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MECH 4020 – Design Project II Team 04 April 9 th, 2009 Andrew McMurray Alex Morash Bryan Neary Kristian Richards Dr. Dominic Groulx Solar Powered Stirling.

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Presentation on theme: "MECH 4020 – Design Project II Team 04 April 9 th, 2009 Andrew McMurray Alex Morash Bryan Neary Kristian Richards Dr. Dominic Groulx Solar Powered Stirling."— Presentation transcript:

1 MECH 4020 – Design Project II Team 04 April 9 th, 2009 Andrew McMurray Alex Morash Bryan Neary Kristian Richards Dr. Dominic Groulx Solar Powered Stirling Engine “The Little Engine the Could...and Did”

2 Introduction TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction Fabrication Initial Engine Tests How it Works Refinement Improvements Final Assembly Temp Acquisition Lens Testing Troubleshooting Optimization Budget Conclusions Sponsors Questions MECH 4020 TEAM 04 Inspiration SES Stirling Energy Systems SunCatcher Unit of Capacity 25 kW 31.25% solar to electric efficiencies have been realized

3 Introduction Fabrication TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction Fabrication Initial Engine Tests How it Works Refinement Improvements Final Assembly Temp Acquisition Lens Testing Troubleshooting Optimization Budget Conclusions Sponsors Questions Minimal changes to December Design We built what we designed MECH 4020 TEAM 04

4 Fabrication - Frame Fabrication TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction Fabrication Initial Engine Tests How it Works Refinement Improvements Final Assembly Temp Acquisition Lens Testing Troubleshooting Optimization Budget Conclusions Sponsors Questions MECH 4020 TEAM Aluminum Durable, Lightweight, Easy to Machine Quick assembly/disassembly Clean look with Cap Head Machine Screws

5 Fabrication – Piston Rod Assembly Fabrication – Frame TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction Fabrication Initial Engine Tests How it Works Refinement Improvements Final Assembly Temp Acquisition Lens Testing Troubleshooting Optimization Budget Conclusions Sponsors Questions MECH 4020 TEAM 04 Simple Design Brass chosen for its low sliding coefficient Minimal moving parts reduce friction Easy to interchange Piston Rod Length – Crucial for testing phase

6 Fabrication – Pistons Fabrication – Piston Rod Assembly TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction Fabrication Initial Engine Tests How it Works Refinement Improvements Final Assembly Temp Acquisition Lens Testing Troubleshooting Optimization Budget Conclusions Sponsors Questions MECH 4020 TEAM 04 Grooved to maintain pressure seal High surface finish to minimize piston/cylinder contact friction Easily connects to piston Rod Assembly with Machine screw

7 Fabrication - Cylinders Fabrication – Pistons TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction Fabrication Initial Engine Tests How it Works Refinement Improvements Final Assembly Temp Acquisition Lens Testing Troubleshooting Optimization Budget Conclusions Sponsors Questions MECH 4020 TEAM 04 Cylinders/Cylinder Heads Constructed in two pieces – Offered quick and easy assembly – Trouble shooting capabilities – Fine threads provide adequate pressure seal Bored, Reamed, Honed to provide high surface finish

8 Fabrication - Cranks Fabrication - Cylinders TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction Fabrication Initial Engine Tests How it Works Refinement Improvements Final Assembly Temp Acquisition Lens Testing Troubleshooting Optimization Budget Conclusions Sponsors Questions MECH 4020 TEAM 04 Serve two purposes – Defines Stroke Length (which can be easily modified) – Produces a coupling force to cancel sinusoidal linear motion of pistons Fastens to shaft via set screw

9 Fabrication - Flywheel Fabrication - Cranks TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction Fabrication Initial Engine Tests How it Works Refinement Improvements Final Assembly Temp Acquisition Lens Testing Troubleshooting Optimization Budget Conclusions Sponsors Questions MECH 4020 TEAM 04 Large rotating mass Provides stored energy to power system through phase where no work is produced. Fixed to shaft via key way and two set screws

10 Initial Testing Observations Fabrication - Flywheel TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction Fabrication Initial Engine Tests How it Works Refinement Improvements Final Assembly Temp Acquisition Lens Testing Troubleshooting Optimization Budget Conclusions Sponsors Questions MECH 4020 TEAM 04 All engine components were unmodified Heat source - propylene torch (350˚C on hot cylinder head) Initial operation of the engine was unsuccessful

