Presentation on theme: "Personnel Policies, Procedures And Programmes"— Presentation transcript:
1PERSONNEL POLICIES, ORGANISATION STRUCTURE, HRM AS A STAFF FUNCTION & LINE RESPONSIBILITY
2Personnel Policies, Procedures And Programmes Personnel policies are guides to action.They serve as roadmaps for managers on a number of issues such as recruitment, selection and promotionThey cover almost all functions of personnel managementA good personnel policy should be easy to understand, based on facts, equitable, reasonably flexible, precise and related to objectives.
3Types of personnel policies 2-10Types of personnel policiesOriginated policiesAppealed policiesImposed policiesGeneral policiesSpecific policiesWritten or implied policies
4Advantages of personnel policies 2-11Advantages of personnel policiesDelegationUniformityBetter controlStandards of efficiencyConfidenceSpeedy decisionsCoordinating devices
5Features of a sound personnel policy 2-12Features of a sound personnel policyRelated to objectivesEasy to understandPreciseStable as well as flexibleBased on factsAppropriate numberJust, fair and equitableReasonableReview
6Coverage of personnel policies 2-13Coverage of personnel policiessocial responsibility policiesemployment policiespromotion policiesdevelopment policiesrelations policies
7Formulation of personnel policies 2-14Formulation of personnel policiesidentifying the needcollecting dataspecifying alternativescommunicating the policyevaluating the policy
8Evaluating the impact of personnel policies 2-15Evaluating the impact of personnel policiesThe impact of human resource policies can be measured through their outcomes:Commitment: how long an employee stays with a firmCompetence: appraised through performance appraisal techniquesCongruence: nature and frequency of grievances, disagreement, discord and conflictCost effectiveness: measured through human resource accounting techniques
9ORGANISING THE PERSONNEL FUNCTION The HR function can be organised along traditional as well as modern lines, depending on the nature, scale and complexity of operations in a given organisation.
10Line and staff relationships: The relationship existing between two managers due to delegation of authority and responsibility and giving or receiving instructions or orders is called line relationship.Line authority, thus, represents uninterrupted line of authority and responsibility running through the management hierarchy. Staff specialists offer help and advice to line managers, whenever required.“Staffs think and lines do” “Staffs advise, lines work” “Staffs have the authority of ideas and lines have the authority of command”. Viewed broadly, therefore, personnel management is a line manager’s responsibility but a staff function”.
11Staff role of the personnel department Policy initiation and formulationAdviceServiceMonitor and control
12Personnel department in a line organisation 2-18Personnel department in a line organisationChief ExecutivePersonnel ManagerRecruiting OfficerTraining ManagerCompensation ManagerWelfare OfficerAssistantsAssistantsAssistantsAssistants
13Personnel department in a functional organisation 2-19Personnel department in a functional organisationChief ExecutivePersonnel ManagerRecruiting OfficerTraining ManagerCompensation ManagerWelfare OfficerAssistantsAssistantsAssistantsAssistantsPersonnel management: functions, policies and roles
14Personnel department in a line and staff organisation 2-20Personnel department in a line and staff organisationChief ExecutivePersonnel ManagerRecruiting OfficerTraining ManagerCompensation ManagerWelfare OfficerAssistantsAssistantsAssistantsAssistantsLine relationshipStaff relationship
15Personnel department in a divisionalised structure 2-21Personnel department in a divisionalised structure
16Personnel department in a matrix structure 2-22Personnel department in a matrix structurePersonnel management: functions, policies and roles
17Organization environment 3-2Organization environmentOrganisations are open systems and are, therefore, influenced by the environment (internal as well as external ) in which they operate.
