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United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) Chapter 5.

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Presentation on theme: "United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) Chapter 5."— Presentation transcript:

1 United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) Chapter 5


3 Territory = 1,964,375 sq km Population = 118,818,228 Ethnic Groups = mestizo (Amerindian-Spanish) 60%; Amerindian30%; White 9% Language = Spanish only 92% Religion = Roman Catholic 82%; Pentecostal 1.6%; Jehovah’s Witness 1.4%

4 Independence = September 16, 1810 Constitution = February 5, 1917 Chief of State = President Enrique Pena Nieto Chief of Government = Nieto Bicameral Legislature- National Congress consisting of Senate and Chamber of Deputies Judiciary = Supreme Court of Justice Federal form of government (31 states)

5 GNP per capita = $13,800 GNP Growth Rate = 5% Out migration = 3.24 people per 1,000 per year Currency = 12 peso = US$1 Capital City = Mexico City President = Enrique Pena Nieto

6 Independence and Instability (1810-1876) - Spanish rule for 3 centuries - 1810 Miguel Hidalgo began war for Independence (1821 Spain recognized) - 1833-1855 = 36 Presidential regimes during this time Mexico lost half her territory legacy of resentment towards the U.S. = 1848 Treaty - Constitution of 1857 = democratic gov., bill of rights, and limits on power of church - 1864-1867 = French rule under Emperor Maximilian - 1867 Benito Juarez executed Maximilian

7 The Porfiriato (1867-1911) - 1876 Porfirio Diaz took office - Est. dictatorship known as Porfiriato - centralized authoritarian government - cientificos Revolution and the Sonoran Dynasty -1910 Revolution -1911 Francisco Madero elected President -1913 Madero assassinated during a coup d’etat Emilio Zapata Pancho Villa

8 Mexican Constitution of 1917 Established formal political institutions Agrarian reform Social security Right to organize unions Minimum wage 8 hour work day Profit sharing Universal education Adult male suffrage

9 Sonoran Dynasty Revolutionary leaders from the North Capitalist model of economic reform jefe maximo = Plutarco Elias Calles Anticlericalism (Cristiada) Established the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) 7 decades of uninterrupted rule and nonviolent Conflict resolution

10 Results of the Revolution 1.Rural landowners lost power- est. of ejidos and ejidatarios 2.Catholic Church lost influence 3.Foreign investment curtailed 4.Emergence of political elite 5.New Constitution and new party est. strong central gov’t.

11 Institutional Revolutionary Party Pendelum Effect PRI became the only party that mattered Left of the PRIRight of the PRI Presidents can only serve One term! Power swings b/w factions Through choice of Pres.

12 Manuel Avila Camacho 1940 Miguel Aleman 1946 Adolfo Ruiz Cortines 1952 Right Adolfo Lopez Mateos 1958 Gustavo Diaz Ordaz 1964 Luis Echeverria 1970 Left Miguel de la Madrid 1982 Carolos Salinas de Gortari 1988 Ernesto Zedillo 1994 tecnicos First social security system, Rapid industrialization, “trickle-down” economics Limit cost of food and Housing, repress dissent, Economic problems “moral renovation”, Democratic reform, and Shift to market economy -Limits on government role in the economy -1993 NAFTA

13 Implications of Mexican Modernization Corporatist State - interest groups as institutionalized part of the state, not independent source of advocacy - not true democracy - increased state power in relation to civil society - state defined goals for development

14 PRI established political stability - Mexican model of government = alliance b/w dominant party and development-oriented state Transforming from corporatist state to democratic one Upper-middle-income developing country

15 Current Economics of Mexico GDP: - Industry = 32.9% - Service Sector = 62.8% - Agriculture = 4% Mexico oil rich- government owned petroleum industry

16 State Capitalism- gov. action to encourage private investment and reduce risks for entrepreneurs 1.Import substitution Industrialization (ISI) 1940-1982 - domestic manufacturing of previously imported goods to meet market demand - agrarian reform – develop private agriculture as foundation of industrial greatness a. Food for cities, raw materials for industry b. Transportation networks, irrigation projects, agriculture storage facilities c. Most assistance to large landowners d. invested in research e. Imports of technology Large, commercially oriented farmers emerged to dominate ag. economy Green Revolution

17 2.Rise of domestic entrepreneurs in Mexico - protected by high tariffs and special licensing requirements = limits imports - subsidized credit to invest in equipment and plants - rarely paid taxes Powerful players in politics 3.Labor Unions - widespread unionization - dependent on gov for benefits and protection - limited right to strike - membership + job security, housing benefits, and health care = compensation for lack of dem. Confederation of Mexican Workers Peasant organizations Main cogs in PRI corporatist machine

18 Additional organizations: railroads, electrical, telecommunications, journalist, photographers - quasi-official organization - solidified PRI support a. Provided tangible benefits b. “causal arrow” running “downward” from state to society c. Base for PRI to recruit grassroots leaders

19 4. Those left behind a. peasant farmers - farming in ejido communities was difficult b. Urban poor - growth of informal sector c. Income disparities among urban and rural poor - rural guerilla movements and student protest Limits on domestic markets No longer able to meet Domestic demand for Basic food = imports

20 Sowing the Oil and Reaping a Crisis (1970s) - Gov increased investment in infrastructure and public industries, regulated foreign Investment, and increased social spending - spent more than they were bringing in - 1978-1982 Mexico became major oil exporter a. President Portillo policy to “sow the oil” into economy b. 4/5 of economy from oil Oil prices upEconomy up Global economy

21 -PRI borrowed very little pre-1970: Total debt of $6 billion -1976 = $26 Billion -1982 = $80 Billion -1987 = $107 Billion Became one of the most indebted countries in the world = 16% of GNP in 1970 70% in 1987 The Crisis - economic strategy based on continued high oil prices - 1979-1981 oil revenue from $3.9 B to $14.5B; 75% of exports and 45% of revenue - 1981 oil prices dropped and by 1982 on brink of collapse - inflation topped out at 159% in 1987; exchange rate 1,460 peso to $1US

22 Structural Reforms and NAFTA Free market policies put in place Deregulation Devolution in the federal system NAFTA- What it means for Mexico?

