deadlines or extreme time pressure.Collective decision makingDecision making by consensus.Unmet expectations.Unresolved or suppressed conflict.
9 Question?As a manager of a forty-five person department, Connie has always heard that there are certain situations that produce more conflict than others. She is interested in learning about these situations so she can carefully read early warnings and take appropriate actions. Which of the following is not an antecedent of conflict?Inadequate communicationOrganizational simplicityDecision making by consensusUnmet expectationsThe correct answer is “B”AACSB: Group-individual dynamics Bloom's Taxonomy: ApplicationDifficulty: Hard Page: 277
10 Why People Avoid Conflict HarmRejectionLoss of relationshipAngerBeing seen as selfishSaying the wrong thingIntimacy
11 Desired Outcomes of Conflict AgreementStronger relationshipsLearning
12 Major Forms of Conflict Personality conflictinterpersonal opposition driven by personal dislike or disagreement.
14 Question?Having taken this OB class and learned about how they deal with personality conflict, what tip(s) would you offer to employees having a personality conflict?In resolving conflict, focus on personalities.Bring co-workers into the conflict so you have witnesses.Communicate directly with the other person to resolve the perceived conflict.Keep the direct supervisor out of the conflict loop, especially if the dysfunctional conflict persists.The correct answer is “C”AACSB: Group-individual dynamics Bloom's Taxonomy: ApplicationDifficulty: Hard Page: 281
15 Intergroup Conflict Intergroup conflict conflict among work groups, teams, and departmentsToo much cohesiveness can breed groupthink because a desire to get along pushes aside critical thinking
16 Handling Intergroup Conflict Contact hypothesisthe more the members of different groups interact, the less intergroup conflict they will experienceManagers should identify and root out specific negative linkages between groups
17 Question?Don is an Executive VP of a regional health-insurance company. He has noticed that the different departments do not work well together and seem more concerned with “protecting their turf” than in working to reach organizational goals. Don thinks that if he can create some group activities, the departments will have less conflict. This is called _________.Convex theoryConcave hypothesisContact hypothesisIntergroup theoryThe correct answer is “C” – contact hypothesis. See previous slide
18 Managing Intergroup Conflict: An Updated Contact Model Figure 11-1
19 How to Build Cross-Cultural Relationships Be a good listenerBe sensitive to the needs of othersBe cooperative, rather than overly competitiveAdvocate inclusive (participative) leadershipCompromise rather than dominateBuild rapport through conversationsBe compassionate and understandingAvoid conflict by emphasizing harmonyNurture others (develop and mentor)
20 Programming Functional Conflict Programmed Conflictencourages different opinions without protecting management’s personal feelings.
21 Programming Functional Conflict Devil’s advocacyassigning someone the role of critic.Dialectic methodfostering a debate of opposing viewpoints to better understand an issue.
22 Techniques for Stimulating Functional Conflict: Devil’s Advocacy Figure 11-2
24 Alternative Styles for Handling Dysfunctional Conflict Integratinginterested parties confront the issue and cooperatively identify the problem, generate and weigh alternative solutions, and select a solutionAppropriate for complex issues plagued by misunderstanding
25 Question?In handling conflict, Jorge believes that interested parties must confront the issue and cooperatively identify the problem, generate and weigh alternative solutions, and select a solution. Jorge can be described as advocating which conflict handling style?ObligingIntegratingDominatingAvoidingThe correct answer is “B”AACSB: Group-individual dynamics Bloom's Taxonomy: ApplicationDifficulty: Medium Page: 286
26 Alternative Styles for Handling Dysfunctional Conflict Obliging (Smoothing)involves playing down differences while emphasizing commonalitiesAppropriate when it is possible to get something in return
27 Alternative Styles for Handling Dysfunctional Conflict Dominating (Forcing)relies on formal authority to force complianceAppropriate when an unpopular solution must be implemented
28 Alternative Styles for Handling Dysfunctional Conflict Avoidinginvolves either passive withdrawal from the problem or active suppression of the issueAppropriate for trivial issues
29 Alternative Styles for Handling Dysfunctional Conflict Compromisinggive-and-take approach involves moderate concern for both self and othersAppropriate when parties have opposite goals
30 Third Party Interventions: Alternative Dispute Resolution avoiding costly lawsuits by resolving conflicts informally or through mediation or arbitration
31 Alternative Dispute Resolution FacilitationConciliationPeer reviewOmbudsmanMediationArbitration
32 Question?Fredhandbag Photography has created a panel of trustworthy employees to decide on disputes at the company. This is called _________.MediationFacilitationConciliationPeer reviewThe correct answer is “D” – peer review. See previous slide and p.289
33 Negotiating Negotiation Two types: give-and-take process between conflicting independent parties.Two types:DistributiveIntegrative
34 Question?The local one-hour-photo workers union was unhappy with the present contract. The process to work out a new contract is called ___________.FacilitationNegotiationConcessionArbitrationThe correct answer is “B” – negotiation. See previous slide.