18External and internal factors influencing the HR function 3-3External and internal factors influencing the HR functionExternal factors Internal factorsv Technological factors v Missionv Economic challenges v Policiesv Political factors v Organisational culturev Social factors v Organisation structurev Local and Governmental issues v HR systemsv Unionsv Employers’ demandsv Workforce diversity
19Technological Changes And HRM 3-4Technological Changes And HRMTechnology includes tools, machinery, equipment, work procedures and employee knowledge and skills. The impact of technology on HR can be profound, as the following things clearly reveal:New skills, knowledge, experience and expertise required to gain the edge over rivals.Downsize operations, cut organisational layers and cut the extra fat to survive in a competitive worldCollaborate and achieve teamworkRelocate work from the office to the homeInternet and intranet revolution
20How to deal with a human resource surplus situation? 3-5How to deal with a human resource surplus situation?Why?AutomationRestructuringMergersAcquisitionsCompetitive PressuresConsequences?Cuts payroll expensesEliminates extra layersImproves functioning if firm’s product and service profile is goodShocks those left outShattering impact on employee motivation and morale if not managed properlyManaging Survivors ofBitterness, anger, disbelief and shock need to be handled properlyGive information as to why the action had to be takenTell how it is going to help the firm and employees in the long run.
21Role of HR in a virtual organisation 3-6Role of HR in a virtual organisationA virtual organisation is a network of companies or employees connected by computers. Virtual workers work from home, hotels, their cars, or wherever their work takes them. The human resource function plays a unique role in a virtual organisation:v Psychological fit: The lack of face-to-face interaction in a virtual organisation, virtually compels HR professionals to determine the psychological fit between different units initially.v System alignment: Given the lack of physical proximity, it becomes even more critical that the organisation's mission, vision and measures be aligned and that all parties are familiar with these issues; the HR function can play an important role in this task.Cont…
22Reconsider rewards: In a virtual unit, very few permanent Reconsider rewards: In a virtual unit, very few permanent positions exist. In many cases, the organisation will be staffed with workers having different motivational forces. So rewarding each entity in an effective way becomes an important job.
233-7v Reconsider staffing needs: In a virtual organisation, most employees work on a contractual basis. Finding people with requisite skills, knowledge and motivation levels becomes an important activity.v Build partnerships: Virtual, teams have to be built from scratch paying attention to their unique requirements. The concept of employment needs to be replaced by the concept of 'partnership' especially when most tend to work independently away from the permanent employees or owners of the organisationv Develop leaders: Leaders become the major forces for building trust, creating a mission and instilling a sense of belonging to the organisation. HR can play a major role in ensuring that leaders assume these responsibilities and meet them in an effective way.
24Total Quality Management Programmes 3-8Total Quality Management ProgrammesTQM is a way of creating an organisational culture committed to the continuous improvement of skills, teamwork, processes, product and service quality and customer satisfaction.
25TQM: The main ideas Do it right the first time Be customer oriented 3-9TQM: The main ideasDo it right the first timeBe customer orientedMake continuous improvement a way of lifeBuild teamworkEmpower peopleCreate a climate of trust, an atmosphere for innovation
26Total Quality HR Approach 3-10Total Quality HR ApproachThe Total Quality HR Approach is all about employee participation and empowerment, carried out in a sincere and wholehearted manner.Rewards are designed to meet employee needs. Employees are treated like customers.360 degree appraisals are carried out before picking up the best performing teams.Small ideas and improvements are encouraged.
27Benchmarking Reengineering 3-12BenchmarkingEffective implementation of TQM requires benchmarking. The essence of benchmarking is striving to be the best of the best in one’s area of operations. It is a continuous process of measuring products, services and practices against the toughest competitors or industry leaders with the aim of mutual improvement.ReengineeringThe primary focus of TQM is on continuous improvement or ongoing incremental change. Reengineering is all about achieving this. Actually speaking, reengineering takes place when more than 70 per cent of the work processes in an organisation are evaluated and altered. The focus is on simplifying operations and making them more efficient and customer oriented.
28Essentials of reengineering 3-13Essentials of reengineeringGive people a mission; a clear view of how to achieve that mission.Either serve the customer superbly or don’t even try.Change is the way of life. It is not a process, it is a value.Technology is never really a problem. The problem is how to use technology effectively.The wrong answer rarely kills you. What it does is waste time.The weak link in reengineering is will.Once people catch on to reengineering, you can’t hold them back. It’s a lifetime opportunity.In India TELCO, TISCO, L&T, Ranbaxy and Crompton Greaves have successfully brought about radical changes through Reengineering.
