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The Transformation of American Society,

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1 The Transformation of American Society, 1815-1840
Chapter 9

2 The Rise of Nationalism
Main Idea Nationalism contributed to the growth of American culture and influenced domestic and foreign policies.

3 A New American Culture In 1823, there were fewer than 10 million Americans. The majority of the population still lived in rural areas along or near the East Coast. The largest city, New York, was home to only about 120,000 people. Philadelphia and Baltimore were about half that size. Unique American culture slowly develops Culture: the ways of life of a particular group of people (language, art, music, clothing, food, and other aspects of daily life) Instead of imitating European cultures, as they had done for generations, Americans began doing things in a distinctly American way.


5 A New American Culture American Art and Literature
Before the 1800s, American artists and writers were paid little respect, even by their fellow Americans. That changed when their work honored American life. In 1825 the painter Thomas Cole helped establish the Hudson River School, a group of artists whose landscapes both depicted and celebrated the American countryside. American authors Washington Irving, James Fenimore Cooper, and William Cullen Bryant Proved that Americans could create literature respected in America as well as in Europe Noah Webster, lexicographer, published An American Dictionary of the English Language Defined thousands of new words


7 Nationalism Influences Domestic Policy
As a unique American culture developed, so did a sense of nationalism. Nationalism replaced the tendency toward sectionalism. These feelings were soon reflected in government policies. John Marshall, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court (1801–1835) His court made two key rulings that reflected growing feelings of nationalism and strengthened the national government. McCulloch v. Maryland: This case pitted the state of Maryland against the national government. In his ruling, Marshall made it clear that national interests were to be put above state interests. Gibbons v. Ogden: Marshall ruled that national law was superior to state law.

8 Nationalism Influences Domestic Policy
The American System Nationalistic domestic policy of the early 1800s championed by Henry Clay(KY) included: a tariff to protect American industries the sale of government lands to raise money for the national government the maintenance of a national bank government funding of internal improvements or public projects such as roads and canals The American System was never implemented as a unified policy, although the national government did establish tariffs and a bank. It demonstrated the nationalist feelings of Americans of the early 1800s.

9 Nationalism Guides Foreign Policy
American foreign policy in the early 1800s also reflected the feelings of nationalism. In 1816 voters elected James Monroe to the presidency. During his presidency, the economy grew rapidly, and a spirit of nationalism and optimism prevailed—”Era of Good Feelings.” Successful diplomacy abroad Rush-Bagot Treaty (1818): treaty with Britain that called for the nearly complete disarmament of the eastern part of the border between the United States and British Canada During the Convention of 1818, Monroe also convinced Britain to draw the western part of the border between the United States and Canada along the 49th parallel. Adams-Onís Treaty (1819): the United States acquired Florida and established a firm boundary between the Louisiana Territory and Spanish territory farther to the west.

10 The Monroe Doctrine Some Spanish colonies in Central and South America declared their independence in the early 1800s when Spain was fighting Napoleon. After Napoleon was defeated, Spain and other European powers considered retaking control of their former colonies in the Americas. American lawmakers wanted to deter any foreign country from taking lands in the Americas that the United States might someday claim. President Monroe and Secretary of State John Quincy Adams declared a new policy, known as the Monroe Doctrine. It declared the Americas off limits to European colonization.

11 The Missouri Compromise
There were 22 states in the Union in 1819. In half of the states—the “slave states” of the South—slavery was legal. In half of the states—the “free states” of the North—slavery was illegal. This exact balance between slave states and free states gave them equal representation in the U.S. Senate. If Missouri were admitted as a slave state, the balance would be upset. Missouri Compromise of 1820: agreement under which Missouri was admitted to the Union as a slave state and Maine was to be admitted as a free state The agreement also banned slavery in the northern part of the Louisiana Territory. The Missouri Compromise kept the balance between slave and free states.


13 The Age of Jackson Main Idea President Andrew Jackson’s bold actions defined a period of American history.

14 Path to the Presidency Andrew Jackson
Served in the army during the Revolutionary War Practiced law in Tennessee, became a successful land speculator, and served in a variety of government offices, including the House of Representatives and the Senate Served in the War of 1812, nicknamed “Old Hickory” Was given command of military operations in the South Led the American forces at the Battle of New Orleans Became nationally famous as the “Hero of New Orleans” In 1824 he ran for president and won the popular vote, but not a majority of the electoral votes. John Quincy Adams won the House of Representatives’ vote and became president.

