Presentation on theme: "Police Education: Challenges and Opportunities Professor Michael Rowe Northumbria University "Police Learning: Professionalisation and Partnerships" 6-7."— Presentation transcript:
Police Education: Challenges and Opportunities Professor Michael Rowe Northumbria University "Police Learning: Professionalisation and Partnerships" 6-7 September 2011 The University of Northampton
2 Police Education: Challenges and Opportunities Introduction The development of police education in 20 th century Marketisation and privatization in the public sector Education and police professionalism Conclusion: professionalism and policing
3 Introduction Models of police education (Mahony and Prenzler, 1996) Levels and providers: probationer and in-service training –‘Partnership of equals’: for example, New South Wales (1990s) –‘Integrated University-academy’ model: Queensland (early 1990s); Victoria Police Education Programme (NZ), 2000 to present; Dutch Police Academy since 2002 (Peeters, 2009); IPLDP (Wood and Tong, 2009) –Degree as entry requirement: AFP since 1991; PIQ in England and Wales? ‘Two strong constants’: University and Academy
4 Introduction Recent advocacy of integration of police education, training and FE sector has been grounded in potential to enhance professionalism We must focus on building a more confident police service – one which emphasises individual professionalism and which is founded upon strong standards and team values. This means we need to move away from training towards education Flanagan (2008: 53) a transformation of the culture of police training, shifting from class room based approaches, largely delivered in house to a more flexible one, in which there is greater responsibility for professional development on the individual officer and new partnership with Further and Higher Education Neyroud (2011: 12)
5 The development of police education in 20 th century Vollmer, Berkley, Ca. 1907 established first US police academy, 1917 advocated three-year University-level study for all officers 1931Wickersham Committee 1967 President’s Commission on Law Enforcement and the Administration of Justice 1969 National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence 1971 President’s Commission on Campus Unrest 1973 American Bar Association Project on Standards for Criminal Justice 1973 National Advisory Commission of Criminal Justice Standards and Goals ‘the main objective of the recommendation [for police higher education] is to abolish permanently the idea that is all too prevalent in our society that if one does not want to take the trouble of becoming something worthwhile, he can always become a cop’ (Bittner, 1970: 83)
6 The development of police education in 20 th century Development of police education programs in US has been slight: only 1 per cent of 17000 local law enforcement agencies required recruits had a four year degree (Baro and Burlingham, 1999); 1992: officers had spent an average of 13.6 years in education, a rise of only one year in two decades; 1996: study in Michigan found 25% supervisors and 33% frontline officers had degrees
7 The development of police education in 20 th century ‘a new breed of senior officers who are called in the service “butterfly men”. In their unceasing pursuit of the next promotion, they have flitted from one force to another, never settling long enough to make any impact, or gain any real experience, enjoyed the academic life, their uninterrupted journey up the ladder disturbed only by occasional brief acquaintance with the sharp end’. (Reiner, 1990: 217) British Police Federation opposing proposals that future leaders be required to complete University studies. University staff and students sometimes opposed development of police education programmes in 1970s and 1980s. (Alderson, 1979 in Wood and Tong, 2009) Tertiary police education has been much advocated but little adopted across many countries for much of the 20 th century
The development of police education in 20 th century Three forms of resistance to police education in a University environment were identified by Wood and Tong (2009) 1.A misplaced distinction between ‘training’ and ‘education’ has been endemic on both sides: police have seen training as key for an action and results- oriented service and university resistance to ‘truncheon studies’ 2.Concern from police that a liberal university environment does not provide the culture of discipline that the service requires 3.Fundamental problem has been of management of students: who owns the student police officer? 8
9 Marketisation and privatization in the public sector Economics – Ideology – Pragmatism Educational entrepreneurs and police customers Benefits Skill and expertise Independent perspective Additional resource Efficiency gains Improved quality Police image and legitimacy? Synergy with research work Risks Costs Over-dependency/corruption ‘Capture’ of independent researchers Internal police morale and staff resistance Accountability and liability Police image and legitimacy? Adapted from Ayling, J. and Grabosky, P. (2006)
10 Marketisation and privatization in the public sector ‘contract government’, police de-centralization and procurement (Fleming and Rhodes, 2005) 1.Specification of the Training (Learning) Requirement 2.Costed Annual Training Plans – requirements and guidance on the use of the National Training Costing Model (NTCM): 3.Developing a Business Plan for a Police Learning and Development Function 4.Programme and Benefits Management Evaluation Capability – guidance Home Office (2003/2005) Local police services will commission programmes from external providers accredited by Police Professional Body (Neyroud, 2011)
11 Education and police professionalism Positive impact of education on: job satisfaction communication skills ethics fewer citizen complaints reduced use of force critical thinking reflexive practice ‘ …studies tend to suggest that there are noticeable differences, and potentially positive policing attributes, associated with college education’ Paoline and Terrill, 2007 ‘ there remains widespread uncertainty in the research literature about what a university education means in terms of doing a “better” job of policing’ Wimshurst and Ransley, 2007
12 Education and police professionalism No consensus about police professionalism: ‘third logic’ for regulating police behaviour or rhetorical device? (Chan, 2003: 5) Occupational classifications Becoming a profession or being professional?
