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MGMT5 © 2012 Cengage Learning Motivation 13
© 2012 Cengage Learning The Basics of Motivation Effort and performance Need satisfaction Extrinsic and intrinsic rewards How to motivate with the basic model of motivation
© 2012 Cengage Learning A Basic Model of Work Motivation and Performance
© 2012 Cengage Learning Effort and Performance Job Performance = Motivation x Ability x Situational Constraints
© 2012 Cengage Learning Need Satisfaction Needs –the physical or psychological requirements that must be met to ensure survival and well-being A person’s unmet need creates an uncomfortable, internal state of tension that must be resolved. People are motivated by unmet needs Managers must learn what those unmet needs are, and address them. Once a need is met, it no longer motivates.
© 2012 Cengage Learning Adding Need Satisfaction to the Model
© 2012 Cengage Learning Predictions of Need Theories Maslow –needs are arranged in a hierarchy from low to high; people are motivated by their lowest unsatisfied needs Alderfer –people can be motivated by more than one need at a time McClelland –the degree to which particular needs motivate varies from person to person
© 2012 Cengage Learning Extrinsic and Intrinsic Rewards Extrinsic rewards –tangible and visible to others and are given to employees contingent on the performance of specific tasks or behaviors Intrinsic rewards –the natural rewards associated with performing a task or activity for its own sake
© 2012 Cengage Learning Adding Rewards to the Model
© 2012 Cengage Learning Equity Theory People will be motivated at work when they perceive that they are being treated fairly. In particular, equity theory stresses the importance of perceptions. So, regardless of the actual level of rewards people receive, they must also perceive that, relative to others, they are being treated fairly.
© 2012 Cengage Learning Motivating to Increase Effort
© 2012 Cengage Learning Forms of Inequity Underreward –when you are getting fewer outcomes relative to your inputs than the referent Overreward –when you are getting more outcomes relative to your inputs than the referent
© 2012 Cengage Learning Reacting to Inequity Decreasing or withholding inputs Increasing outcomes Rationalize or distort inputs to outcomes Changing the referent Employees may leave
© 2012 Cengage Learning Adding Equity Theory to the Model
© 2012 Cengage Learning Expectancy Theory People will be motivated to the extent to which they believe that their efforts will lead to good performance, that good performance will be rewarded, and that they will be offered attractive rewards.
© 2012 Cengage Learning Components of Expectancy Theory Motivation = Valence 5 Expectancy 5 Instrumentality
© 2012 Cengage Learning Adding Expectancy Theory to the Model
© 2012 Cengage Learning Reinforcement Theory Behavior is a function of its consequences, behaviors followed by positive consequences will occur more frequently, and behaviors followed by negative consequences, or not followed by positive consequences, will occur less frequently. Reinforcement Reinforcement contingencies Schedule of reinforcement
© 2012 Cengage Learning Adding Reinforcement Theory to the Model
© 2012 Cengage Learning Components of Reinforcement Theory Positive reinforcement Negative reinforcement Punishment Extinction
© 2012 Cengage Learning Schedules for Delivering Reinforcement Continuous Intermittent –fixed interval –variable interval –fixed ratio –variable ratio
© 2012 Cengage Learning Intermittent Reinforcement Schedules
© 2012 Cengage Learning Goal-Setting Theory People will be motivated to the extent that they accept specific, challenging goals and receive feedback that indicates their progress toward goal achievement.
© 2012 Cengage Learning Components of Goal-Setting Theory Goal specificity Goal difficulty Goal acceptance Performance feedback
© 2012 Cengage Learning Adding Goal-Setting Theory to the Model
© 2012 Cengage Learning Motivating with Goal-Setting Theory Assign employees specific, challenging goals Make sure workers truly accept organizational goals Provide frequent, specific, performance-related feedback
REELTOREAL © 2012 Cengage Learning Friday Night Lights 1.This chapter defines motivation as “the set of forces that initiates, directs, and makes people persist in their efforts to accomplish a goal.” Does Mike Winchell show the characteristics of this definition early in the sequence? Do you expect him to show any of the characteristics after the sequence ends and he returns to the team? 2.How does Coach Gaines try to motivate his QB? Do you think his approach is effective? 3.Apply the various parts of goal- setting theory to this sequence. Which parts of that theory appear in the sequence?
REELTOREAL © 2012 Cengage Learning Living Social Escapes 1.Which needs in Maslow’s hierarchy are most important to the employees who work for LivingSocial Escapes, and how can managers use this information to develop a highly motivated workforce? 2.According to equity theory, how might a LivingSocial Escapes guide react if he or she feels underpaid or unappreciated? 3.What outcomes or rewards possess high valence for managers and guides who work at LivingSocial Escapes?
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