15 1824 Election Results A “CORRUPT BARGAIN?” Adams (MA) sought to continue conservative course Crawford (GA) supported Jeffersonian strict construction Clay(KY) sought support from N and W based on “American System” of tariffs and support for internal improvements Jackson(TN) rival of Clay for west, appealed to the “common man”

16 Election of 1824 “The Corrupt Bargain”
Andrew Jackson won more popular votes and more electoral votes than any other candidate, but failed to win a majority of electoral college votes The House of Representatives (under the leadership of Henry Clay) picked John Quincy Adams as president over Jackson President Adams then selected Henry Clay as his Secretary of State SIG – Jackson and his followers claimed a “corrupt bargain” had been made

17 Election of 1828 During Adam’s presidency, voting requirements changed and white men no longer needed to own land as a requirement to vote 1824  350,00 male voters 1828  over 1 million male voters Universal white male suffrage expanded participation in politics “Age of Jackson” became known as the “Age of Common Man”

18 Path to the Presidency Election of 1828
Jackson and his supporters created a new political party that became the Democratic Party. Adams and his supporters became the National Republicans. Many thought Adams was out of touch with the people. Jackson was a popular war hero—“a man of the people.” In the 1820s voting restrictions in many states—such as the requirement for property ownership—were being lifted, allowing poor people to become voters. Election of 1828 These ordinary, working Americans were strong Jackson supporters. Mustered support of a new party structure to challenge Adams; led by Martin Van Buren. He easily defeated the unpopular President Adams. Such political power exercised by ordinary Americans became known as Jacksonian Democracy. Jackson’s victory in 1828 marked the emerge of a more democratic American society (Jackson’s 1829 inauguration) Spoils system: rewarding supporters by giving them positions in the government.

19 1828 Election Results

20 Election of 1828 Democratic-Republican Party had split = Two-Party System John Quincy Adams (National Republican) vs. Andrew Jackson (Democrat) Andrew Jackson =WINNER won easily by appealing to the “common man”

21 Spoils System Spoils System-Jackson rewarded his friends and political allies with federal jobs “Kitchen Cabinet” – group of close friends who served as informal advisers

22 Jackson was seen as a President of the “Common Man”

23 “Democratic Revolution”
“Jacksonian Democracy” emerged Helped by demographic change and economic growth Introduced the “politics of personality” Old Hickory image Spoils System Part of a larger social movement towards equality

24 The Indian Removal Act Five major Native American groups lived in the southeastern United States: the Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Seminole, and Creek. White Americans called them the “five civilized tribes” because many of them had adopted aspects of European and American culture. Many white Americans viewed them as inferior. Farmland was becoming scarce in the East, and white settlers coveted the Indians’ lands. Indian Removal Act (1830): called for the relocation of the five nations to an area west of the Mississippi River called Indian Territory, now present-day Oklahoma. The U.S. Army marched the Choctaw, the Creek, and the Chickasaw west, hundreds of miles, to Indian Territory. Many died on the long trek due to exposure, malnutrition, and disease.


26 Background: Removal of Native Americans
“five civilized tribes” = Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Seminole All had adopted white culture of their neighbors in the South White planters and miners wanted Native American lands

27 Indian Removal Act of 1830 The Indian Removal Act of 1830 was signed by Jackson. It gave the federal government power to force the Native Americans to move West of the Mississippi River to Oklahoma

28 The Indian Removal Act The Seminole women and children hid from the soldiers in the dense Florida swamps while Seminole men conducted hit-and-run attacks on the American soldiers. About 3,000 Seminole were forced to move to Indian Territory, but many more continued to resist, their descendants still live in Florida today. The Trail of Tears The Cherokee fought their removal in the American court system. They sued the federal government, claiming that they had the right to be respected as a foreign country. The Supreme Court in 1831 ruled against the Cherokee. The state of Georgia, carrying out the Indian Removal Act, ordered Samuel Austin Worcester, a white man and a friend to the Cherokee, to leave Cherokee land. Worcester brought suit on behalf of himself and the Cherokee.

