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Cloud Computing Security: Challenges and Practice Hai Jin Cluster and Grid Computing Lab Services Computing Technology and System Lab School of Computer.

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Presentation on theme: "Cloud Computing Security: Challenges and Practice Hai Jin Cluster and Grid Computing Lab Services Computing Technology and System Lab School of Computer."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cloud Computing Security: Challenges and Practice Hai Jin Cluster and Grid Computing Lab Services Computing Technology and System Lab School of Computer Science and Technology Huazhong University of Science and Technology Wuhan, , China

2 Outlines Our Work on Cloud Security 3 Key Issues of Cloud Security 2 State of the Art of Cloud Security 1 Conclusions 4

3 We are now at Cloud Computing era

4 Cloud Computing in Wikipedia Cloud computing involves the provision of dynamically scalable and often virtualized resources as a service over the Internet.

5 2008 Gartner IT Hype Cycle of Emerging Technologies

6 2014 Gartner IT Hype Cycle for Emerging Technologies

7 Security Threats of Cloud Computing

8 8 Results of survey conducted by ENISA in 2009 Main Concerns of Cloud Computing

9 VMware Cloud Adoption Study 2012

10 What Is Your No. 1 Issue Slowing Adoption of Public Cloud Computing?

11 What Is Your No. 1 Issue With Security and Privacy in Public Cloud?

12 2013 Gartner Hype Cycle for Cloud Security

13 Security Threats of Cloud Computing Amazon’s User Agreement ( AWS Agreement ) points : Cloud provider Amazon’s User Agreement ( AWS Agreement ) points :

14 Security Threats of Cloud Computing

15  Xen and VMWare are popularly used as a cloud platform virtualization software, but 32 vulnerabilities of Xen and 35 vulnerabilities of VMWare appeared. Source: Statistics of American Computer Virus Emergency Response Center [As of December 2010]  There are thousands of vulnerabilities on commercial operating systems and applications deployed by tenants. Description: Software vulnerabilities are often proportional to the amount of software code

16 The world's largest Chinese IT technology development community CSDN was hacked in December 2011 Hacker External Attack User name, password, and phone number About 18,000,000 users' individual information were leaked, including user name, password, and phone number. 6,400,000 users' plaintext data were stolen, which forced CSDN to temporarily shut down the service. Data Center Security Threats of Cloud Computing

17 Outlines Our Work on Cloud Security 3 Key Issues of Cloud Security 2 State of the Art of Cloud Security 1 Conclusions 4

18 Key Security Issue 1 Users The diversity of trust relationships in cloud computing environment Do users trust the cloud? Do components in the cloud trust each other? IaaS PaaS SaaS The diversity of trust relationships in cloud computing environment: Do users trust the cloud? Does the cloud trust users? Do components in the cloud trust each other? Can we describe the complex trust relationships in cloud computing environment clearly under current situation that traditional trust models are only used to solve simple trust relationships? The diversity of trust relationships in cloud computing environment: Do users trust the cloud? Does the cloud trust users? Do components in the cloud trust each other? Can we describe the complex trust relationships in cloud computing environment clearly under current situation that traditional trust models are only used to solve simple trust relationships? Does the cloud trust users?

19 Key Security Issue 2 Cloud platform has requirements for secure access control, while users have requirements for privacy. How to solve the contradiction between the protection of users’ privacy and security protection requirements for cloud platform itself? Cloud platform has requirements for secure access control, while users have requirements for privacy. How to solve the contradiction between the protection of users’ privacy and security protection requirements for cloud platform itself? Users Sensitive data flow Managers Contradiction between users’ privacy and security protection for the platform Users’behavior and privacy data security protection requirements for cloud platform Personal data Business data …… Behavior Privacy data contradiction

20 Key Security Issue 3 Cloud platform … … Cloud Service Provider ( Trustworthy ?) Malicious User /Controlled User Normal User User domain There are many entities in cloud platform, it is difficult to control malicious attacks from platform owner to users or attacks from users to users. How to achieve a comprehensive, accurate, efficient monitoring on the massive entities’ behaviors in cloud computing environment? There are many entities in cloud platform, it is difficult to control malicious attacks from platform owner to users or attacks from users to users. How to achieve a comprehensive, accurate, efficient monitoring on the massive entities’ behaviors in cloud computing environment?

