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Chapter 3 Motivating People. Copyright © 2006 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 2 2 2 Purpose and Overview Purpose –To understand how individuals.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3 Motivating People. Copyright © 2006 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 2 2 2 Purpose and Overview Purpose –To understand how individuals."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 3 Motivating People

2 Copyright © 2006 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED Purpose and Overview Purpose –To understand how individuals are motivated to perform effectively Overview –Motivation and Management –Content Perspectives –Process Perspectives –Motivational Problems –Overall Assessment

3 Copyright © 2006 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED Motivation and Management Motivation –When one is energized to perform a task Focus –Emotional or cognitive state separate from action –Distinguishes motivation from performance

4 Copyright © 2006 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED Motivation and Management Myths About Motivation –Motivated workers are more productive –Some people are motivated, others are not –Motivation can be mass produced –Money makes the world go 'round

5 Copyright © 2006 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED Motivation and Management Manager’s Role –Assessing their employees' motivation –Leading to alter conditions to increase motivation

6 Copyright © 2006 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED Content Perspectives Focus –Needs and need deficiencies –Unmet needs create a state of disequilibrium within an individual –Individual seeks to fulfill unmet needs

7 Copyright © 2006 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED Content Perspectives Maslow’s Need Hierarchy –Five needs must be met sequentially –If basic needs are not met individual seeks to fulfill only them

8 Copyright © 2006 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED Content Perspectives Alderfer’s ERG Three-Level Hierarchy Theory –Existence –Relatedness –Growth More than one need can motivate behavior

9 Copyright © 2006 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED Content Perspectives Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory –Motivators –Hygiene factors

10 Copyright © 2006 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 10 Content Perspectives McClelland’s Three Needs Theory –Achievement –Power –Affiliation All three needs are acquired Learned through life experiences Evolve from one's background and environment

11 Copyright © 2006 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 11 Content Perspectives

12 Copyright © 2006 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 12 Process Perspectives Focus –Context in which work is done –Individual's reactions – especially thoughts and feelings – to work

13 Copyright © 2006 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 13 Process Perspectives Equity Theory –Individuals value and seek fairness –Outcomes proportionate to perceived contributions –Evaluate fairness by comparing themselves to others

14 Copyright © 2006 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 14 Process Perspectives Vroom’s Expectancy Theory –People are rational decision makers –People expend effort for desired rewards –People know what rewards they desire –People know that performance determines rewards they attain

15 Copyright © 2006 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 15 Process Perspectives Vroom’s Expectancy Theory – Three Levels –Job outcomes –Valences –Instrumentality

16 Copyright © 2006 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 16 Process Perspectives

17 Copyright © 2006 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 17 Process Perspectives Skinner’s Reinforcement Theory –Stimulus –Response –Consequence

18 Copyright © 2006 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 18 Process Perspectives Locke’s Goal-Setting Theory –Goals direct people's attention, focus effort, and encourage persistence –Difficult goals inspire greater motivation –Provides guidance on how much effort to expend

19 Copyright © 2006 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 19 Process Perspectives Use caution when applying motivational theories to professionals!

20 Copyright © 2006 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 20 Process Perspectives Motivating Physicians –Must see that their behavior needs to change –Provide frequent feedback at precise intervals to sustain new behaviors –Feedback must be usable, consistent, correct, and varied –Don’t portray feedback as "good" or "bad"

21 Copyright © 2006 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 21 Process Perspectives Process theories have limitations Guidelines for managers –Set goals at hiring or performance evaluations –Establish expectations and consequences –Check perceptions of fairness periodically –Reinforce according to performance

22 Copyright © 2006 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 22 Motivational Problems Causes –Inadequate performance definition –Impediments to performance –Inadequate performance- reward linkages Symptoms –Apathy –Low-quality work –Complaints from supervisors and patients

23 Copyright © 2006 by Thomson Delmar Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 23 Motivational Problems Potential Solutions


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