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EPSC 2014, Session EX2 ECC Estoril, 9 September 2014 M. G. Lattanzi (INAF-OATo) On behalf of the APACHE Team ? “La ricerca dei pianeti extrasolari in Italia”,

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Presentation on theme: "EPSC 2014, Session EX2 ECC Estoril, 9 September 2014 M. G. Lattanzi (INAF-OATo) On behalf of the APACHE Team ? “La ricerca dei pianeti extrasolari in Italia”,"— Presentation transcript:

1 EPSC 2014, Session EX2 ECC Estoril, 9 September 2014 M. G. Lattanzi (INAF-OATo) On behalf of the APACHE Team ? “La ricerca dei pianeti extrasolari in Italia”, Progetto Premiale WoW, Roma, INAF Hq, 5-7 nov 2014

2 Learn about the history of planet migration through Rossiter-McLaughlin effect measurementsLearn about the history of planet migration through Rossiter-McLaughlin effect measurements Learn about the architecture of multiple systemsLearn about the architecture of multiple systems Learn about the physical structure and composition of exoplanetsLearn about the physical structure and composition of exoplanets Learn about the structure, chemistry, and dynamics of atmospheresLearn about the structure, chemistry, and dynamics of atmospheres The general theme: Transiting Planets….. A Treasure Trove Transiting Planets….. A Treasure Trove

3 The Small Star Opportunity Consider a 7-M Earth 2-R Earth habitable zone planet: Transits are deeper Sun: 0.03% M5V: 0.5% Transits are more frequent Sun: 365 days M5V: 15 days Transits are more likely Sun: 0.5% M5V: 1.6% Greater Doppler Wobble Sun: 1.3 m/sM5V: 10 m/s Better contrast ratio Sun: M5V: 0.05

4 Premiale WoW INAF Hq, 5-7 Nov 2014 Occurrence rate of Neptunes and Super Earths: 34% (Bonfils et al. 2013) At Short Periods (< d), They Are Common The Low-Mass stars opportunity: Low-Mass, Small-Radius Planets… Especially Around Low-Mass Stars!

5 Wide-Field Transit Surveys: Geographical Distribution

6 Premiale WoW INAF Hq, 5-7 Nov 2014 The APACHE Team INAF-OATo:INAF-OATo: –L. Lanteri, M.G. Lattanzi, R. Smart, A. Sozzetti, M. Damasso, P. Giacobbe, L. Gioannini (Master, Physics, UniTo), G. Ranotto (Master student, Physics, UniTo) G. Ranotto (Master student, Physics, UniTo) OAVdA:OAVdA: –A. Bernagozzi, P. Calcidese, A. Carbognani, D. Cenadelli, J.M. Christille Project Management: E. Bertolini (Proj. Man. – OAVdA), M.G. Lattanzi (P.M. – OATo) A. Sozzetti (Proj. Scientist) P. Calcidese (Technical Man.)

7 Premiale WoW INAF Hq, 5-7 Nov 2014 APACHE Input Catalogue ~3000 Northern M0-M5 dwarfs from Lepine & Gaidos (2011) ~3000 Northern M0-M5 dwarfs from Lepine & Gaidos (2011) Good visibility, no bright stars in the FoV, not too sparse fields Good visibility, no bright stars in the FoV, not too sparse fields Cross-checks with some 20 catalogues to weed out binaries, active stars, fast rotators Cross-checks with some 20 catalogues to weed out binaries, active stars, fast rotators Support reconnaissance spectroscopy ongoing (Asiago Red Dwarf Survey) Support reconnaissance spectroscopy ongoing (Asiago Red Dwarf Survey) Number of Gaia transits helps to set priorities Number of Gaia transits helps to set priorities A subset of high-priority targets is observed in conjunction with as part of the GAPS Large Program A subset of high-priority targets is observed in conjunction with as part of the GAPS Large Program Targets are typically bright (median V~13), potentially good for follow-up

8 Premiale WoW INAF Hq, 5-7 Nov 2014 Kepler’s candidates

9 The APACHE Site 1675 m a.s.l. Lignan, Nus (Ao) The Astronomical Observatory of the Autonomous Region of the Aosta Valley (OAVdA) OAVdA operates as part of INAF in this extrasolar planet collaboration with OATo. This has been formalized in a recent agreement signed by the INAF President and the OAVdA Director (Bertolini) in 2013.

10 Premiale WoW INAF Hq, 5-7 Nov 2014 The APACHEs Operational Bandpass: I

11 Premiale WoW INAF Hq, 5-7 Nov 2014 Survey Operations  Fully automated operations: RTS2 is the choice for the operations control software architecture, including scheduler, pre-processing and storing to NAS system  Well-tested TEEPEE pipeline on site. Independent reduction with Robin (Lanteri 1999). Quasi real-time differential photometry pipeline TSE development completed  Observing strategy similar to MEarth North  Multi-TBy HP NAS system (Window Server 2008) to cope with the (average) nightly yield of a few thousands of images..

12 APACHE goals  Primary Goals:  Survey largest sample possible of M dwarfs with complete phase coverage for periods (of candidate transiting planets) of up to few-weeks;  The same but for the mostly G-K stars constituting the stellar population in the survey fields  Secondary Goal: Exploit DB for stellar (micro) variability and characterization of M dwarfs

13 Premiale WoW INAF Hq, 5-7 Nov 2014 Status Early Results…..  2.2 years into survey mode  To-date, +300 fields monitored  Phase coverage >50% for periods up to several days for large fraction of these  Typically, a dozen fields per telescope each night  We achieve routinely 3-6 mmag precision  Demonstrated survey sensitivity to > 2 R Earth planets with periods less than a few days (first year of data)

14 Premiale WoW INAF Hq, 5-7 Nov 2014 … And synergies within the Italian efforts With the Gaia solar neighborhood survey (see Sozzetti). With HARPS-N:

15 Last but not least…..  Outreach, Educational, and promotion of science activities, these are all OAVdA strong points.... & You can follow us on the Web at:

16 Conclusions: APACHE is already an important contribution to the Italian efforts in the field of exoplanet research. Therefore….

17 Premiale WoW INAF Hq, 5-7 Nov 2014 Investments, Cost-to-Completion & Risks  Since 2008, Invested over 1 M Euro locally generated by both Institutes (this is ‘cash’, without counting, e.g., OAVdA/OATo “in-kind”).  2.5 years more to go at current quality for APACHE to reach the primary goals.  Program currently supported by WoW grant and OATo funds (revenues from different contracts). The uninterrupted support of operations requires: i. maintain/optimize HW and SW for both imaging system and computing/archiving facilities; ii. Personnel for manning the site during APACHE operations (current regulations preventing full automation. These require two observers on site/observing night); iii. Build 5 focal plane “on-off” field de-rotators to cope with mount flip during observations; iv. Qualified science personnel for data reductions and data exploitation.  Risks: Current support not sufficient to complete program’s primary goals


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