2 Definition Features Architecture Prototypes Communication Security Benefits and Concerns Conclusion
Tiny dust size device that combine sensing, computing, wireless communication capabilities and autonomous power supply within volume of only few millimeters.
Useful in monitoring real world phenomenon without disturbing the original process. Consists of tiny, wireless sensors or motes. Each mote is a tiny computer with a power supply, one or more sensors, and a communication system. Small and light in weight
5 Being developed at UC Berkeley by Prof. Pister and Prof Kahn. It explores the limits on size and power consumption in autonomous sensor nodes. Size reduction is important in order to make the nodes as inexpensive as possible and also easy to deploy. The researchers believe that these nodes will be of the order of a few cubic millimeters and are called “Smart Dust”.
fusing MEMS (micro electromechanical) and electronics on one chip Very small in size cost - now about $50 - $100 per sensor, hopefully down to $1 in five years Autonomous power supply memory is only hundreds KB
A single Smart Dust mote contains: MEMS sensors a semiconductor laser diode and MEMS beam steering mirror for active optical transmission a MEMS corner cube retro-reflector for passive optical transmission an optical receiver a signal processing and control circuitry a power source based on thick-film batteries and solar cells.
Radio Frequency Transmission Optical transmission technique a) Passive Communication b) Active Communication
RF signals are used to communicate over relatively short distances. Minimize mote size and power consumption. In this case, each message is passed to a neighboring mote which is in turn passed to another nearby mote, and so on, until the message reaches the destination – the central monitoring station. Form robust networks.
Active High power laser source Transmission of modulated laser beam Passive Does not have an onboard light source MEMS Corner Cube Reflector Emit modulated ambient light
Comprises of three mutually perpendicular mirrors of gold-coated poly-silicon. Has the property that any incident ray of light is reflected back to the source provided that it is incident within a certain range of angles centered about the cube’s body diagonal. Proves effective in reducing energy consumption.
1. Requires an uninterrupted line-of-sight. 2. They also have directional characteristics that should be considered in system design. 3. Tradeoffs occur between bit rate, energy/bit and distance. 4. Active transmission consumes more power 5. Collision during transmission to base station is rare, but collision during point to point communication is a potential problem and a current research topic.
Require microprocessors and microcontrollers for all the required processing. Microprocessors used are Intel Strong- Arms, Motorola. Microcontrollers are Atmel, Microchip and Motorola
Smart dusts will be the future of communication, because its more reliable than the present communication network. Even when a mote stops functioning, the next mote nearer to it resumes the operation of the destroyed mote.
Having many sensors, smart dust keeps track of environmental changes and alerts the concerned if something unexpected happens. They are used in sensing forest fires, fires in buildings Weather reporting would be easy.
INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS MILITARY APPLICATIONS BIOTECHNOLOGY REMOTE SENSING ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING STRUCTURAL SOUNDNESS OF BUILDINGS
Issues Privacy Security Environmental Impacts Future Motes sold in the future will be smaller and cheaper Even as the price of smart dust falls, revenues for the vendors of these devices are expected to increase
Smart Dust technology provides wireless, remote monitoring solutions. Is available today in sizes ranging from a few mm to a few cm. Ultimate goal is to reach micro meter scale. Due to growing research interest, sizes and cost are fast diminishing. Privacy is a major concern. But benefits far outweigh the drawbacks. Dealing with partial disconnections while establishing communication links poses critical research challenges
This is not the END It is merely the BEGINNING of a glorious, wireless future! So, stay connected!!