11 How It Works Fabrication - Flywheel TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction Fabrication Initial Engine Tests How it Works Refinement Improvements Final Assembly Temp Acquisition Lens Testing Troubleshooting Optimization Budget Conclusions Sponsors Questions MECH 4020 TEAM 04 Alpha Stirling Engine

12 Design Refinements Initial Testing Observations TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction Fabrication Initial Engine Tests How it Works Refinement Improvements Final Assembly Temp Acquisition Lens Testing Troubleshooting Optimization Budget Conclusions Sponsors Questions MECH 4020 TEAM 04 Rapid heat transfer from hot cylinder to aluminum frame. Entire engine became heated Solution: 0.125” gap removed from cylinder clamps to allow for insulation layer Insulation: Teflon header wrap and fiberglass paper 0.125” Hot cylinder insulation. Hot Cylinder Insulation

13 Design Refinements TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction Fabrication Initial Engine Tests How it Works Refinement Improvements Final Assembly Temp Acquisition Lens Testing Troubleshooting Optimization Budget Conclusions Sponsors Questions MECH 4020 TEAM 04 Isolation of hot cylinder from frame Cylinder head reaches 550˚C Frame adjacent to cylinder head reaches a max. temperature of 65˚C Frame transfers almost no heat to cold cylinder Infrared Image Frame: 65°C Cylinder Head: 550°C Temperatures acquired through use of thermocouples. Image does not represent listed temperatures.

14 Design Refinements TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction Fabrication Initial Engine Tests How it Works Refinement Improvements Final Assembly Temp Acquisition Lens Testing Troubleshooting Optimization Budget Conclusions Sponsors Questions MECH 4020 TEAM 04 Cylinder Compression caused frame bending. Flywheel not heavy enough to overcome Solution: Reduce stroke length from original 2.5” to 1.75” Stroke length further reduced to 1.125” Cylinder pressure drastically reduced, performance gains achieved Compression Reduction Original position 1.25” 0.375” ” Final position ” Crank with modified stroke length.

15 Design Refinements TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction Fabrication Initial Engine Tests How it Works Refinement Improvements Final Assembly Temp Acquisition Lens Testing Troubleshooting Optimization Budget Conclusions Sponsors Questions MECH 4020 TEAM 04 Heat Damage to Transfer Tube Unable to perform testing due to heat damage to rubber tube. Solution #1: 0.5” copper pipe sealed to brass fittings with JB weld. Fitting on hot cylinder becomes too hot for solder connection. Problem: Extreme temperatures caused the JB weld to break down, reducing the integrity of the transfer tube. Hot SideCold Side Heat Damaged Seal Copper transfer tube.

16 Design Refinements TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction Fabrication Initial Engine Tests How it Works Refinement Improvements Final Assembly Temp Acquisition Lens Testing Troubleshooting Optimization Budget Conclusions Sponsors Questions MECH 4020 TEAM 04 Heat Damage to Transfer Tube Solution #2: Threaded steel fittings, all joints were threaded, eliminating faulty connections Steel fittings withstood repeated testing without diminished integrity Hot Gas to Cold CylinderCool Gas to Hot Cylinder Steel transfer tube.

17 Performance Improvements Design Refinements TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction Fabrication Initial Engine Tests How it Works Refinement Improvements Final Assembly Temp Acquisition Lens Testing Troubleshooting Optimization Budget Conclusions Sponsors Questions MECH 4020 TEAM 04 Internal Heat Exchangers Challenge: Maximize thermal efficiency Solution #1: Internal heat exchangers Modified vehicle radiator fins cut to internal cylinder diameter and positioned adjacent to cylinder head Modified vehicle radiator.

18 Performance Improvements TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction Fabrication Initial Engine Tests How it Works Refinement Improvements Final Assembly Temp Acquisition Lens Testing Troubleshooting Optimization Budget Conclusions Sponsors Questions MECH 4020 TEAM 04 Internal Heat Exchangers Fins encased in aluminum sleeve for intimate contact with cylinder walls Heat exchangers in direct path of gas flow Performance increase were noted during testing Internal Fin Heat Exchangers Internal Heat Exchangers.

