Presentation on theme: "Use of constellations (88)"— Presentation transcript:
1Use of constellations (88) Use of signs of zodiac (12)Stars have no significance to humansStates that stars predict fatePlanets have no significance to humansPlanets predict fate/behaviorMoon has no advice for human behaviorMoon predicts fate and behaviorNot used to advise farmers beyond use of calendarUsed to hatch chickens, butcher hogs, cure meet, or can foodNo prediction of human behaviorTries to predict human behavior but makes to attempt to verify resultsFollows other science disciplines; physicsMay advise to use of Ephemeral tables produced by astronomersDoesn’t advise to use astrologyDoesn’t require higher math. Uses simply geometry or astronomer calculationsRequires higher math; calculus and beyondNo scientific standard; is considered an “art”Can obtain college degree in itCannot obtain a college degree in itRequires equipment for measurement and verificationDoes not require equipment for measurement or verificationContinuous improvements to measuring instrumentsHave not made improvements to measuring instruments in modern times
2Origin of Modern Astronomy Who is Stan Hatfield and Ken Pinzke
3Early Astronomy Ancient Greeks Astronomy is the science that studies the universe. It includes the observation and interpretation of celestial bodies and phenomena. The Greeks used philosophical arguments to explain natural phenomena. The Greeks also used some observational data.
4Early Astronomy Ancient Greeks Geocentric Model = Ptolemy Greek Astronomer• In the ancient Greeks’ geocentric model, the moon, sun, and the known planets—Mercury, Venus, Mars, and Jupiter—orbit Earth. Heliocentric Model = Nicolaus Copernicus• In the heliocentric model, Earth and the other planets orbit the sun.
5Early Astronomy Ancient Greeks Ptolemaic System • Ptolemy created a model of the universe that accounted for the movement of the planets.• Retrograde motion is the apparent westward motion of the planets with respect to the stars.Retrograde motion of MarsEastWestSept.Aug.JulyJuneDec.Jan.Feb.MarchAprilMay
9Early Astronomy The Birth of Modern Astronomy Nicolaus Copernicus • Copernicus concluded that Earth is a planet. He proposed a model of the solar system with the sun at the center. Heliocentric ModelThis model explained the retrograde motion of planets better than the geocentric model.
10Early Astronomy The Birth of Modern Astronomy Tycho Brahe • Tycho Brahe designed and built instruments to measure the locations of the heavenly bodies. Brahe’s observations, especially of Mars, were far more precise than any made previously. Johannes Kepler• Kepler discovered three laws of planetary motion:1. Orbits of the planets are elliptical.2. Planets revolve around the sun at varying speed.3. There is a proportional relationship between a planet’s orbital period and its distance to the sun.
11Early Astronomy The Birth of Modern Astronomy German astronomer Johannes Kepler( ) helped establish the era of modern astronomy by deriving three laws of planetary motion.
12Johannes Kepler 1599 – Kepler hired by Tycho Brahe Work on the orbit of Mars1609 – Kepler’s 1st and 2nd LawsPlanets move on ellipses with the Sun at one focusThe radius vector sweeps out equal areas in equal times1618 – Kepler’s 3rd LawThe square of a planet’s orbital period P is proportional to the cube of its semi-major axis R.P2 = a3 where P is measured in years and a is measured in AU
13Early AstronomyJohannes Kepler used Tycho Brahe’s data to develop three laws that explained the motions of the planets.June 15thJuly 15thJanuary 15thDecember 15th(30 days)SunEqual areasEarth’s orbitKEPLER’S EQUAL AREA LAW states that a line connecting Earth to the sun will pass over equal areas of space in equal times. Because Earth’s orbit is elliptical, Earth moves faster when it is nearer to the sun.
14Early Astronomy Equal areas law Faster Slower KEPLER’S EQUAL AREA LAW states that a line connecting Earth to the sun will pass over equal areas of space in equal times. Because Earth’s orbit is elliptical, Earth moves faster when it is nearer to the sun.Equal areas lawFasterSlower
15Early Astronomy Galileo Galilei Italian scientist Galileo Galilei (1564—1642) used a new invention, the telescope, to observe the Sun, Moon, and planets in more detail than ever before.