21 Key Security Issue 4 Trusted GRUB Trusted GRUB 管理域 配置文件 服务模块 2 服务模块 1 BIOS OS boot manager(G RUB) 安全域 安全工具 2 安全工具 1 Security domain Security domain Security Tool2 Security Tool1 Manager domain Manager domain Configuration Service Module 2 Service Module 1 System states in cloud computing environment are dynamic and uncontrollable, traditional trusted computing can only provide the security when a system boots. How to guarantee that cloud computing environment can be trusted during its whole life cycle? System states in cloud computing environment are dynamic and uncontrollable, traditional trusted computing can only provide the security when a system boots. How to guarantee that cloud computing environment can be trusted during its whole life cycle? 可信的虚拟 机管理 器 Virtual Machine Manager Measure Trusted third party Authentication of cloud platform Report Hackers Authentication would be invalid if hackers invade cloud platform

22 Key Security Issue 5 Users are lack of direct and efficient control for data storage and processing in cloud computing environment. How to protect privacy for processing or storing data of users? Users are lack of direct and efficient control for data storage and processing in cloud computing environment. How to protect privacy for processing or storing data of users? User domain Applications Data processing Storage service Cloud Service Provider Data Center Users Privacy stealing of storage data Running stealing of users’ privacy User domain

23 Analysis of Cloud Computing Security Issues Service outsourcing, and characteristics of public ownership infrastructure: Applications and data are managed by Cloud platform, and tenants can not control their tasks and data directly. Dynamic complexity: Multi-level service models, including IaaS, PaaS and SaaS, and dynamic customization and updates for tenants’ execution environment bring cloud computing complex trust relationships. Large scale, multi-tenant resource sharing: There are a large number of entities and complex relationships between entities. Malicious attacks may exist between platform and tenant, tenant and tenant. High concentration of resources: In cloud computing environment, security threats and damages are more likely to occur than in traditional environment. The openness of the cloud platform: There are lots of vulnerabilities in open software. It greatly increases security risks of the platform and the attackers can steal or destroy data easily.

24 Outlines Our Work on Cloud Security 3 Key Issues of Cloud Security 2 State of the Art of Cloud Security 1 Conclusions 4

25 My Research Path From – Research on Fundamental Theory and Approach of Computing System Virtualization, supported by National 973 Basic Research Program of China ( ) To – Research on Fundamental Theory and Approach of Cloud Security, supported by National 973 Basic Research Program of China ( )

26 Mission Trusted Cloud Computing Environments Multi-level Secure Cloud Services Sharing Data Security

27 Researches on Cloud Security Trusted Execution Cloud Services Reliability Monitoring and Management Cloud Security Services The virtualization technology improves the resource utilization in cloud platform, but we need an effective isolation between VMs. As the cloud platform provides services for many users at the same time, it must carry out effective monitoring of user behavior to prevent users from attacking the cloud. In order to provide cloud users uninterrupted services, we must ensure service reliability in cloud computing platforms. As cloud users loss control of their resources, it’s necessary to ensure the security of tasks and data processed in the cloud. Resource Isolation

28 Hidden channels exist even if isolation strategies in virtualization-enabled cloud are enforced, such as Chinese-Wall model As shown in the figure, Bank-C acts as an intermediary between VM “Oil-A” and VM “Oil-B”, which causes that the sensitive information of VM “Oil-A” is leaked to VM “Oil-B”

29 Resource Access Control Model Prioritized Chinese Wall model (PCW) : introduce dynamic Conflict of Interest Set (CIS) instead of the static conflict of interest set in the Chinese-Wall model, thereby reducing the risk of information leakage between VMs caused by hidden channels. Weizhong Qiang, Deqing Zou, Shenglan Wang, Laurence Tianruo Yang, Hai Jin, and Lei Shi, “CloudAC: A Cloud-oriented Multilayer Access Control System for Logic Virtual Domain”, IET Information Security, Vol.7, No.1, March 2013, pp Moment 1 : CIS {(A,B)} Moment 2 : CIS {(A,B), (B,C)} In moment 2, VM “C” and VM “A” run in the same node and communicate with each other, so that (B,C) belongs to the CIS.