29 The Indian Removal Act Worcester v. Georgia (1832): The Supreme Court ruled against Georgia, denying it the right to take Cherokee lands. To get around the Court’s ruling, government officials signed a treaty with Cherokee leaders who favored relocation. The Cherokee were herded by the U.S. Army on a long and deadly march west. Of the 18,000 Cherokee forced to leave their homes, about 4,500 died on the march, which became known as the Trail of Tears.


31 The Age of Jackson: Timeline
1824 1828 1830 1832 Jackson loses presidential election to John Quincy Adams. Jackson pushes Congress to pass Indian Removal Act. Jackson refuses to enforce Supreme Court ruling on Worcester v. Georgia. Jackson wins presidential election.

32 The National Bank The Second Bank of the United States was a national bank overseen by the federal government to regulate state banks. Established in 1816 and given a 20-year charter Opponents (including Jackson) thought that the Constitution did not give Congress the authority to create the bank. Opponents recognized that state banks were more inclined to make loans to poorer farmers in the South and West—the very people who supported Jackson. By contrast, they viewed the bank as an institution devoted to the interests of wealthy northern corporations.

33 Jackson Attacks the National Bank
Jackson hated the national bank - argued that the bank helped only the wealthy  Jackson vetoed the new bank charter in 1832 Jackson deposited all national bank money into “Pet Banks” – def. state banks run by loyal Democrats A satire on Andrew Jackson's campaign to destroy the Bank of the United States and its support among state banks. Jackson, Martin Van Buren, and Jack Downing struggle against a snake with heads representing the states.

34 Panic of 1837 SIG – led to the Panic of 1837 = severe economic depression Pet Banks issued worthless currency Jackson passed the Specie Circular – def. – federal lands could only be bought or sold using gold and silver banks failed and closed, people lost savings, unemployment reached 33%

35 The National Bank Southerners and Westerners generally blamed the bank and its “hard money, tight credit” policies for causing the panic of 1819. Jackson removed Fed deposits led to boom (1833) Worried banks were issuing too much paper currency, issued the Specie Circular(1836) In 1836 the Second Bank of the United States was reduced to just another state bank. 1837 nationwide depression that plagued his successor Van Buren In 1832, an election year, Jackson vetoed a bill to extend the bank’s charter. When Henry Clay challenged Jackson for the presidency, the controversy over the bank became a major campaign issue. Jackson distrusted Northern commercial interests, as represented by the Bank’s president, Nicholas Biddle Jackson won re-election, defeating Clay in a landslide.


37 Conflict over States’ Rights
In 1828 Congress raised the tariff on British manufactured goods. The tariff was welcomed by industry in the northern states because it increased the price of British goods and encouraged Americans to buy American goods. The agricultural southern states despised the tax. It forced southerners to buy northern goods instead of the less expensive British goods. Southern cotton growers, who exported most of their crop to Britain, opposed interference with international trade. The concept that states have the right to reject federal laws is called the nullification theory.

38 A Tariff Raises the States’ Rights Issue
Background: first protective tariff (tax on imported goods) passed in 1816  Designed to protect American industries from foreign competition  Disliked by Southern states = agricultural economy, not industrial

39 Tariff of 1828 Tariff of 1828 (aka “Tariff of Abominations”) – raised tariff to a new high  John C. Calhoun (Vice-President) opposed to the tariff thought the tariff only benefitted the North, while the South suffered due to higher price of goods developed the “nullification theory” – def. = a state had the right to reject a federal law if that state believed it was unconstitutional Andrew Jackson (President) – argued that the Union must be preserved, meaning the law had to be enforced Calhoun and Jackson never worked together again

40 Nullification Crisis Nullification Crisis (1832) – conflict between South Carolina and Andrew Jackson South Carolina nullified Tariffs of 1828 and 1832  South Carolina threatened to secede, or withdraw, from the Union Jackson signed the Force Bill– def. – allowed the federal government to use the military to enforce federal law and collect tariff revenues Resolved by Henry Clay (“The Great Compromiser) – new rates would lower the tariff over time South Carolina nullified the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832 and threatened to secede (officially withdraw) from the Union if challenged. Congress quickly passed the Force Bill, authorizing military action to enforce the tariff. Jackson threatened to lead the army against South Carolina and hang John C. Calhoun. South Carolina avoided civil war by accepting the 1833 Compromise Tariff but turned right around and nullified the Force Bill.