29Flexible Manufacturing systems 3-14Flexible Manufacturing systemsIt is the integration of computer aided design, engineering and manufacturing to produce low volume products at mass production costs. In such a scenario, employees need to acquire skills and get trained constantly. One should be capable of handle a variety of tasks.
30Economic, Political And Social Challenges And HR 3-15Economic, Political And Social Challenges And HRNow-a-days, people, goods, capital and information are moving around the globe as never before.Global competition is making every firm to think in terms of gaining an edge over rivals by producing high quality goods at a very competitive price.This is where the ‘people’ dimension comes into being. Incentives, favourable work climate, team spirit, freedom to think and act independently, and a host of other HR initiatives are needed to keep talent from flying away.
313-16What HR managers can do ?Use workforce skills and abilities in order to exploit environmental opportunities and neutralise threats.Employ innovative reward plans that recognise employee contributions and grant enhancements.Indulge in continuous quality improvement through TQM and HR contributions (training, development, counselling, coaching etc.).Utilise people with distinctive capabilities to create unsurpassed competence in an area (Xerox in photocopier, 3M in adhesives, Telco in trucks, Britannia in biscuits, Nestle in coffee, McDonald’s in fast foods, etc.).Decentralise operations and rely on self managed teams to deliver goods in difficult times (Motorola is famous for short product development cycles. It has quickly commercialised ideas from its research labs).Lay off workers in a smooth way, explaining facts (IBM, Kodak, Xerox, AT&T, Steel and Textile firms in India etc.) to unions, workers and other affected groups. HR generally plays a key role, these days, in planning and implementing corporate downsizings, and then in maintaining the morale of the remaining employees.
32Political factors Social factors Political stability 3-17Political factorsPolitical stabilityFormation of new political partiesInfluence of politicians over Productivity linked wage agreementsPolitical parties sympathetic to trade unionismOpposition to VRS schemes, downsizing operations, restructuring exercises.Freedom to show the door to unwanted peopleSocial factorsConducting business in a socially relevant and responsible way.Hire qualified people or hire inexperienced local people and train them to avoid trouble?Helping economically poor people, unemployed, underprivileged ones, etc.
33Local and government-related factors 3-18Local and government-related factorsMeet legislative requirementsOffering jobs to certain sections of local communityTrade unionsDemands for higher wages, better working conditions, incentives, benefits, services
34MANAGING WORKFORCE DIVERSITY 3-19MANAGING WORKFORCE DIVERSITYThe workforce is becoming increasingly diverse now and organisations are doing their best to address employee concerns and to maximise benefits of different kind to employees with diverse educational, cultural and religious backgrounds. The diversity issues, mainly, include the following:CompositionIn terms of age, caste, education, culture, region, religionMinority groupsEconomically backward groupsDisplaced personsChild labourContract labourWomen employees
35Ways to cheer up women employees 3-20Ways to cheer up women employeesProvide alternative career pathsOffer extended leave facilities so that they can meet their pressing commitments according to their convenienceAllow female workers to create their own schedules and process work at homeCreate flexible work arrangementsPermit job sharing especially in case of relatively independent tasks such as filing, faxing, word processing, photo copying etc.In order to benefit from diversity, managers should recognise the potential concerns of employees and make sure that the exchange between the organisation and employees is mutually beneficial and satisfying.
36INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT AND HR 3-21INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT AND HROrganisations are also influenced by a variety of internal factors relating to strategy, culture, structure etc.Mission and StrategyInternal PoliciesOrganisational CultureOrganisation structureHuman resource systems
37Designing appropriate HR systems 3-22Designing appropriate HR systemsIssue Focus onNature of employment : Job/CareerRecruitment : Internal/external/bothSelection : Merit/other considerationsTraining and employee : 6 months/yearly development actions Regular/irregular/need basedDegree of participation : Top down/bottom upIncentives : Individual merit/group outputJob security : Lifelong employment/need-based jobsEmployee welfare : Be a model employer (offer those that are needed by law.)