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Why Do Airplanes Crash? An Open Source Air Data Inertial Reference Unit Investigation *** 2012 PSU/Galois Capstone Project Chris Andrews, Trang Nguyen,

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Presentation on theme: "Why Do Airplanes Crash? An Open Source Air Data Inertial Reference Unit Investigation *** 2012 PSU/Galois Capstone Project Chris Andrews, Trang Nguyen,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Why Do Airplanes Crash? An Open Source Air Data Inertial Reference Unit Investigation *** 2012 PSU/Galois Capstone Project Chris Andrews, Trang Nguyen, Mark Craig, Kayla Seliner

2 Presentation Outline Air Data Inertial Reference Unit Our Project: building an open source ADIRU. Overview: what is an ADIRU?. Motivation: why are they important?. Fault Tolerance: types of faults. Approach: voting methods. Design: hardware and software architecture. Results. Conclusion. 2

3 The ADIRU is a fault tolerant system that collects and processes sensor values. Accelerometers Gyroscopes Altimeters Airspeed Functions as the sole source of sensor data aboard the aircraft. Autopilot and unstable flight regimes depend upon valid and uninterrupted sensor data for safe flight. Air Data Inertial Reference Units (ADIRU) 3

4 Benefits of ADIRU Systems Redundant sensors make the system less vulnerable to single sensor failure. Modularization and fault containment. Deferred maintenance. 4 GEC-Marconi FIN3060 Commercial Aircraft Inertial Reference Unit flight minutes-of-terror-air-france-passenger-jet-crashed- into-atlantic-after-losing-3000-meters-per-minute/

5 How ADIRU Systems Fail Failure of ADIRU may be intermittent and cause cockpit instrumentation to send contradictory warnings (stall and high speed). ADIRU is the root of all sensor data for flight avionics. Failure in the ADIRU can instantly propagate throughout flight control system. Failures of the ADIRU system effect both autopilot and manual flight modes. 5

6 T riple M odular R edundant System Votes on outputs of three redundant sensors. System can tolerate single sensor fault. Relatively simple to implement and diagnose. B yzantine F ault T olerant System At least 4 different voters each with a sensor. Tolerates fault in sensor or in voter. F faults require 3F+1 voters with sensors. Requires complex voting algorithm. Can survive class of faults not dealt with by TMR. 6

7 TMR vs. ADIRU 7 TMR ADIRU

8 Motivation System complexity. Closed source, proprietary system. (needs picture) 8

9 ADIRU failures are a critical event with serious consequences if the aircraft is not in a visual flight mode. [1] "Final Moments of Flight 447". foxcrawl.com Web. 02 June

10 Air France Flight 447 On May 31st, 2009, Air France Flight 447 flying from Rio de Janeiro to Paris crashed into the Atlantic ocean killing all passengers. Airspeed sensors ice over, sending faulty airspeed data to ADIRU. Flight crew unable to stabilize level flight without working sensors. 10 "Final Moments of Flight 447". foxcrawl.com Web. 02 June

11 Qantas Flight 72 An Airbus A330 flying on October 7th, 2008 from Singapore to Perth suffered a malfunction in the ADIRU causing two rapid descents that threw passengers and crew about the cabin. 11 "Qantas Terror Blamed On Computer". stuff.co.nz 02 June

12 Human Causes Deferred Maintenance Environmental Causes Software Bugs 12

13 Types of Faults Fail Silent: system fails to send data. This fault is masked by a redundant system Byzantine: system sends arbitrary data including different data to different controllers. This fault cannot be masked by simple redundancy. 13

14 Project Requirements Must exhibit Byzantine fault tolerance. Must include ability to insert faults. Must be expandable. Must follow open source guidelines. Should include Gyroscope Accelerometer Altimeter GPS 14

15 15 Build a redundant network using Arduino development boards. Use I2C protocol.

16 Reasons For Choosing Arduino Open source hardware and software. Large community of developers. Libraries included. Lowest hardware entry cost. Quickest start time. 16

17 Arduino ArduIMU+V3 Atmega328 µP 3D Accelerometer 3D Gyroscope 3D Magnetometer 17 "arduIMU+V3". diydrones.com 02 June 2012.

18 18 Bus Implementation There are many bus protocols to choose from including CANbus, SPI, and I2C. These requirements must be met Must implement multi-master. Must be expandable. Should be industry standard.

19 19 Libraries included within Arduino. No extra hardware required. Expandable. Supports multi-master.

20 ADIRU “Black Box” I2C and Power Bus Environmental Enclosure Separate board for power supply 20

21 Implementing Byzantine fault tolerance because it can tolerate special case of faults. Must satisfy two conditions What are two conditions? Must have 3N+1 modules to handle N faults. Our system has 4 modules. We can handle 1 Byzantine fault. 21

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28 One module is dedicated to synchronizing the clocks of all other modules. Clock synchronization is within 8ms. Timing of clock synchronization cycles is set so that each device is synchronized to the master every few data cycles. This helps to ensure a tight synchronization as well as lessen the interference of data processing. 28

29 Sensor reads are interrupt driven. Must synchronize clocks for all modules to compare sensors at time T. 29

30 The output displays Original slave clock value Current master clock value Clock value offset New clock value The offset is “0” because a delay of “1” was calculated. 30

31 31 Demo!

32 Budget 32 Price to implement Byzantine fault-tolerance is under $500.

33 Further Work Integrate GPS, magnetometer, altimeter and other sensors into the system. Implement kalman filters in the SW to smooth out sensor noise. Gather real data with flight testing. Add fault tolerance to clock synchronization. Add external data logging. Signal processing of sensor data. External fault insertion. 33

34 Lessons Learned Interrupt routines on microcontrollers. Debugging methods. Code development: algorithm>python>C. How to organize a large project involving hardware and software. Documentation and project organization. 34

35 Acknowledgements *** We would like to thank our sponsors: Dr. Lee Pike and Galois Inc. We also acknowledge the help of our advisor: Dr. Christof Teuscher Portland State University 35

36 Conclusion Our system exhibits Byzantine fault tolerance. Models an open source ADIRU. System includes fault insertion. System is modular and expandable. Sensor data polled from accelerometers and gyroscopes. 36


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