13 Education and police professionalism Increased professionalism The increasing presence of both trainee and experienced police officers on university campuses itself reflects the complexity of the role of police in contemporary society. This complexity is born of greater sophistication in criminal activity, increasing fear of crime in the community, and a greater community sensitivity to civic rights, as well as increasing social diversity and sometimes civil discord. It is also a response to the creation of expert standing commissions … concerned with organized crime, fraud, evaluations of police performance, and controlling police corruption or other misuses of police power Mahony and Prenzler (1996)
14 Conclusion: professionalism and policing Structural changes have driven the development of police education but also provide emerging challenges Continuities in the craft of police work Police service and police force Policing or policing? (Loader, 2000)
15 References Ayling, J. and Grabosky, P. (2006) ‘When Police Go Shopping’, Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies and Management, 29(4): 665-90. Baro, A.L. and Burlingame, D. (1999) ‘Law Enforcement and Higher Education: is There an Impasse?’, Journal of Criminal Justice Education, 10(1): 57-73. Bayley, D. H., & Bittner, E. (1997). Learning the skills of policing. In R. G. Dunham & G. Alpert (Eds.), Critical issues in policing: Contemporary readings (3rd ed., pp. 114-137). Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland. Bittner, E. (1970) The Functions of Police in Modern Society, Rockport, MD, US Government Printing Office. Carter, D.L. and Sapp, A.D. (1992) ‘College Education and Policing’, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, 6(1):8-14. Chan, J. (2003) Fair Cop: Learning the Art of Policing, Toronto: University of Toronto Press Fleming, J & Rhodes, RAW (2005) 'Bureaucracy, Contracts and Networks: The Unholy Trinity and the Police', Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, Vol. 38 (2) August, pp. 192-205. Home Office Circular (2003) ‘Force Training Plans’ (53/2003) Home Office Circular (2005) ‘Improving The Quality, Efficiency, Effectiveness And Economy Of Police Learning And Training’ (44/2005) http://www.leics.police.uk/news/2277_confirmation_ceremony_for_first_student_officers/http://www.leics.police.uk/news/2277_confirmation_ceremony_for_first_student_officers/ (accessed 16 September 2008) http://www.nypa.org.uk/docs/Item%207%20Costed%20Training%20-%20Appendix%20One.pdf (accessed 16 September 2008) Loader, I. (2000) ‘Plural Policing and Democratic Governance’, Socio-Legal Studies, 9(3): 323-345. Mahony and Prenzler (1996, ‘Police Studies, the University and the Police Service: an Australian Study’, Journal of Criminal Justice Education, 7(2): 283-304) McKenzie, I. (2002) Distance Learning for Criminal Justice Professionals in the UK: Development, Quality Assurance and Pedagogical Properties, Journal of Criminal Justice Education, 13(2): 231-40 Michigan Law Enforcement Officers Training Council (1996) Stateside Job Analysis of the Patrol Officer Position, Lansing: Michigan Law Enforcement Officers Training Council. Neyroud, P. (2011) Review of Police Leadership and Training, London: Home Office. Peeters, H. (2009) ‘Ten Ways to Blend Academic Learning within Professional Police Training’, Policing, 4 (1): 47–55. Reiner, R. (1990) ‘Top Class Cops’, The Howard Journal of Criminal Justice, 29(3): 215-219. Rowe, M. and Garland, J. (2007) ‘Police Diversity Training – a Silver Bullet Tarnished’, in Rowe, M. (ed) Policing Beyond Macpherson – Issues in Policing, Race and Society, Cullompton: Willan Publishing, pp43-65. Stanley, D.T. (1979) ‘Higher Education for Police Officers: A Look at Federal Policies’, State Government, 52(1): 35-42. Wimshurst and Ransley (2007) Police Education and the University Sector: Contrasting Models from the Australian Experience, Journal of Criminal Justice Education, 18(1): 106-22. Wood, D. and Tong, S. (2009) ‘The Future of Initial Police Training: a University Perspective’, International Journal of Police Science and Management, 11 (3): 294–305.