Presentation on theme: "Bonn International Center for Conversion „Conflict Resolution in General and BICC‘s experiences“ Peter J. Croll Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg / University."— Presentation transcript:
Bonn International Center for Conversion „Conflict Resolution in General and BICC‘s experiences“ Peter J. Croll Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg / University of Applied Sciences 3 rd December 2011
Bonn International Center for Conversion BICC is one of the five leading German institutes in the field of peace and conflict research and co-editor of the Friedensgutachten listed among the 50 leading think tanks worldwide (non-US) in the Global Go-To Think Tanks Report 2010 (out of 6480 think tanks in 169 countries) BICC at a glance
Bonn International Center for Conversion As an international, non-profit organization, BICC is dedicated to promoting and facilitating peace and development through applied research, advisory services and training BICC at a glance
Bonn International Center for Conversion BICC at a glance BICC seeks to assist in preventing violent conflict and contribute to their constructive transformation While disarmament frees resources, which can be employed in the fight against poverty, conversion allows for a targeted, best possible reuse of these resources.
Bonn International Center for Conversion Director Supervisory Board Board of Trustees International Board Organs and Boards Board of Trustees Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, Düsseldorf: 85% Land of Brandenburg, Potsdam: 15% BICC at a glance Founded in 1994 as a GmbH (Ltd. Co.)
Bonn International Center for Conversion Main areas of our work BICC‘s five program areas in 2011: Arms – Global Trends, Exports and Control Security – Actors, Systems, Threats Resources and Conflict Migration, Conflict and Security Base Conversion
Bonn International Center for Conversion Sources and Nature of Conflict According to the Conflict Resolution Approach Conflict is a natural part of human existence Can be a catalyst for social change Conflicts are the direct result of some institutions and social norms being incompatible with inherent human needs. Denial of recognition by society would lead to alternative behaviours e.g. ethnic wars, street gangs or domestic violence.
Bonn International Center for Conversion Sources and Nature of Conflict According to the Conflict Resolution Approach Conflict management describes various strategies of dealing with a conflict at different levels from interpersonal to inter- state conflict Mainstream Literature categorizes conflict management strategies into three: - Conflict Settlement, - Conflict Resolution and - Conflict Transformation
Bonn International Center for Conversion Sources and Nature of Conflict According to the Conflict Resolution Approach CONFLICT MANANGEMENT CONFLICT SETTLEMENT Track 1 CONFLICT RESOLUTION Track 2 CONFLICT TRANSFORMATION Track 3
Bonn International Center for Conversion What is Conflict Resolution ? Conflict resolution refers to all process-oriented activities that aim to address the underlying causes of direct, cultural and structural violence. The origin of protracted conflict can be found in the underlying unmet needs of participants. Conflict resolution seeks to not only resolve the direct violence of conflict but also underlying causes, i.e. the unmet needs.
Bonn International Center for Conversion John Burton’s Contribution to Conflict Resolution John Burton‘s work on human needs theory has become the theoretical foundation upon which conflict resolution rests He believed that human needs such as recognition and security are at the heart of protracted conflicts. While interests are tangible things, such as land, money, or jobs that can be traded and compromised, needs are intangible things, such as identity, security, and recognition, that are not for trading.
Bonn International Center for Conversion Conflict Resolution in Practice The practice of conflict resolution entails providing opportunities for the parties to: 1.Analyse the relationship, generate a definition of the problem in terms of motivations and human needs 2.Cost their goals and policies once they are fully informed of all aspects of the dispute 3.Discover the possible options that may be available once there has been a full analysis of the conflict in all its elements
Bonn International Center for Conversion Conflict Resolution in Sri Lanka In Sri Lanka a devastating civil war raged from 1983 until 2009. The war has been primarily between the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) or Tamil tigers who fight on behalf of the Tamil minority population of the North- east regions of the island and government that is primarily representative of the Sinhalese majority ethnic.
Bonn International Center for Conversion Conflict Resolution in Sri Lanka
Bonn International Center for Conversion The Underlying Human Needs of the Sri Lankan Conflict Tamil Population in the north of Sri Lanka felt marginalized and discriminated against. Lack of adequate representation in government and lack of linguistic recognition. 1976 the LTTE began advocating for an independent state where the Tamils could realize their needs. The Sinhalese government responded by banning all political parties that were calling for an independent Tamil Eelam. On the other hand Sinhalese wanted to build a Sinhala nationalist state thus felt threatened by Tamil secessionist movement.