30 Researches on Cloud Security Trusted Execution Cloud Services Reliability Monitoring and Management Cloud Security Services The virtualization technology improves the resource utilization in cloud platform, but we need an effective isolation between VMs. As the cloud platform provides services for many users at the same time, it must carry out effective monitoring of user behavior to prevent users from attacking the cloud. In order to provide cloud users uninterrupted services, we must ensure service reliability in cloud computing platforms. As cloud users loss control of their resources, it’s necessary to ensure the security of tasks and data processed in the cloud. Resource Isolation

31 Trusted Execution Two aspects  In Cloud Server Construct chain of trust for the security of the infrastructure Use trusted VM to run sensitive applications for user VM  In Cloud Terminal Construct protection execution environment for applications

32 Trusted Execution Environment in Cloud —— Chain of Trust Construction h Access Control SHA1(Kernel Module) SHA1(Program) SHA1(Configuration) … Measurements Unk nown Hashes Program Kernel Kernel Module Boot Loader Data (1) Measurement (2) Verification (3)Protection + Xen SHA1(Boot Loader) SHA1(Kernel) Trustset Xen Booting Stage Measurements Runtime Stage Analysis Ge Cheng, Hai Jin, Deqing Zou, and Xinwen Zhang, “Building Dynamic and Transparent Integrity Measurement and Protection for Virtualized Platform in Cloud Computing”, Concurrency and Computation: Practice and Experience, Vol.22, No.13, September 2010, pp

33 Trusted Execution Environment in Cloud —— Assured Digital Signing Target: Use trusted VM to run the sensitive applications for user VM Solutions: – Achieve the goal of page-level protection for security monitor based on Xen – Use security monitor to check the integrity of the kernel and applications, and then an application writes the data to be signed into the memory protected by Xen, therefore to avoid be replaced or tampered by the kernel – Provide signature or other cryptographic services by trusted VM. Therefore, the kernel can be prevented from modifying the signature when the data is written back into the protected memory of the application Weiqi Dai, T. Paul Parker, Hai Jin, and Shouhuai Xu, “Enhancing Data Trustworthiness via Assured Digital Signing”, IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing, Vol.9, No.6, 2012, pp

34 Trusted Execution Environment in Terminal -- Cherub Cherub securely installs a lightweight virtual machine monitor (LVMM) under native OS by leveraging late launch and hardware virtualization techniques In turn, the LVMM builds and maintains a Protected eXecution Environment (PXE) for target applications by monitoring and controlling any access to the memory pages in PXE PXE allows sensitive operations and ensures that the protected data can only be accessed within the PXE Hai Jin, Ge Cheng, Deqing Zou, and Xinwen Zhang, “Cherub: Fine-grained Application Protection with On- demand Virtualization”, Computers and Mathematics with Applications, Vol.65, No.9, May 2012, pp

35 Researches on Cloud Security Trusted Execution Cloud Services Reliability Monitoring and Management Cloud Security Services The virtualization technology improves the resource utilization in cloud platform, but we need an effective isolation between VMs. As the cloud platform provides services for many users at the same time, it must carry out effective monitoring of user behavior to prevent users from attacking the cloud. In order to provide cloud users uninterrupted services, we must ensure service reliability in cloud computing platforms. As cloud users loss control of their resources, it’s necessary to ensure the security of tasks and data processed in the cloud. Resource Isolation

36 Monitoring and Management —— Problem Description In a virtual computing environment, multiple virtual machines simultaneously run on a physical node. As the types or versions of the operating systems in different VMs are normally different from each other, securely monitoring operations in all VMs is a big challenge

37 Monitoring and Management —— VMDriver Enable fine-grained monitoring by separating event sensor and semantic reconstruction Monitor driver is introduced to mask the diversity of guest OSes in multiple VMs on the same node Guofu Xiang, Hai Jin, Deqing Zou, Xinwen Zhang, Sha Wen, Feng Zhao, "VMDriver: A Driver-Based Monitoring Mechanism for Virtualization," Proceedings of the 29th IEEE Symposium on Reliable Distributed Systems (SRDS 2010 ), pp.72-81, Nov. 2010, Delhi, India

38 Researches on Cloud Security Trusted Execution Cloud Services Reliability Monitoring and Management Cloud Security Services The virtualization technology improves the resource utilization in cloud platform, but we need an effective isolation between VMs. As the cloud platform provides services for many users at the same time, it must carry out effective monitoring of user behavior to prevent users from attacking the cloud. In order to provide cloud users uninterrupted services, we must ensure service reliability in cloud computing platforms. As cloud users loss control of their resources, it’s necessary to ensure the security of tasks and data processed in the cloud. Resource Isolation

39 Service Interruption in Cloud 39 STORAGE COMPUTER DATABASE NETWORKING DEVELOPMENT & MANAGEMENT TOOLS MESSAGING CONTENT DELIVERY PAYMENTS ON-DEMAND WORKFORCE S3 EBS EC2 SIMPLE DB Amazon Web Services Users Unable to use service Normally use service × × × × × A large-scale outage of Amazon cloud service in April 2011 It's considered the most serious incident in the history of the Amazon cloud computing security incidents, which results in many sites affected, including knowledge market Quora, news service Reddit, Hootsuite and position tracking service FourSquare. Amazon's official report claims the incident is caused by its EC2 service defects and results in the Amazon cloud services interruption in northern Virginia.