23 Congress Executive Judiciary Senate Chamber of Deputies President and Cabinet Supreme Court

24 1. The Principle of Non-reelection (all levels of government) - What it means for the President? a. New President working with inexperienced Congress and state level officeholders b. Appoints all key bureaucratic and judicial positions = whole new team with new policy directions c. “Mexico avoids a dictatorship by retiring their dictators every 6 years” 2.Formal powers- initiate legislation, issue decrees, transfer funds, authorize expenditures 3.Real source of power in informal powers a. Patronage is key; PRI created broad support; all active in PRI: all with experience 4.Changes a. 1999 Pres. Zedillo did not choose his successor b. PRI began using primaries to select candidate 5.PAN (National Action Party) to Executive with Vicente Fox a. Fox’s big problem in government

25 Chamber of Deputies - Lower House 500 Seats - 317 men; 183 women - 300 majority deputies are elected by plurality - 200 “party deputies” appointed through rules of proportional representation - 1 deputy for every 200,000 people - renewed every 3 years (Mid-term elections) PRI = 49 + 164 = 213 seats PAN = 62 + 52 = 114 PRD = 42 + 58 = 100 PVEM = 15 + 13 = 28 PT = 10 + 5 = 15 PNA = 10 + 0 = 10 CM = 12 + 8 = 20

26 Senate of Mexico - Upper House 128 Seats; 86 men; 42 women - 2 seats for each of 31 states and Federal District - 1 seat for 31 states and FD to 2 nd place party - 32 at large based on share of national vote - renewed every 6 years

27 Weakest branch of government Federal Court System: Supreme Court - Nominated by Pres; approved by Senate - Circuit Courts - cases on appeal - District Courts State Court System - subordinate to Fed Courts




31 Partido del Trabajo New Alliance Party Partido Verde Ecologista Mexicana

32 PRI VOTER = rural area; small town, low education level, older and poorer than those voting for other parties PAN VOTER = Northern state, urban, middle-class professional, high school or college education PRD VOTER = young, political activist, elementary/high school education, central states, small town or urban PRI will need to increase support in urban areas and among young voters to stay competitive Presidential elections are “first past the post” Pressure for elections to be fair

33 1.The Bureaucracy a. 1.5 million working in fed. Bureaucracy b. low level officials are unionized and protected by legislation = job security and benefits c. “confidence employees”- middle and upper level; serve as long as boss has confidence in them 1. appointed by superiors at start of new administration; modest salary, but lots of power 2.The Parastatal Sector a. semiautonomous and autonomous agencies producing goods and services b. 1982 = 1,155 parastatal organizations; 1994 = 215

34 3.The Military a. Generally operates outside politics b. heavily involved in combating drug trafficking c. transfer from PRI to PAN sign of military subordination to civilian control 4.Subnational Government (State and Local) a. Mexican Federal System = each state has a constitution, executive, unicameral legislature, and judiciary b. little money and lack of experience c. 1988 = all state governors PRI; 2011 = 11 states and Federal District non-PRI 1.President and Bureaucracy are focal point of policy and management 2.Since 1997, Congress become more actively involved a. Presidents skills of negotiation, managing the opposition, using the media, and the bureaucracy are now key 3.Limits on presidential power = policy implementation a. Low level officials disagree or make deals or lack the skill to implement policy

35 1.Role of media and public opinion more important now than ever a. several major tv networks; access to CNN b. expanding # of newspapers and circulation c. new magazines d. wider range of opinions today 1.Accommodation a. group (interest group) expresses concern for policy or program and gov. accommodates (State Capitalism) b. PRI loss of power c. emergence of indigenous groups

36 1.Ongoing process of change in Mexico towards democracy a. moving from authoritarianism and control to liberal democracy and capitalism 1.Concerns about division of power between parties and branches of gov 2.Sept. 1 “Day of the President” 3.Vicente Fox brought transparency to Mexican government a. Appointed human rights activists to cabinet b. ordered secret police and military files be opened to public c. gov ministries ordered to supply more info about activities and services available to citizens d. UN opened human rights office

37 The Economy: 1. Large gap b/w rich and poor 2. rapid, unplanned urbanization 3. borrowing against high oil prices of the 1970s led to massive foreign debt Reforms: 1. sharp cuts in government spending 2. debt reduction 3. Opportunidades- anti-poverty program that gives free benefits and jobs to those without formal jobs

38 2.Foreign Policy a. Historically bilateral b. Continues to assert itself at UN and WTO c. Drug Trafficking 1. Campaign to root out corruption has led to increase in violence 2. brutal murders of police 3. cartels competing to control distribution to the US

39 d. Immigration Policy 1. supports amnesty and guest worker program 2. denounce border fence 3.Ethnic Rebellions a. Zapatistas- protested NAFTA by capturing four towns 1. see NAFTA as exploitation of Amerindians to benefit PRI 2. growing movement in the South

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