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Eastern Regional Reading First Technical Assistance Center Presenters: Ruth Gumm & Sheryl Turner.

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Presentation on theme: "Eastern Regional Reading First Technical Assistance Center Presenters: Ruth Gumm & Sheryl Turner."— Presentation transcript:

1 Eastern Regional Reading First Technical Assistance Center Presenters: Ruth Gumm & Sheryl Turner

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3 Answers to Questions: What does research evidence tell us? What constitutes an interruption? What reading components constitute the reading block?

4 Answers to Questions: Which language arts components are linked to reading instruction? How do I organize the reading block? How do I differentiate instruction with flexible groups?

5 Answers to Questions: How do I address differentiated intervention? What does a reading block schedule look like? How do I manage the reading block?

6 What does research evidence tell us? Effective reading instruction requires: At least 90 uninterrupted minutes per day Density –Systematic delivery of explicit instruction –Scaffolding –Differentiation Intensive intervention in addition to initial instruction

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8 Scaffolding Explicit Explicit Modeling Modeling Prompts StudentEfforts Independent Practice StudentMastery StudentParticipation Corrective Feedback Knowledge & Skill

9 Instructional Density The Reading Block 90 – 120 minutes per day Building Student Reading Proficiency

10 Cumulative Effects Grades K d a y s Student Reading Proficiency

11 What constitutes an interruption? Lunch Special Area (art, music, physical education, media, etc.) Exceptional Student Education pull-out Mentoring during whole group instruction Trips to the library Counseling Recess English Speakers of Other Languages pull-out Computer Lab pull-out School Assemblies All-call

12 What constitutes an interruption? Keep the Main Thing the Main Thing!

13 What reading components constitute the reading block? “The Fab Five” Phonemic Awareness Phonics Fluency Vocabulary Comprehension

14 The Reading Block: Phonemic Awareness Instruction GUIDING PRINCIPLE Systematically deliver explicit instruction HOW Establish instructional routines in blending, segmenting, and manipulating sound. Scaffold introduction of new phonemic skills from simple to more complex Provide ample practice opportunities that directly align with the phonemic awareness instruction Link phonemic awareness instruction to phonics

15 The Reading Block: Phonemic Awareness Instruction Elkonin Box

16 The Reading Block: Phonemic Awareness Instruction

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19 The Reading Block: Phonics Instruction GUIDING PRINCIPLE Systematically deliver explicit instruction HOW Carefully scaffold introduction of new phonics skills from simple to more complex letter-sound correspondences Provide ample practice opportunities that directly align with the phonics instruction Link phonics instruction to word recognition and spelling activities Explicitly address patterns in irregular words and provide ample practice to build sight word recognition of irregular words Relate phonetic elements to all types of text Establish instructional routines for development of phonetic decoding efficiency By third grade, continue instruction in complex sound-symbol relationships and morphemes from words that appear in academic texts at third grade text and the intermediate grades

20 The Reading Block: Phonics Instruction c at

21 c c at

22 The Reading Block: Phonics Instruction c a c at

23 The Reading Block: Phonics Instruction c a t

24 The Reading Block: Phonemic Awareness vs. Phonics Instruction c a t

25 The Reading Block: Fluency Instruction GUIDING PRINCIPLE Systematically deliver explicit instruction HOW Carefully scaffold student fluency practice from the sub-word level, word level, sentence level, and to the text level. Provide daily opportunities for student fluency practice with text at the student’s independent reading level. By the end of: –1st grade: 40 WCPM –2 nd grade: 90 WCPM –3 rd grade: 110 WCPM Promote wide fluency practice with a variety of different types of texts. Establish a variety of instructional routines for student fluency development such as: –Choral reading –Partner reading –Reader’s Theatre

26 The Reading Block: Vocabulary Instruction GUIDING PRINCIPLE Systematically deliver explicit instruction HOW Provide robust vocabulary instruction: –oral language development in grades K-1 –both oral language and reading vocabulary in grades 2-3 Promote dialogue in various contexts using robust words already taught Promote wide reading of a variety of texts for student reading vocabulary development. Read aloud everyday for oral language development Establish instructional routines for: –Before reading –During reading –After reading Establish instructional routines using graphic organizers to expand vocabulary development