Bonn International Center for Conversion The Norwegian Peace process 1.I mplementation phase which consisted of a series of facilitated negotiations (February 2002-April 2003) 2.Crisis management without officially facilitated negotiations, shaped by unilateral initiatives to prepare the ground for future negotiations (May 2003-March 2004) 3.Ongoing crisis management and finally revitalized but ultimately unsuccessful sequence of negotiations (April 2004- October 2005) 4.New elected president of Sri Lanka tried to re-negotiate the terms of the Ceasefire Agreement (CFA) Norway’s position as a formal mediator began with the signing of a ceasefire between the warring parties on February 22nd 2002. The peace process in Sri Lanka went through several stages:
Bonn International Center for Conversion The Norwegian Peace process: Talks Collapse June 2005 : Relations between government and rebels deteriorate over sharing international tsunami aid 8 June 2006 : Collapse of talks in Norway aimed at restoring peace hostilities reemerge 16 January 2008 : Sri Lanka's ceasefire is officially terminated 5 February 2009 : Sri Lanka snubs the international community's call for a ceasefire, saying troops will not suspend their offensive against Tamil Tiger rebels 19 May 2009 : The Sri Lankan government formally declares an end to the 25-year civil war after the army took control of the entire island and killed the Tamil Tigers' rebel leader, Velupillai Prabhakaran
Bonn International Center for Conversion Conflict 1.Ethnic Outbidding: 2.Mutual Disappointment: 3.Avoiding Core Issues: 4.Limits of Bilateralism 5.Repercussions of Even-handedness: 6.The Global War on Terror
Bonn International Center for Conversion Conclusion Lack of commitment from both sides meant that resolution could not take place Conflict continued to be seen as a zero-sum game where only a decisive military victory would settle the conflict The underlying needs have not been resolved. Tamil population still seeking recognition
Bonn International Center for Conversion Main areas of our work Arms – Global Trends, Exports and Arms Control BICC investigates global trends in defense expenditures, number of troops, and militarization and makes the connection between arms exports, development assistance and human rights. BICC also lobbies for global arms control.
Bonn International Center for Conversion Main areas of our work The Global Militarization Index (GMI) The GMI investigates militarization worldwide. It serves to evaluate the development orientation of states and to analyze regional militarization.
Bonn International Center for Conversion Main areas of our work Security – Actors, Systems, Threats What are the challenges to a national security sector (such as armed forces, police, controlling authorities, institutions of the justice and penal systems)? What is the role of non- governmental security actors (e.g. private security companies)?
Bonn International Center for Conversion Main areas of our work Resources and Conflict BICC conducts research on the nexus between natural resources and violent conflict. BICC raises awareness and educates the public in this program area.
Bonn International Center for Conversion Foci of our Work Migration, Conflict and Security BICC analyzes the nexus between migration from Africa and security, discusses challenges of internal migration in Sub-Saharan Africa and focuses on the African diaspora in North Rhine- Westphalia, Germany and the European Union.
Bonn International Center for Conversion Main areas of our work Base Conversion With its 17 years of experience in base conversion, BICC not only provides advice to the German government but is also internationally active (e.g. in South Korea and South Africa).
Bonn International Center for Conversion BICC’s contribution to Conflict Resolution TRESA (Training and Education on Small Arms) Training and Education form critical parts of resolving conflicts as these aspects help to transform the manner in which a society thinks about conflict. When resolving a conflict one of the most important aspects is dealing with the mass of small weapons that are left behind. Not addressing this problem may lead to heightened insecurity and violent crime as people will have uncontrolled access to dangerous weapons that soon become part of everyday life. The TRESA (Training and Education on Small Arms) project at BICC has been tasked with the preparation and propagation of training tools on small arms control. Since its inception in late 2003, the project, together with collaborators from other organizations, has designed and is field testing comprehensive approach to small arms training.
Bonn International Center for Conversion BICC’s contribution to Conflict Resolution TRESA is divided into modules that deal with specific issues related to small arms. These include: 1.Marking and Tracing Small Arms and Light Weapons (2008) Trainer 2.Steps to becoming a conscious trainer — a train the trainer manual (2006) 3.Global and Regional Agreements on Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALW) Control (2006) 4.SALW and Development (2006) Trainer 5.Youth and Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALW) (2006) 6.Civil Society Action on SALW Control (2005)