35 Added-Value Negotiation cooperatively developing multiple-deal packages while building a long-term relationship
36 Steps in Added-Value Negotiation Clarify interestsIdentify optionsDesign alternative deal packagesSelect a dealPerfect the deal
37 Seven Steps To Negotiating Your Salary Know the market rateConsider the economyKnow your own valueBe honestDon’t go firstConsider benefits, tooLook at the long term
38 Supplemental SlidesSlides contain extra non-text examples to integrate and enhance instructor lecturesSlide 39: Conflict MonitoringSlide 40: Costs of Dysfunctional ConflictSlide 41: Why Conflict MattersSlide 42: Management in the Movies Jaws – “The Town Meeting”Slide 43: Video discussion slide
39 Conflict MonitoringRead an article on Conflict monitoring
40 Costs of Dysfunctional Conflict Fortune 500 senior executives spend 20 percent of their time in litigation activities.Typical managers spend up to 30 percent of their time dealing with conflict.The turnover costs for an employee are anywhere from between 75 percent and 150 percent of their annual salary.16 percent of employees report conflict with a supervisor as the main reason for leaving their last job.
41 Why Conflict Matters“The best insurance against crossing the ethical divide is a roomful of skeptics.”“CEOs must actively encourage dissent among senior managers by creating decision-making processes, reporting relationships, and incentives that encourage opposing viewpoints…”“By advocating dissent, top executives can create a climate where wrongdoing will not go unchallenged.”Business Week, Special Report – The Crisis in Corporate Governance, May 6, 2002Here are some quotes from an article in Business Week called the Crisis in Corporate Governance. It described issues where the facilitation of functional conflict can have an impact on several important factors.Ethics: “The best insurance against crossing the ethical divide is a roomful of skeptics.” When Sherron Watkins, the Enron whistleblower spoke at Mason (March 2007) she mentioned how the Board of Directors capitulated to requests to waive the corporate code of ethics.CEOs must actively encourage dissent among senior managers by creating decision-making processes, reporting relationships, and incentives that encourage opposing viewpoints… This is the idea that you don’t want to insulate yourself from alternative perspectives because you could be wrong or not make the best long-term decision“By advocating dissent, top executives can create a climate where wrongdoing will not go unchallenged.” This is a similar sentiment as the above twoNow let’s look at an example of how not promoting dissent and functional conflict can have dire consequences… go to slide on Columbia DisasterSource: The crisis in corporate governance, 5/6/2002, BusinessWeek Special Report)
42 Management in the Movies Jaws – “The Town Meeting” In this scene, the Mayor is leading a town meeting with Chief Brody and the merchants.QuestionsHow is the conflict of closing the beach handled?Which conflict management strategy does Chief Brody use?Which strategy does the mayor use?Relevant conceptsOrganizational conflictInterpersonal conflictOverlapping authorityNegotiationOverviewThis clip is a good example of conflict that arises because of different agendas or beliefs. In the resort community of Amity a swimmer is found dead on the beach, allegedly killed by a shark. The police chief, Brody (Roy Scheider) wants to close the beaches, but the merchants are afraid that their businesses will suffer if the beaches are closed. They are reluctant to believe that another attack could occur. The mayor (Murray Hamilton) settles the conflict by compromising without discussing his solution with the chief. This is a good discussion point for conflict management strategies and their long term effectiveness.Discussion QuestionsHow is the conflict of closing the beach handled?The mayor asks the merchants and the town council to meet together to discuss options to deal with the possibility of a killer shark.Which conflict management strategy does Chief Brody use?Chief Brody wants to use the competition strategy. He wants to keep the beach as safe as possible and thinks that closing them until the shark is found is the best way. He is not as concerned with the money tourists might spend as much as wanting to keep them safe.Which strategy does the mayor use?The mayor uses a compromise strategy by offering to close the beaches for only 24 hours. He seems to make this decision without good information or regard to swimmer’s safety. He allows the merchants’ cries for relief to affect his judgment.
43 Video: Toxic Coworkers Annoying coworkers can be found in every organization. How can you turn these situations around to have good outcomes result?Is the conflict being described here functional or dysfunctional? Why?Do you think there are there more annoying people today than in the past, or are we just more sensitive to our working environment?What different types of conflict did you pick up on being described in the video?Effectively dealing with the behaviors being described can help the “offender” recognize what they are doing and perhaps rectify their behavior. Strategies for dealing with the different types will vary as was described in the video.The conflict being described here is primarily dysfunctional in nature. Allowing the situation to continue and become more bothersome makes the conflict more and more dysfunctional.There probably aren’t any more annoying people today than any other time, but workers today are more willing to speak up if their working conditions are less than good. This would include annoying coworkers.The video primarily included descriptions of personality conflicts. However, they did mention the coworker who speaks a different language and then speaks loudly on the phone - this would be a form of cultural conflict.