Presentation on theme: "Introduction to innovation"— Presentation transcript:
1 Introduction to innovation DefinitionsDimensionsDriversDevelopments
2 What is innovation?Innovation is the process and outcome of creating something new, which is also of value.Innovation involves the whole process from opportunity identification, ideation or invention to development, prototyping, production marketing and sales, while entrepreneurship only needs to involve commercialization (Schumpeter).
3 Definitions Innovation = Invention + exploitation (Ettlie) A new way of doing things, which is commercialized. The process of innovation cannot be separated from a firm’s strategic and competetive context (Porter)Adoption of ideas that are new to the adopting organization
4 What is innovation?Today it is also said to involve the capacity to adapt quickly by adopting new innovations (products, processes, strategies, organization, etc)Traditionally the focus has been on new products or processes, but recently new business models have come into focus, i.e. the way a firm delivers value and secures profits.
5 What is innovation?Schumpeter argued that innovation comes about through new combinations made by an entrepreneur, resulting ina new product,a new process,opening of new market,new way of organizing the businessnew sources of supply
6 Mechanisms of innovation Novelty in product or service (offering something no one else does)Novelty in process (offering it in a new way)Complexity (offer something which others find difficult to master)Timing (first mover advantage, fast follower)Add/extend competetive factors (e.g. From price to quality or choice)Robust design (contribute a platform on which other variations can build)Reconfiguring the parts (building more effective business networks)...
7 Dimensions of innovation Extent of change (radical—incremental)Modality of change (product—process)Complexity of change (component—architecture)Materiality of change (physical—intangible)Capabilities and change (enhances or destroys market/technological capabilties)Relatedness of change (replaces a firm’s existing product or extends it)Appropriability/Imitability (difficult or hard to hang on to)Cycle of innovation (time between discontinuities)
8 Drivers for innovation Financial pressures to reduce costs, increase efficiency, do more with less, etcIncreased competitionShorter product life cyclesValue migrationStricter regulationIndustry and community needs for sustainable developmentIncreased demend for accountabilityDemographic, social and maket changesRising customer expectations regarding service and qualityChanging economyGreater availability of potentially useful technologies coupled with a need to exceed the competition in these technologies
9 Assessing Innovation complexity Dimensions and degrees of innovationTime to implementTechnology newnessComplexityRiskMarket newness
10 Examples of analysis Short-term profits No profits Low profits HighShort-term profitsNo profitsImitabilityLow profitsLong-term profitsA firm’s ability to profit from its competences has to do with how core (central) its competences are with regard to the innovation it wishes to develop, as well as how easy it is for competitors to imitate the innovation.If a needed competence is not core, and imitability is high, then one may not be able to profit from the innovation (”all things being equal”). If its low-core but inimitable, then the firm may make some profits, but will never be able to develop or grow the innovation successfully. If competences are high-core but the innovation is imitable, there will be an initial profit up until competition catches up (think about how the firm may strategically protect the innovation during this time window). Finally, we conclude that most of the profits will come from products that the firm makes as a result of having inimitable innovation and maximally leveraging its core competences.LowLowHighCore or (relatedness) to existing business and competences
11 Classical models of innovation Science Push approaches suggest that innovation proceeds linearly:Scientific discovery inventionmanufacturing marketingDemand Pull approaches argued that innovation originates with unmet customer need:Customer suggestions invention manufacturing
12 Today’s basic model for innovation management is interactive Technological worldTech-entrepreneurshipCommercial world+Administrative capabilities=ResearchDevelopmentProduct/processdevelopmentMarketdevelopment