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Information Systems Today: Managing in the Digital World 4-1 4 Chapter Managing the Information System Infrastructure COIS11011 WEEKS 3 - 4 WEEK 3: OVERVIEW.

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Presentation on theme: "Information Systems Today: Managing in the Digital World 4-1 4 Chapter Managing the Information System Infrastructure COIS11011 WEEKS 3 - 4 WEEK 3: OVERVIEW."— Presentation transcript:

1 Information Systems Today: Managing in the Digital World Chapter Managing the Information System Infrastructure COIS11011 WEEKS WEEK 3: OVERVIEW INFRASTRUCTURE: CHAPTER 4 WEEK 4: HARDWARE & SOFTWARE: TECHNICAL BRIEFINGS 1 & 2

2 Information Systems Today: Managing in the Digital World 4-2 Learning Objectives

3 Information Systems Today: Managing in the Digital World 4-3 Infrastructure Interconnection of basic facilities and services enabling the area to function properly

4 Information Systems Today: Managing in the Digital World 4-4 The IS Infrastructure Why there? o Fiber-optic network connectivity o Access to water for cooling needs o Cheap, uninterrupted power from a nearby hydroelectric dam Google’s newest data center – The Dalles, OR

5 Information Systems Today: Managing in the Digital World 4-5 The Need for an IS Infrastructure IS infrastructure supports business processes, decision making and competitive strategy Business Processes o Activities that achieve business goals Core Processes Supporting Processes

6 Information Systems Today: Managing in the Digital World 4-6 IS Infrastructure IS infrastructure components: 1. Hardware 2. Software 3. Networks 4. Data 5. Facilities 6. Human resources 7. Services

7 Information Systems Today: Managing in the Digital World 4-7 IS Infrastructure: Hardware Includes: o Computers o Networking hardware

8 Information Systems Today: Managing in the Digital World 4-8 IS Infrastructure: Hardware (II) Issues: o What technologies to choose o When to replace equipment o How to secure infrastructure o How to assure reliability o..many others

9 Information Systems Today: Managing in the Digital World 4-9 IS Infrastructure: Software Software enables companies to utilize their IS hardware Issues: o Updates o Fixing bugs o Software licenses o Etc.

10 Information Systems Today: Managing in the Digital World 4-10 IS Infrastructure: Communication and Collaboration Empowers organizations Enabled by networking hard- and software Examples: o servers o Communication software o Etc.

11 Information Systems Today: Managing in the Digital World 4-11 IS Infrastructure: Communication and Collaboration (II) Key issue o What types of communication technologies support the organization’s goals?

12 Information Systems Today: Managing in the Digital World 4-12 IS Infrastructure: Facilities Need for specialized facilities, including: o Electricity o Cooling o Etc.

13 Information Systems Today: Managing in the Digital World 4-13 Potential Threats to IS Facilities Key issues: o Where to house data centers, etc. o Threats to IS facilities Outside intruders Environmental elements

14 Information Systems Today: Managing in the Digital World 4-14 IS Infrastructure: Human Resources Need for trained workforce o Influences location decision – to get the right people

15 Information Systems Today: Managing in the Digital World 4-15 IS Infrastructure: Services Processes which are not core competencies are often delegated to companies that specialise

16 Information Systems Today: Managing in the Digital World 4-16 Managing the Hardware Infrastructure Issues to consider: o Fluctuating computing demand o Large-scale problems o System complexity

17 Information Systems Today: Managing in the Digital World 4-17 Fluctuating Computing Demand On-demand computing o Available resources allocated based on user needs o Utility computing On-demand computing rented from external provider Paid on as-needed basis

18 Information Systems Today: Managing in the Digital World 4-18 Solving Large-Scale Problems Grid Computing o Combines computing power of a large number of smaller, independent, networked computers Tasks broken down into smaller chunks o Dedicated vs. heterogeneous grids Acquisition vs. management costs o Edge computing Save bandwidth Improved Response time

19 Information Systems Today: Managing in the Digital World 4-19 Managing System Complexity Autonomic computing o Self-managing systems requiring minimal human intervention to operate

20 Information Systems Today: Managing in the Digital World 4-20 Managing the Software Infrastructure Primary issues to consider: o Cost of software o Integration o Managing bugs o Managing licenses o Fluctuating computing needs

21 Information Systems Today: Managing in the Digital World 4-21 Open-Source Software Open-source movement aided by the advent of the Internet Source code is freely available for use and/or modification o Open-source operating system Linux oUsed in everything from fridges to personal computers to supercomputers

22 Information Systems Today: Managing in the Digital World 4-22 Open-Source Application Software Open-source application software o Apache Web server o Firefox Web browser o OpenOffice Drawback: o Finding customer support may be difficult