16Early Astronomy The Birth of Modern Astronomy Galileo Galilei • Galileo’s most important contributions were his descriptions of the behavior of moving objects.• He developed his own telescope and made important discoveries:1. Four satellites, or moons, orbit Jupiter.2. Planets are circular disks, not just points of light.3. Venus has phases just like the moon.4. The moon’s surface is not smooth.5. The sun has sunspots, or dark regions.
18Early Astronomy Sir Isaac Newton English scientist Sir Isaac Newton (1642—1727) explained gravity as the force that holds planets in orbit around the Sun.
19Early Astronomy The Birth of Modern Astronomy Sir Isaac Newton • Although others had theorized the existence of gravitational force, Newton was the first to formulate and test the law of universal gravitation. The universal law of gravitation, helped explain the motions of planets in the solar system. Universal Gravitation• Gravitational force decreases with distance.• The greater the mass of an object, the greater is its gravitational force.
20Gravity’s Influence on Orbits Makes no sense without caption in book
21Newton’s Laws of Motion 1st LawA body at rest, or in uniform motion, will remain so unless acted upon by an unbalanced force.2nd LawThe change in motion (acceleration) is proportional to the unbalanced force3rd LawFor every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
22Gravity Gravity is the force that holds us to the Earthcauses a rock to fall towards the groundcauses the Earth to go around the Suncauses the Sun to be pulled towards the center of the Milky Way galaxyGravity acts between any two objects even if they are far apart.“action at a distance”
23Observing the Solar System: A History The Movements of Planets and StarsB. Ptolemy’s Geocentric ModelC. Copernicus’s Heliocentric ModelD. Tycho, Kepler, and Planetary MotionE. Isaac Newton and the Law of GravitationVOCABULARYgeocentricheliocentricgravitationretrograde
24SummaryKepler’s and Galileo’s Laws provided Newton with important clues that helped him formulate his laws of motionNewton arrived at 3 laws that govern the motion of objectsThe law of inertiaThe law of forceThe law of action and reactionNewton also arrived at a law of gravityBut it seemed to require action at a distance!
25Light and Astronomical Observations Earth ScienceLight and Astronomical Observations
26Important Astronomical Measurements • An ellipse is an oval-shaped path.An astronomical unit (AU) is the average distance betweenEarth and the sun; it is about 150 million kilometers.Light-year The distance that light travels in one year, about 9.5 trillion kilometers.Parsec: A unit of measurement used to describe distances between celestial objects, equal to light-years.
27The study of light Electromagnetic radiation Visible light is only one small part of an array of energyElectromagnetic radiation includesGamma raysX-raysUltraviolet lightVisible lightInfrared lightRadio waves*Energy radiated in the form of a wave, resulting from the motion of electric charges and the magnetic fields they produce.
28The study of light Electromagnetic radiation Wave model All forms of radiation travel at 300,000 kilometers (186,000 miles) per secondLight (electromagnetic radiation) can be described in two waysWave modelWavelengths of radiation varyRadio waves measure up to several kilometers longGamma ray waves are less than a billionth of a centimeter longWhite light consists of several wavelengths corresponding to the colors of the rainbowA continuum depicting the range of electromagnetic radiation, with the longest wavelength at one end and the shortest at the other.
29Light (electromagnetic radiation) can be described in two ways Particle modelParticles called photonsExert a pressure, called radiation pressure, on matterShorter wavelengths correspond to more energetic photons
30The study of light Spectroscopy The study of the properties of light that depend on wavelengthThe light pattern produced by passing light through a prism, which spreads out the various wavelengths, is called a spectrum (plural: spectra)
31The study of lightA spectrum is produced when white light passes through a prism
32The study of light Spectroscopy Types of spectra Continuous spectrum: A spectrum that contains all colors or wavelengths.Produced by an incandescent solid, liquid, or high pressure gasUninterrupted band of colorDark-line (absorption) spectrumProduced when white light is passed through a comparatively cool, low pressure gasAppears as a continuous spectrum but with dark lines running through it
34Emission Spectrum Absorption Spectrum Emission spectrum of hydrogenEmission SpectrumAbsorption SpectrumA continuous spectrum crossed by dark lines produced when light passes through a nonincandescent gas.A spectrum consisting of individual lines at characteristic wavelengths produced when light passes through an incandescent gas; a bright-line spectrum.Absorption Spectrum of Hydrogen
35The study of light Doppler effect The apparent change in wavelength of radiation caused by the relative motions of the source and observerUsed to determineDirection of motionIncreasing distance – wavelength is longer ("stretches")Decreasing distance – makes wavelength shorter ("compresses")Velocity – larger Doppler shifts indicate higher velocities
36The Doppler effectOriginally discovered by the Austrian mathematician and physicist, Christian Doppler ( ), this change in pitch results from a shift in the frequency of the sound waves.