41 Conflict over States’ Rights
The issue of nullification and states’ rights was the focus of one of the most famous debates in Senate history in 1830. Nullification Crisis When Congress passed another tariff in 1832, South Carolina declared the tariff law “null and void” and threatened to secede from the Union if the federal government tried to enforce the tariff. Jackson received the Force Act (1833) from Congress, but South Carolina declared the Force Bill null and void as well. Compromise worked out by Henry Clay: Tariff of 1833 Tariffs would be reduced over a period of 10 years. Issues of nullification and of states’ rights would be raised again.

42 Van Buren Deals with Jackson’s Legacy
Martin Van Buren = Jackson’s successor as president, won Election of 1836 His administration was hurt by the Panic of 1837 Martin Van Buren

43 Election of 1840 Election of 1840 – Martin Van Buren (Democrat) vs.
William Henry Harrison (Whig) William Henry Harrison = military general and war hero – won election Election of 1840 Winner Van Buren vs. Harrison

44 Election of 1840 John Tyler = new president, called “His Accidency”
Used a new style of campaigning Slogan – “Tippecanoe and Tyler too!” Appealed to common men - Log Cabin and Hard Cider Campaign William Henry Harrison died in office after 1 month John Tyler = new president, called “His Accidency” John Tyler

45 Nationalism VS. Sectionalism
Pol. Regions Emerge: North (NE and commercial interests) South (“King Cotton) West (expansion, agriculture, and individualism) Politicians Emerge: Daniel Webster of Mass. John C. Calhoun of SC Henry Clay of Kentucky Sectional interests clash: Debates over Fed support for infrastructure and slavery Missouri Compromise: Maine(free) - Missouri(slave) Growing Patriotism National expansion from 1815 on (interrupted by the panic of 1819) Transportation Revolution National Road Erie Canal Railroads Infrastructure helps unite growing economy Pop. up to 10 million by 1820 New states: Oh(1803), LA. (1812), Ind.(1816), Miss.(1817), Ill.(1818), Ala.(1819)

46 The North developed an economy based on industry.
The Industrial North Main Idea The North developed an economy based on industry.

47 The Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution was the birth of modern industry and the social changes that accompanied it. The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain’s textile industry. In the late 1700s, a series of inventions mechanized both spinning and weaving, radically transforming the industry. British inventors created machines that used power from running water and steam engines to spin and weave cloth. By 1800 textile companies had built hundreds of mills to produced volumes of cloth that could only have been dreamed of a few decades earlier.

48 The North Industrializes
In 1793 Samuel Slater and Moses Brown built a water-powered spinning mill on the Blackstone River in Rhode Island. It marked the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in the United States. The Industrial Revolution spread rapidly throughout New England. Lowell, Massachusetts, became the center of textile production with 40 mill buildings and 10,000 looms. The majority of the workers in the Lowell mills were young women, recruited from local farms. They made relatively good wages but worked long hours—often as long as 14 hours a day, 6 days a week. The young women came to be known as the Lowell girls.

49 The North Industrializes
The revolution spreads Throughout the early and mid-1800s, industrialization spread slowly from the textile industry to other industries in the North. In the 1830s steam engines became better and more widely available. Their power helped make industry the fastest-growing part of the U.S. economy.

50 The North Industrializes
Industrialization in the North led to urbanization. People left the farm and moved to cities where they could work in the mills and factories. In 1820 only 7 percent of Americans lived in cities. Within 30 years, that percentage more than doubled. Within a few decades, the North evolved from a region of small towns and farms into one including large cities and factories.

51 Transportation and Communication
Businesses needed ways to transport raw materials to their growing number of factories and mills and to ship their finished goods to market. Roads In 1811 construction began on the National Road. It was completed in 1841. Stretched 800 miles west from Cumberland, Maryland, to Vandalia, Illinois Most roads were much shorter and crudely made. By 1840 a network of roads connected most of the cities and towns throughout the United States, promoting travel and trade.

52 Transportation and Communication
Canals In 1825 the 363-mile-long Erie Canal opened, connecting the Great Lakes with the Hudson River—and with the Atlantic Ocean. The canal provided a quick and economical way to ship manufactured goods to the West and farm products to the East. Within 15 years after the success of the Erie Canal, more than 3,000 miles of canals formed a dense network in the northeast.