27 Vocabulary Resource TITLE: Bringing Words to Life AUTHOR: Isabel Beck

28 The Reading Block: Comprehension Instruction GUIDING PRINCIPLE Systematically deliver explicit instruction HOW Establish instructional routines for: –Before reading –During reading –After reading Establish instructional routines using graphic organizers Scaffold from lower to higher level questions to promote higher order thinking skills Promote dialogue with critical thinking skills Promote wide reading of a variety of texts for student reading for a variety of purposes Use text at appropriate student independent reading level Read aloud everyday

29 The Reading Block: Comprehension Instruction Knowledge Analysis Application Comprehension Synthesis Evaluation Compare/Contrast Predict Clarify Summarize Locate details (RELEVANCE: who, what, when, where, why, how) Generalize Task Samples Evaluate; judgment Bloom’s Taxonomy Task Levels

30 The Reading Block: Comprehension Instruction Knowledge Analysis Application Comprehension Synthesis Evaluation Venn Diagram Reciprocal Teaching Reciprocal Teaching; KWL Semantic Feature Analysis Instructional Examples Dialogue; interactive reading; organizers Evaluate; judgment Bloom’s Taxonomy Task Levels

31 The Reading Block: Comprehension Instruction Metacognitive teaching Semantic Feature Analysis Venn Diagram Bloom’s Taxonomy Compare/Contrast Generalize Size immensetinyordinary bicycle X insect X mountain X

32 The Reading Block: Comprehension Instruction Bloom’s Taxonomy Assessment vs instruction Much is done to assess comprehension but little comprehension instruction goes on in the classroom. -Delores Durkin

33 Resources National Institute for Literacy National Academy Press American Federation of Teachers

34 Which language arts components are linked to reading instruction? Spelling (orthographic) –expansion of phonics instruction in letter-sound correspondences Writing –expansion of spelling (spelling conventions) –comprehension activity (write-a-response to reading) Listening & Speaking –oral language activities for vocabulary development

35 Clarifying the Gray Areas T h e m e - b a s e d O r t h o g r a p h i c Composition C o n v e n t i o n s OralLanguageActivitiesPhonemicAwarenessActivities & Include: Orthographic spelling instructionOrthographic spelling instruction Exclude: Theme-based spelling instructionTheme-based spelling instruction W r i t e - a - r e s p o n s e t o r e a d i n g C r i t i c a l T h i n k i n g S k i l l s Writing process Writing process instruction instruction Writing conventions Writing conventions instruction instruction Write-a-response Write-a-response to reading activity to reading activity Critical thinking activity Critical thinking activity - Questioning the author dialogue - Questioning the author dialogue - Semantic feature analysis - Semantic feature analysis

36 How do I organize the reading block? CLASSROOM CHARACTERISTICS Academically engaged Accountability ELEMENTS Whole Group Instruction Differentiated Instruction with Learning Centers –Small group instruction –Several Student Centers (group, pair, cooperative, individual) –Differentiated Intervention with at-risk students in small, flexible groups

37 How do I organize the reading block? It is critical to analyze group size (from 3-8 students) Keep high-risk group sizes small (3-5 students) It is important to work with each small group differently based on instructional need as determined by results of the various reading assessments. Monitor progress of those most at-risk students more frequently for making instructional changes to accelerate learning: –Size of the small group –Group members –Level of explicitness –Amount of scaffolding –Length of time for targeted instruction

38 Layers of intervention responding to student needs Each layer provides more intense & supportive intervention Each layer aims at preventing reading disabilities TIER II Preventive Instruction “The best intervention is effective instruction.” - National Research Council

39 TIER II Preventive Instruction “The best intervention is effective instruction.” - National Research Council Benchmark testing of students is conducted at least three times a year to determine instructional needs. Whole group instruction - core reading program Differentiated instruction - small group rotations - small group rotations - core & supplementary reading programs - core & supplementary reading programs Differentiated classroom intervention - small, flexible group(s) - small, flexible group(s) - supplemental & intervention programs - supplemental & intervention programs

40 How do I differentiate instruction? What is differentiated instruction? Differentiation is instruction planned and delivered with precision in small, flexible groups of students. Which students receive differentiated instruction? All students in the classroom