37The Doppler effectThe electromagnetic radiation emitted by a moving object also exhibits the Doppler effect.Redshift, a phenomenon of electromagnetic waves such as light in which spectral lines are shifted to the red end of the spectrum.
38The Doppler effectBlueshift: This spectrum shows hydrogen shifted to the blue end of the spectrum. This star is moving toward Earth.The radiation emitted by an object moving toward an observer is squeezed; its frequency appears to increase and is therefore said to be blueshifted. In contrast, the radiation emitted by an object moving away is stretched or redshifted. Blueshifts and redshifts exhibited by stars, galaxies and gas clouds also indicate their motions with respect to the observer.Redshift: This spectrum shows hydrogen shifted to the red end of the spectrum. This star is moving away from Earth.
39Astronomical tools Optical (visible light) telescopes Two basic types (1) Refracting telescopeUses a lens (called the objective) to bend (refract) the light to produce an imageLight converges at an area called the focusDistance between the lens and the focus is called the focal lengthThe eyepiece is a second lens used to examine the image directlyHave an optical defect called chromatic aberration (color distortion)
45The 200" (5m) Hale Reflector of Palomar Observatory is shown above The 200" (5m) Hale Reflector of Palomar Observatory is shown above. Until recently it was the world's largest optical/infrared telescope.
46Astronomical tools Optical (visible light) telescopes Properties of optical telescopesLight-gathering powerLarger lens (or mirror) intercepts more lightDetermines the brightnessResolving powerThe ability to separate close objectsAllows for a sharper image and finer detail
47Astronomical tools Optical (visible light) telescopes Properties of optical telescopesMagnifying powerThe ability to make an image largerCalculated by dividing the focal length of the objective by the focal length of the eyepieceCan be changed by changing the eyepieceLimited by atmospheric conditions and the resolving power of the telescopeEven with the largest telescopes, stars (other than the Sun) appear only as points of light
48Astronomical tools Detecting invisible radiation Radio radiation Gathered by "big dishes" called radio telescopesLarge because radio waves are about 100,000 times longer than visible radiationOften made of a wire meshHave rather poor resolutionCan be wired together into a network called a radio interferometer
49Radio TelescopeA steerable radio telescope at Green Bank, West Virginia
50Astronomical tools Detecting invisible radiation Radio radiation Gathered by "big dishes" called radio telescopesAdvantages over optical telescopesLess affected by weatherLess expensiveCan be used 24 hours a dayDetects material that does not emit visible radiationCan "see" through interstellar dust clouds
51Radio TelescopeThe 300-meter radio telescope at Arecibo, Puerto Rico
52The Big Bang TheoryThe theory holding that the universe originated from the instant expansion of an extremely small agglomeration of matter of extremely high density and temperature.
53Photons converted into particle-antiparticle pairs and vice-versa E = mc2Early universe was full of particles and radiation because of its high temperature
55The Big Band Theory Evidence for Big Bang This is the theory of the universe’s earliest moments.It presumes that the universe began from a tiny, hot, and dense collection of matter and radiation.It describes how expansion and cooling of particles could have led to the present universe of stars and galaxies.It explains several aspects of today’s universe with a very good accuracy.
56The Big Band TheoryThe Big Bang theory is a model, which explains some facts (observations).It should be able to make predictions that can be verified through observations or experiments.Two important predictions:Cosmic microwave background radiation.2. Fusion of original hydrogen into helium.
57The Cosmic Background Radiation (Microwaves) Evidence for the Big BangThe Cosmic Background Radiation (Microwaves)Penzias & Wilson (1962) discovered an isotropic background microwave signal during testing a microwave antenna at Bell Labs in The noise was found to be coming from every direction.At the same time, physicists from Princeton calculated the expected radiation from the initially hot universe.They suggested that this radiation could be detected with a microwave antenna.The result was a Nobel Prize in physics for 1978.