54 Transportation and Communication
The steamboat The first successful steamboat service was run by Robert Fulton on the Hudson River with his boat, the Clermont. Within a decade, dozens of steamboats were puffing up and down the Ohio, the Mississippi, and other rivers. The railroad The first steam-powered train ran in the United States and made its first trip in 1830. By 1840 there were about 3,000 miles of track in the country. The speed, power, reliability, and carrying capacity of the railroad quickly made it a preferred means of travel and transport.

55 Transportation and Communication
Printing press Steam-powered presses enabled publishers to print material much faster and in much greater volume than ever before. Postal service With the growing use of steamboats and the railroad, mail delivery was faster and more widely available. The telegraph Considered the greatest advancement in communication Samuel F. B. Morse patented the first practical telegraph in 1840. Communication by telegraph was instantaneous. Newspapers, railroads, and other businesses were quick to grasp its advantages.

56 The Land of Cotton Main Idea
During the early 1800s, the South developed an economy based on agriculture. Why was cotton king in the South? How did the cultivation of cotton lead to the spread of slavery? What key differences developed between the North and the South?

57 “King Cotton” The cotton gin had a major impact on life in the South.
It solved the problem of separating the seed from the cotton and made the large-scale production of cotton possible. In the United States, the booming textile industry of the North bought cotton to weave into cloth to sell to the American population. Overseas, the greatest demand came from Great Britain’s mechanized textile industry. The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain’s textile industry. In the late 1700s, a series of inventions mechanized both spinning and weaving, radically transforming the industry. British inventors created machines that used power from running water and steam engines to spin and weave cloth.

58 “King Cotton” The combination of the new cotton gin and the huge demand for cotton encouraged many American farmers to begin growing cotton. Beginning in the 1820s, the number of acres devoted to cotton cultivation soared. Cotton Belt: A nearly uninterrupted band of cotton farms that stretched across the South, all the way from Virginia in the East to Texas in the West Cotton became so important to the economy of the South that people called it King Cotton.


60 The Spread of Slavery Farming cotton was a labor-intensive enterprise.
The land had to be prepared. The cotton seeds had to be planted. The growing plants had to be tended. The crop had to be picked, cleaned, and formed into bales. The first cotton farms were small and run by families who didn’t own slaves. They were soon followed by wealthier planters who bought huge tracts of land. These planters used enslaved African Americans to cultivate the cotton.

61 The Spread of Slavery As the amount of money made by growing cotton increased, so did the number of plantations. The growth of cotton farming led directly to an increase in demand for enslaved African Americans. Although the importation of enslaved people had been banned in 1808, they were routinely smuggled into southern ports. These people, and the children of enslaved parents, were cruelly bought and sold by slave traders to provide workers for the cotton fields.

62 The Spread of Slavery By 1840 the number of enslaved African Americans had risen to nearly 2.5 million. As cotton farms spread, so too did slavery. Enslaved African Americans accounted for about one-third of the population of the South. About one-fourth of the white families in the South owned slaves (most had fewer than 20).


64 Differences between the North and the South
Southern crops Cotton, sugarcane, sugar beets, tobacco, and rice These crops led the economy of the South. By 1840 the South was a thoroughly agricultural region. Northern goods Since colonial times, farming was important. The Industrial Revolution made manufacturing and trade the base of the North’s economy.

65 Differences between the North and the South
Trade and industry encouraged urbanization, and so cities grew in the North much more than in the South. The Industrial Revolution and the revolutions in transportation and communication had the greatest impact on the North. Northern businesses seized new technology in pursuit of efficiency and growth. South There was relatively little in the way of technological progress. Many southerners saw little need for labor-saving devices when they had an ample supply of enslaved people to do their work.

66 Differences between the North and the South
Different points of view In the North, urban dwellers were exposed to many different types of people and tended to view change as progress. In the South, where the landscape was less prone to change and where the population was less diverse, people tended to place a higher value on tradition. Physical distance Relatively few southerners had the means or motivation to travel extensively in the North, and relatively few northerners had ever visited the South.

67 Differences between the North and the South
Slavery was legal. It was viewed by most white people as an absolutely vital part of the economy. To many, it was a practice sanctioned by their Christian religion. North Slavery was illegal. Ever-increasing numbers of people viewed it as evil. Few realized the differences would lead to war.


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