Presentation on theme: "Collaborative Problem Solving (CPS)"— Presentation transcript:
1 Collaborative Problem Solving (CPS) Today we are presenting an overview of a framework to better understand challenging behaviors in students- and to provide an approach to working with these students. This framework was developed by Dr. Ross Greene- a psychiatrist who has done extensive consulting in schools and with families of challenging children.Just want to mention that we are not a certified trainer and that we are not affiliated with Dr. Greene. We are presenting an overview of the model, and that while we are presenting the best understanding of the model- the accuracy of the information you are presenting should not be assumed.Developed by Dr. Ross Greene
2 Session Highlights Philosophy of the CPS model Basic steps Video clips- CPS in actionOpportunities to practice
3 Common Points of View “He just want the attention” “She is making bad choices”“They have a bad attitude”“He just wants his own way”
4 Philosophy Behind CPS Model “If kids could do well they would do well”- If the kid had the skills to exhibit adaptive behavior, he wouldn’t be exhibiting challenging behavior“Behind every challenge behavior is an unsolved problem and a lagging skill”When is a challenging behavior most likely to occur- when the demands being placed on a kid exceed his capacity to respond adaptively. Of course, that’s when all of us exhibit maladaptive behavior. The problem with kids with challenging behavior is that they’re responding much more maladaptively than the rest of us- and much more often. Spectrum of things kids do when life’s demands exceed their capacity to respond adaptively- some cry, sulk, whine, or withdrawn. Others swear, scream, hit, kick, etc. Some students (and adults) have the skills to hold it together and some don’t.
5 Identify Unsolved Problems & Lagging Skills Identify the unsolved problem(s)Shifting from one specific task to anotherGetting started on/completing class assignmentsHypothesize what lagging skill(s) is contributing to the unsolved problemDifficulty handling transitions, shifting from one mindset or task to anotherDifficulty persisting on challenging or tedious tasksA tool to assist this process is the Assessment of Lagging Skills and Unsolved Problems (ALSUP)Can’t fix everything at once- will need to prioritize problems****A student may have the skill to demonstrate adaptive behavior some of the time- but not all of the time. Example from own experience-
6 Collaborative Problem Solving (Plan B) Once lagging skills and unsolved problem are identified, it is time to begin CPS with the student3 ingredients to the process:1. Empathy Step- This is where you gather information so as to clarify the student’s concern or perspective on the unsolved problem2. Define the Problem Step- Here, the teacher communicates their concerns or perspective on the unsolved problem.3. The Invitation Step- Student and teacher brainstorm solutions to address the concernsGive students help in reading now—so they don’t need it the rest of their life. Same way we treat challenging behaviors- give them help and tools now, so they don’t need help the rest of their lives.The adult plays the role of the surrogate frontal lobe. The executive functions of the frontal lobes involve the ability to recognize future consequences resulting from current actions, to choose between good and bad actions (or better and best), override and suppress unacceptable social responses, and determine similarities and differences between things or events. Therefore, it is involved in higher mental functions.In using CPS, adults do the thinking for the student that he is unable to do by himself.Ingredients or steps:Main ingredient of empathy step- gather information from the student so as to understand his concern or perspective.Define the problem step- adult gets their perspectiveBrainstorming step- solutions that will address the concerns of both partiesEmpathy step begins with a neutral observation: I’ve noticed that…” Pluck problem from list of unsolved problems and then finish with “what’s up.” Noticed its been hard to get going on your SS project. What’s up. I’ve noticed you haven’t wanted to come to school. What’s up? I’ve noticed we’ve been struggling a lot with homework lately, “what’s up?”