41 How do I differentiate instruction? When is differentiated instruction delivered? Every day during the reading block How can a teacher plan in order to differentiate? Identify the target reading components Identify the target resources Implement a classroom management system

42 How do I plan for differentiated instruction? 1 Assessment Results 2 Reading Components 3Resources4Instruction What are the assessment results? What is the instructional target? Which resources are available? Provided: Additional Examples: What instructional plan matches student need? Phonemic Awareness CCRP SRP Phonics CCRP SRP Fluency CCRP SRP Vocabulary CCRP SRP Comprehension CCRP SRP PM = Progress Monitoring CCRP = Comprehensive Core Reading Program SRP = Supplementary Reading Program

43 How do I plan for differentiated instruction? 1 Assessment Results 2 Reading Components 3Resources4Instruction What assessments will you use? What is the instructional target? Which resources are available? Provided: Additional Examples: What instructional plan matches student need? Phonemic Awareness CCRP SRP Phonics CCRP SRP Fluency CCRP SRP Vocabulary CCRP SRP Comprehension CCRP SRP PM = Progress Monitoring CCRP = Comprehensive Core Reading Program SRP = Supplementary Reading Program

44 How do I plan for differentiated instruction? 1 Assessment Results 2 Reading Components 3Resources4Instruction What are the assessment results? What is the instructional target? Which resources are available? Provided: Additional Examples: What instructional plan matches student need? Screening PM Phonemic Awareness CCRP Elkonin Boxes; SRP Manipulative Chips 5-10 minutes daily Small group: 3-5 Screening PM Phonics CCRP Elkonin Boxes; SRP Magnetic Letters minutes daily Small group: 5-7 Screening PM Fluency CCRP Word/Phrase Cards; SRP Leveled Text 10 minutes daily Small group: 6 or 8 OutcomeVocabulary CCRP Tier 2 Words; SRP Concept Picture Cards 5-10 minutes daily Small group: 5-8 OutcomeComprehension CCRP Graphic Organizers; SRP Question Cards 15 minutes daily Small group: 5-8 PM = Progress Monitoring CCRP = Comprehensive Core Reading Program SRP = Supplementary Reading Program

45 Preventive Instruction Initial Instruction Differentiated Instruction Differentiated Intervention Intensive Intervention Instructional Continuum

46 How do I differentiate intervention? InOut Classroom intervention Additional intervention Target Population the classroom student with identified difficulties in specific reading components the student identified as requiring more time beyond differentiated classroom intervention Total Instructional Time Daily Classroom Reading Block: 40 minutes – instruction 50 minutes – differentiated instruction - Teacher-lead center (25 minutes) - Student centers (10-15 minutes) minutes – differentiated intervention Daily Classroom Reading Block: 40 minutes – instruction 50 minutes – differentiated instruction - Teacher-lead center (25 minutes) - Student centers (10-15 minutes) Intervention Beyond the Classroom minutes

47 Class Case Study: Differentiating Profiles SCREENING RESULTS: Beginning of Second Grade 1-25% 26-40%26-44 WCPM 1 st Grade Comprehension Outcome Measure Oral Reading Fluency > 41% > 44 WCPM <26 WCPM and

48 Class Case Study: Differentiating Student Profiles 1-25% and <26 WCPM 26-40%26-44 WCPM 1 st Grade Comprehension Outcome Measure Oral Reading FluencyStudent%WCPM > 44 WCPM Penny Loafer 33% 31 WCPM AdamApple72% 54 WCPM WillowTree17% 15 WCPM DustyEyre28% 36 WCPM Misty Woods 39% 45 WCPM RockyRiver22% 19 WCPM > 41%> 44 WCPM

49 Class Case Study: Differentiating Student Profiles 1-25%and <26 WCPM 26-40% WCPM 1 st Grade Comprehension Outcome Measure Oral Reading Fluency > 41% > 44 WCPM Penny LoaferPenny Loafer Adam AppleAdam Apple Willow Tree Dusty Eyre Misty Wood Misty Wood Rocky River Dusty EyreStudent%WCPM Penny Loafer 33% 31 WCPM AdamApple72% 54 WCPM WillowTree17% 15 WCPM DustyEyre28% 36 WCPM Misty Woods 39% 45 WCPM RockyRiver22% 19 WCPM