59The Cosmic Background Radiation (Microwaves) Background radiation from Big Bang has been freely streaming across universe since atoms formed at temperature ~ 3,000 K: visible/IR
60The Cosmic Microwave Background The background consists of photons (radiation) arriving at Earth directly from the end of the era of nuclei (when the Universe was about 380,000 years old).Neutral atoms captured most of the electrons.Photons were released and have flown freely through the universe ever since.This background radiation can be detected with a small TV antenna as part (1%) of static “snow”. The redshifted spectrum of the background radiation has now a temperature of 2.73 K.
61Cosmic Background Explorer The first satellite built dedicated to cosmology. Its goals were to investigate the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) of the universe and provide measurements that would help shape our understanding of the cosmos.
62Cosmic Background Explorer This work helped cement the big-bang theory of the universe. According to the Nobel Prize committee, "the COBE-project can also be regarded as the starting point for cosmology as a precision science". Two of COBE's principal investigators, George Smoot and John Mather, received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2006.
64Cosmic Background Explorer The "famous" map of the CMB anisotropy formed from data taken by the COBE spacecraft.
65Evidence for the Big Bang In 1927, the Belgian priest Georges Lemaître was the first to propose that the universe began with the explosion of a primeval atom.
66Evidence for the Big Bang Edwin Hubble found experimental evidence to help justify Lemaître's theory. He found that distant galaxies in every direction are going away from us with speeds proportional to their distance (the redshift).The big bang was initially suggested because it explains why distant galaxies are traveling away from us at great speeds. The theory also predicts the existence of cosmic background radiation (the glow left over from the explosion itself). The Big Bang Theory received its strongest confirmation when this radiation was discovered in 1964 by Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson, who later won the Nobel Prize for this discovery.
67Hubble’s EvidenceDoppler shifting - wavelength emitted by something moving away from us is shifted to a lower frequencySound of a fire truck siren - pitch of the siren is higher as the fire truck moves towards you, and lower as it moves away from youVisible wavelengths emitted by objects moving away from us are shifted towards the red part of the visible spectrumThe faster they move away from us, the more they are redshifted. Thus, redshift is a reasonable way to measure the speed of an object (this, by the way, is the principal by which radar guns measure the speed of a car or baseball)When we observe the redshift of galaxies outside our local group, every galaxy appears to be moving away from us - universe is expanding.
68Expansion of universe has redshifted thermal radiation from that time to ~1000 times longer wavelength: microwaves
69Evidence for the Big Bang Big Bang Theory - Evidence for the Theory What are the major evidences which support the Big Bang theory?First of all, we are reasonably certain that the universe had a beginning.Second, galaxies appear to be moving away from us at speeds proportional to their distance. This is called "Hubble's Law," named after Edwin Hubble ( ) who discovered this phenomenon in This observation supports the expansion of the universe and suggests that the universe was once compacted.
70Evidence for the Big Bang Third, if the universe was initially very, very hot as the Big Bang suggests, we should be able to find some remnant of this heat. In 1965, Radioastronomers Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson discovered a degree Kelvin ( degree Fahrenheit, degree Celsius) Cosmic Microwave Background radiation (CMB) which pervades the observable universe. This is thought to be the remnant which scientists were looking for. Penzias and Wilson shared in the 1978 Nobel Prize for Physics for their discovery.
71Evidence for the Big Bang Finally, the abundance of the "light elements" Hydrogen and Helium found in the observable universe are thought to support the Big Bang model of origins.
72Synthesis of HeliumThe current CMB temperature tells us precisely how hot the universe was when it appeared.It tells us how much helium was initially produced.A helium nucleus contains 2 protons and 2 neutrons.At T > 1011 K, nuclear reactions converted protons into neutrons and back, keeping their numbers nearly equal.Between 1010 and 1011 K, neutron – proton reactions favor protons, because neutrons are heavier than protons.
73Synthesis of Helium Energy is required to convert protons to neutrons. At T < 1010 K, only neutrons can be changed into protons.However, fusion continued to operateand protons and neutrons combined into deuterium.Then deuterium fused into helium.During the early era of nucleosynthesis, helium nuclei were being destroyed by gamma-rays.At ~1 minute, gamma-rays were gone and the proton – neutron ratio was set to 7:1.
74Synthesis of HeliumBig Bang theory prediction: 75% H, 25% He (by mass)Matches observations of nearly primordial gases
75Synthesis of HeliumAbundances of other light elements agree with Big Bang model having 4.4% normal matter – more evidence for WIMPS!