7 Step 1: EmpathyThis is where you gather information so as to clarify the student’s concern or perspective on the unsolved problemGoal is to get the student talking to obtain the best possible understanding of the unsolved problemImportant to start with a neutral statement“I’ve noticed…” “What’s up?”“Tell me more about it”“I am wondering what is going on?”Be willing to be patient- allow for silence if needed***Empathy step begins with a neutral observation: I’ve noticed that…” and then finish with “what’s up.” Noticed its been hard to get going on your SS project. What’s up. I’ve noticed you haven’t wanted to come to school. What’s up? I’ve noticed we’ve been struggling a lot with homework lately, “what’s up…I’ve noticed you are trying to disrupt my class- not neutral- going to shut student up. Goal is to get the student talkingDrilling. Example- I’ve noticed we haven’t seen much homework. What’s up. The student answered “it’s too hard.” Need to ask yourself- do you understand? Need to keep drilling. How is it too hard? What’s too hard? What’s too much. The writing is too much. What about the writing part is too much. Putting the student’s concern on the table does not mean your concerns will be pushed off the table. Another tip- don’t be a genius
8 Step 2: Define the Problem Here, the teacher communicates their concerns or perspective on the unsolved problemGenerally adult concerns fall into 3 categories- safety, learning, or how the behavior is affecting one’s self or othersSample statements to use:“My concern is…” “The thing is…”***Ex. Student who is doing no homework because the writing part of the science is so long and is frustrating. Concern- if you don’t do writing, it will always be hard because you won’t get any practice. This is a legitimate concern! The student may respond with, “I don’t care.” Student has not had practice with people caring about his concerns. Once you care about his, will begin to care about yours.
9 Step 3: The Invitation Step Student and teacher brainstorm solutions to address both concernsMust let student know you want to get both concern’s addressedThe step involves restating the two concerns so as to summarize the problem to be solvedSample statement: “I wonder if there is a way…”Then give the student the first opportunity to generate a solutionSample statement: “Do you have any ideas…”***Example of the invitation- “I wonder if there’s a way for you to let me know you’re mad that the other kids won’t let you play with them—without you hitting them- do you have any ideas.”Just because you ask the student first if they have ideas- doesn’t mean they are the only one generating solutions. You are both on the team together. Can offer suggestions- important thing to remember is that both parties must agree on a solution.Best solution= any solution that both parties agree on that are realistic and mutually satifcaforyAsk for a couple of volunteers to share how the process went.
10 Brainstorming Solutions Solution must be realistic and mutually satisfactorySample statements:“ Hey, there’s an idea. The only problem is I don’t know if its realistic for you to ______ . Let’s see if we can come up with a solution that you can do…”“Well, there’s an option. The only thing is if I let you do______ your concern would be addressed but my concern wouldn’t. Let’s see if we can come up with a solution that works for both of us.”
11 Video Clip- Plan B in Action awry-part-1awry-part-2
12 Three Options for Unmet Expectations There are three ways in which adults try to solve problems (unmet expectations) with kids:Plan A (impose teacher will)Plan C (temporarily dropping problems)Plan B (that's the one you want to get really good at).A- You impose your will when a student is not meeting expectations. Many of us were raised on Plan A. What is the problem with this? Challenging kids versus not so challenging kids. The downside for using it with challenging kids is that it causes challenging behaviors. These students don’t like having will imposed upon them. Dealing with this requires skills that challenging kids don’t have- managing anger, frustration, etc. Plan A CAUSES challenging behavior. Downside in “regular” students- they do have the skills but if you are busy using Plan A- you are teaching that might makes right. Plan is convenient- makes things happen quickly but not might be good long term lessons.Plan C- Drop the expectation at least for now. Does not mean giving in. Mentalality is that you know what the unsolved problems are and you know what your priorties are and can’t work with everything at once.
13 Final NotesPlan B works best when it is proactive- don’t wait until the problem behavior is occurring to have the discussionThere is often no quick fix to helping students with challenging behaviors- often the first solution you agree to won’t fix the problemIn life, most good solutions follow solutions that don’t pan out so well. The important thing is to figure out why the original solution didn’t pan out and make sure the next solution incorporates what you learned.
14 Helpful Resourcesiles/ALSUP-Likert-Scale pdfLost at School by Dr. Ross GreeneYour PBS External Coach