50 What could a reading block schedule look like? InstructionRange of Time Class ConfigurationExamples of Teacher-Led Activities The Reading Block 90 minutes minimum daily TOTAL TIME: ?? minutes scheduled TOTAL TIME: ?? min daily Whole Group Resource: Resource: CCRP What core program? TOTAL ROTATION TIME: ?? min Daily Differentiated Instruction: Small Group Instruction: Groups 1, 2, & 3Resources: What program(s)? Group Instructional Focus ?? min M T W Th F daily per group Session 1 Group 1: Session 2 1 Group 2: Session 3 Group 3: Classroom Intervention Additional Classroom Time w/teacherTIME: ?? min daily Differentiated Intervention: Differentiated Intervention: 3 – 5 studentsResources: What program(s)? M T W Th F Intervention Session Instructional Focus: CCRP = Comprehensive Core Reading Program SRP = Supplementary Reading Program

51 What could a reading block schedule look like? InstructionRange of Time Class ConfigurationExamples of Teacher-Led Activities The Reading Block TOTAL TIME: 90 minutes minimum daily TOTAL TIME: min daily Whole Group Resource: Resource: CCRP Segment sounds (PA) Sound-letter correspondences (Phonics) Partner reading (Fluency) Prereading Lesson: Tier 2 words (Vocab) Reciprocal Teaching (Comprehension) TOTAL ROTATION TIME: min Daily Differentiated Instruction: Small Group Instruction: Groups 1, 2, & 3Resources: CCRP & SRP Group Instructional Focus min M T W Th F daily per group Session Group 1: segment sounds w/Elkonin boxes Session Group 2: word sorts w/common syllable spelling patterns Session Group 3: reread decodable books Classroom Intervention Additional Classroom Time w/teacherTIME: min daily Differentiated Intervention: Differentiated Intervention: 3 – 5 studentsResources: SRP & Intervention Program M T W Th F Intervention X X X X X Session Instructional Focus: Phonemic segmentation w/ mirrors Word building w/letter & pocket charts Word-level fluency card activity CCRP = Comprehensive Core Reading Program SRP = Supplementary Reading Program

52 Student Centers Word Work –extends phonics, word study, spelling, and vocabulary skills word practice w/Elkonin boxes word sorts w/ six common spelling patterns Writing –extends all components of reading through writing activities written response to reading Investigations –extends student questioning question probe w/graphic organizers Reading corner –extends student practice reading to comprehend variety of texts partner reading independent reading small group “whisper” choral reading

53 Scaffolding Student Centers Explicit Explicit Modeling Modeling Prompts StudentEfforts Independent Practice StudentMastery StudentParticipation Corrective Feedback Timing of Adding Center Activities

54 Student Centers Word Work word sorts spelling activities vocabulary w/graphic organizers Elkonin boxes six common spelling patterns Reading corner partner reading independent reading “whisper” choral reading Writing written response to reading conventions practice Investigations question probe graphic organizers

55 How do I manage the reading block? Room Arrangement –large group area –small group areas Rules versus Procedures –plan procedures –teach procedures –consistently enforce procedures

56 How do I manage the reading block? Academic Tasks to Consider –Whole Group Activities –Small Groups –Student Centers –Independent Activities –Transitions

57 Points of Decision What do the assessment results tell me about each of my students? Which target skill(s) can I identify to thwart future reading difficulties? Which of my students need to work together as a group at this time?

58 Points of Decision How much time is required per group? What resources are available to me for precise use with each reading component? What additional resources do I need? How do I support small group instruction if my CCRP predominately uses whole group instruction?

59 Points of Decision How do I organize the classroom during the reading block in order to manage differentiated instruction? –what will each group do at the small group instruction? –how much time will be spent at the teacher- led center? –what will the other students do at each of the student centers?

60 High Quality Reading Instruction Presenters: Ruth Gumm & Sheryl Turner

61 Contact Information Eastern Regional Reading First Technical Assistance Center (ERRFTAC) (850) North Bronough Street Suite 3200 Tallahassee, FL 32301


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