23 Information Systems Today: Managing in the Digital World 4-23 Web Services Web-based software systems allowing for an interaction of different programs and databases over a network Service-oriented architecture

24 Information Systems Today: Managing in the Digital World 4-24 Managing Software Assets Managing software bugs o Increased complexity of applications prevents error- free development o Patch management system Managing software licensing o Hot topic due to problems with piracy o Shrink-wrap license o Enterprise license o Software asset management

25 Information Systems Today: Managing in the Digital World 4-25 Application Service Providers ASPs provide on-demand software access over the Web o Specific software located on the ASP’s server o Accessed using Web-enabled interfaces Benefits: o Reduced need to maintain or upgrade software o Fixed monthly fee for services o Reliability Example: Google Calendar

26 Information Systems Today: Managing in the Digital World 4-26 Managing the Communication and Collaboration Infrastructure Diverse communication needs Solution: o Convergence o Increasing mobility

27 Information Systems Today: Managing in the Digital World 4-27 Convergence of Computing and Telecommunication Convergence of functionality of devices o Cell phone and PDA Convergence within underlying infrastructures o IP convergence Voice over IP Videoconferencing over IP

28 Information Systems Today: Managing in the Digital World 4-28 IP Convergence: VoIP Use of Internet technologies for placing telephone calls o High quality of transmission possible o Ability to call from any place with Internet connection

29 Information Systems Today: Managing in the Digital World 4-29 IP Convergence: Videoconferencing over IP IP used to transmit video data o Desktop video conferencing o HP Halo meeting room: $400,000

30 Information Systems Today: Managing in the Digital World 4-30 Increasing Mobility Knowledge workers require access to information from anywhere o Communication devices o Wireless devices capable of connecting to organization’s internal network Wireless security concerns

31 Information Systems Today: Managing in the Digital World 4-31 Managing the Data and Knowledge Infrastructure Organizations need to find new ways to manage: o Data from different sources Data mining o Internal knowledge Knowledge management tools

32 Information Systems Today: Managing in the Digital World 4-32 Data Mining Online transaction processing (OLTP) o Immediate response to user requests Online analytical processing (OLAP) o Quickly conducting complex analyses on data stored in a database

33 Information Systems Today: Managing in the Digital World 4-33 Data Mining Enhancing business intelligence by combining data from various sources

34 Information Systems Today: Managing in the Digital World 4-34 Operational vs. Informational Systems

35 Information Systems Today: Managing in the Digital World 4-35 Data Warehouses and Data Marts Data Warehouse o Integration of multiple large databases and other information sources into a single repository o Pull together, integrate, and share critical corporate data throughout the firm Data Mart o Data warehouse that is limited in scope o Customized for the decision support applications of a particular end-user group

36 Information Systems Today: Managing in the Digital World 4-36 Increasing Business Intelligence with Knowledge Management Knowledge management o The process used to get the greatest value from knowledge assets Knowledge management system o Collection of tools to generate, store, share, and manage tacit knowledge assets

37 Information Systems Today: Managing in the Digital World 4-37 Knowledge Assets Knowledge assets: skills, routines, practices, principles, formulas, methods, heuristics, and intuitions o Explicit knowledge assets o Tacit knowledge assets

38 Information Systems Today: Managing in the Digital World 4-38 Managing the Facilities Infrastructure Ensuring availability o High availability facilities o Collocation facilities Securing the facilities o Physical safeguards

39 Information Systems Today: Managing in the Digital World 4-39 Ensuring Availability High-availability facilities Collocation facilities

40 Information Systems Today: Managing in the Digital World 4-40 Managing Human Resource Infrastructure Need for highly trained workforce may be managed by: o Facility location o Educational grants o Human resource policies o Outsourcing of human resource services

41 Information Systems Today: Managing in the Digital World 4-41 Managing Human Resource Infrastructure Locating facilities in areas with high concentration of people with a certain skill Silicon Valley, CA or Seattle, WA Providing education opportunities for existing employees Educational grants Human resource policies Flextime, telecommuting Outsourcing of human resource services Bangalore, India

42 Information Systems Today: Managing in the Digital World 4-42 Managing the Service Infrastructure Increased complexity of IS o Services providers address infrastructure needs o Outsourcing

43 Information Systems Today: Managing in the Digital World 4-43 Services Providers Addressing Infrastructure Needs

44 Information Systems Today: Managing in the Digital World 4-44 Outsourcing Partial or entire responsibility for IS development and/or management given to an outside organization o Enables focus on core competencies Outsourced functions oNon-core functions oE.g., accounting, human resources Some business functions traditionally kept within the organization oInformation systems security


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