Presentation on theme: "The Human Life Course and Population Chapter 13/14."— Presentation transcript:
The Human Life Course and Population Chapter 13/14
7 Billion people National Geographic What’s Your Number? The World at 7 Billion
7 Billion people Issues of contraception—who gets to make up the rules? Hans Rosling – "There was an unmet need for contraceptive services, of course. But there was also an unmet need for health services and all kinds of other services which did not get attention. The focus became contraception." –BBCBBC
7 Billion people "Not to have a full set of health services meant women were either unable to use family planning, or unwilling to - because they could still expect half their kids to die by the age of five.” --BBC --BBC Worldwide, major causes of childhood death are infectious diseases exacerbated by poor nutrition 70% of deaths (birth to 4 years old) are due to diarrhea, respiratory infections, malaria – …..and diseases for which immunizations are available 83% of the deaths are indirectly attributable to malnutrition Leading causes of childhood death in the US and western Europe are accidents, followed by preterm births
7 Billion people "There was an unmet need for contraceptive services, of course. But there was also an unmet need for health services and all kinds of other services which did not get attention. The focus became contraception." –BBCBBC To feed large sedentary populations, easily producible, cheap foods are needed and were developed when homo sapiens became sedentary…
The “Paleo” Diet Prior to 10,000 years ago… – High in Animal Protein, low in fat…particularly saturated fat – High in complex carbohydrates (including fiber) Human health declined in most parts of the world, beginning about 10,000 (The Neolithic Transition) years ago… The Ability to Store Fat – Feast and Famine adaptations in the Mesolithic lead to obesity and health problems in the Paleolithic
Once adaptive, now maladaptive What are the cheapest and most highly caloric foods you can buy?
Once adaptive, now maladaptive 80% of new cases of type 2 diabetes appearing between now and 2025 will be in developing nations Type 2 diabetes, linked to poor diet and inadequate exercise, occurring in children as young as 4 56% corn
Preagricultural, Contemporary American, and Recently Recommended Dietary Composition
Nutritional Requirements for Growth Nutrients needed for growth, development, and body maintenance include: proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins and minerals. The amount we need of these nutrients coevolved with foods available to humans throughout evolutionary history. The specific pattern of amino acids required in human nutrition (essential amino acids) reflects an ancestral diet high in animal protein. – The 9 (of 22) amino acids must be obtained from the food we eat because they are not synthesized in the body in sufficient amounts.
Factors Influencing Growth and Development Genetics – set the underlying limitations and potentials for growth and development – Environmental factors can influence growth and development, but an individual can not exceed their genetic potential. Hormones – produced by endocrine glands – Growth hormone has an impact on almost every cell in the body. – Cortisol, elevated during stress, suppresses normal immune function during high levels
The Human Life Cycle 1.Prenatal begins with conception and ends with birth. 2.Infancy is period of nursing. 3.Childhood, or juvenile phase, is period from weaning to sexual maturity (puberty in humans.) 4.Adolescence is from puberty to the end of growth. 5.Adulthood is the completion of growth. 6.Menopause beginning one full year after the last menstrual cycle
Life Cycle Stages for Various Animal Species
Diameter of Birth Canal and Head Length and Breadth of Newborns
Providing for Juveniles (Table 13-3) Percent Who Survive WeaningAdolescence Lion2815 Baboon4533 Macaque4213 Chimpanzee4838 Human Populations !Kung8058 Yanomamo7350 Paleoindian8650
Life Spans (Table 13-4) Organism Approximate Maximum Life Span (in years) Bristlecone pine5,000 Tortoise170 Human120 Blue whale80 Indian elephant70 Gorilla39 Domestic dog34 Rabbit13 Rat5
The Loss of Biodiversity Biodiversity is the totality of all living things, from bacteria and fungi to trees and humans. Biodiversity is the totality of all living things, from bacteria and fungi to trees and humans. We are currently losing biodiversity, but we don’t know the exact rate of loss or what its impact will be. We are currently losing biodiversity, but we don’t know the exact rate of loss or what its impact will be. The geological record indicates that in the past 570 million years, there have been at least 15 mass extinction events, two of which altered all of the earth’s ecosystems. The geological record indicates that in the past 570 million years, there have been at least 15 mass extinction events, two of which altered all of the earth’s ecosystems.
Mass Extinction Events Occurring now? Many scientists believe several large mammalian species were pushed toward extinction by humans, near the end of the Pleistocene, some 10,000 years ago. In North America, at least 57 mammalian species became extinct, including the mammoth, mastodon, giant ground sloth, saber-toothed cat, several large rodents, and numerous grazing animals.