40 Reliability in Cloud Two aspects  Service level reliability SHelp  VM level reliability CR/TR-Motion

41 Reliability in Cloud - SHelp Error handling information sharing between VMs – A two-level storage hierarchy for rescue point management a global rescue point database in Dom0 a rescue point cache in each DomU – Weight values are updating between Dom0 and DomUs for error handling information sharing Gang Chen, Hai Jin, Deqing Zou, Bing Bing Zhou, Weizhong Qiang and Gang Hu. “SHelp: Automatic Self-healing for Multiple Application Instances in a Virtual Machine Environment”. Cluster 2010 input foo() bar() bad() input foo() bar() other() Call stack Create rescue-graph Execution path Rescue graph

42 Reliability in Cloud - CR/TR-Motion Checkpointing /recovery combining trace/replay technology are used to provide fast and transparent live VM migration. We orchestrate the running source and target VM with execution trace logged on the source host. Haikun Liu, Hai Jin, Xiaofei Liao, Chen Yu, and Cheng-zhong Xu, “Live Virtual Machine Migration via Asynchronous Replication and State Synchronization”, IEEE Transaction on Parallel and Distribute System (TPDS), Mar A B Checkpoint log2 …… Replay log1 …… Round 1 log1 Round 2 VM Recovery Checkpoint log3 Round n Stop and copy Transfer log n Replay log n Take over A Waiting and chasing phase ……

43 Outlines Our Work on Cloud Security 3 Key Issues of Cloud Security 2 State of the Art of Cloud Security 1 Conclusions 4

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45 Cloud Computing Makes FBI Access to Documents Easy All your [docs in the cloud] are belong to us.

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47 For More Information Peng Xu, Hai Jin, Qianhong Wu, and Wei Wang, “Public-Key Encryption with Fuzzy Keyword Search: A Provably Secure Scheme under Keyword Guessing Attack”, IEEE Transactions on Computers, Vol.62, No.11, November 2013, pp Gang Chen, Hai Jin, Deqing Zou, Bing Bing Zhou, Zhenkai Liang, Weide Zheng, and Xuanhua Shi. “SafeStack: Automatically Patching Stack-based Buffer Overflow Vulnerabilities”, IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing, Vol.10, No.6, November-December 2013, pp Weiqi Dai, T. Paul Parker, Hai Jin, and Shouhuai Xu, “Enhancing Data Trustworthiness via Assured Digital Signing”, IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing, Vol.9, No.6, November-December 2012, pp Ayad Ibrahim, Hai Jin, Ali A. Yassin, Deqing Zou, and Peng Xu, “Towards Efficient Yet Privacy-Preserving Approximate Search in Cloud Computing”, The Computer Journal, Oxford University Press, Vol.57, No.2, February 2014, pp Weizhong Qiang, Deqing Zou, Shenglan Wang, Laurence Tianruo Yang, Hai Jin, and Lei Shi, “CloudAC: A Cloud- oriented Multilayer Access Control System for Logic Virtual Domain”, IET Information Security, Vol.7, No.1, March 2013, pp Feng Zhao, Min Li, Weizhong Qiang, Hai Jin, Deqing Zou, and Qin Zhang, “Proactive Recovery Approach for Intrusion Tolerance with Dynamic Configuration of Physical and Virtual Replicas”, Security and Communication Networks, Vol.10, No.5, October 2012, pp Hai Jin, Ge Cheng, Deqing Zou, and Xinwen Zhang, “Cherub: Fine-grained Application Protection with On-demand Virtualization”, Computers and Mathematics with Applications, Vol.65, No.9, May 2012, pp Feng Zhao and Hai Jin, “Automated Approach to Intrusion Detection in VM-Based Dynamic Execution Environment”, Computing and Informatics, Vol.31, No.2, February 2012, pp Deqing Zou, Shangxin Du, Weide Zheng, and Hai Jin, “Building Automated Trust Negotiation Architecture in Virtual Computing Environment”, The Journal of Supercomputing, Vol.55, No.1, January 2011, pp Ge Cheng, Hai Jin, Deqing Zou, and Xinwen Zhang, “Building Dynamic and Transparent Integrity Measurement and Protection for Virtualized Platform in Cloud Computing”, Concurrency and Computation: Practice and Experience, Vol.22, No.13, September 2010, pp

48 Thanks!


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