19 Performance Improvements TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction Fabrication Initial Engine Tests How it Works Refinement Improvements Final Assembly Temp Acquisition Lens Testing Troubleshooting Optimization Budget Conclusions Sponsors Questions MECH 4020 TEAM 04 Regenerator Original design called for the use of a regenerator Regenerator is similar to the economizer of a steam power plant Regenerator design: 0.75” steel pipe with threaded flanged ends Steel wool packed inside steel pipe Thermal Mass: Steel Wool Regenerator design.

20 Performance Improvements TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction Fabrication Initial Engine Tests How it Works Refinement Improvements Final Assembly Temp Acquisition Lens Testing Troubleshooting Optimization Budget Conclusions Sponsors Questions MECH 4020 TEAM 04 Regenerator Steel wool has large surface area for efficient heat transfer with working gas Regenerator strips heat from gas as it flows into cold cylinder and returns much of that heat to the cooled gas as it travels back into the hot cylinder Thermal efficiency of the engine is greatly improved Regenerator positioning. Thermal mass in path of gas flow

21 Final Assembly Performance Improvements TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction Fabrication Initial Engine Tests How it Works Refinement Improvements Final Assembly Temp Acquisition Lens Testing Troubleshooting Optimization Budget Conclusions Sponsors Questions MECH 4020 TEAM 04 Operational Configuration Components Ice water bath for cooling Regenerator Internal heat exchangers Reduced stroke length (1.125”) Insulated hot cylinder Engine Configuration.

22 Temperature Acquisition Final Assembly TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction Fabrication Initial Engine Tests How it Works Refinement Improvements Final Assembly Temp Acquisition Lens Testing Troubleshooting Optimization Budget Conclusions Sponsors Questions MECH 4020 TEAM 04 Infrared temperature gun – Initial Testing Type K (CHROMEGA®-ALOMEGA®) thermocouples Surface - surface temperatures Probe with compression fitting – Working fluid temperatures Omega MDSSi8 - Digital thermometer

23 Temperature Acquisition TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction Fabrication Initial Engine Tests How it Works Refinement Improvements Final Assembly Temp Acquisition Lens Testing Troubleshooting Optimization Budget Conclusions Sponsors Questions MECH 4020 TEAM 04 1)Hot cylinder wall 2)Hot Side Cylinder Clamp 3)Hot Cylinder Head Fluid 4)Regenerator 5)Cold Cylinder Head Fluid 6)Cold Cylinder Head 7)Hot Cylinder Head - IR 1)Hot cylinder wall 2)Hot Side Cylinder Clamp 3)Hot Cylinder Head Fluid 4)Regenerator 5)Cold Cylinder Head Fluid 6)Cold Cylinder Head 7)Hot Cylinder Head - IR 7

24 Fresnel Lens Testing Temperature Acquisition TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction Fabrication Initial Engine Tests How it Works Refinement Improvements Final Assembly Temp Acquisition Lens Testing Troubleshooting Optimization Budget Conclusions Sponsors Questions MECH 4020 TEAM 04 March 23 rd, 2009 at 2:00 pm

25 Fresnel Lens Testing TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction Fabrication Initial Engine Tests How it Works Refinement Improvements Final Assembly Temp Acquisition Lens Testing Troubleshooting Optimization Budget Conclusions Sponsors Questions MECH 4020 TEAM 04 Torch – double the heating potential The engine has the potential to operate using the lens

26 Troubleshooting Fresnel Lens Testing TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction Fabrication Initial Engine Tests How it Works Refinement Improvements Final Assembly Temp Acquisition Lens Testing Troubleshooting Optimization Budget Conclusions Sponsors Questions MECH 4020 TEAM 04 Iterative testing process Evolution of design Gradual performance improvements Total of 8 testing configurations were tested Learning process to understand effects of changing parameters Three performance criteria w/ solutions Pressure – Compression Ratio 1.Stroke length reduction 2.5” ↔ 1.75” ↔ 1.125” 2.Increase dead space low ↔ medium ↔ high 3.Increase flywheel size Heat Transfer 1.Internal heat exchangers 2.Increase heat input solar ↔ propane ↔ propylene ↔acetylene 3.Addition of regenerator 4.Insulation of temperature shorts 5.High performance working fluid (e.g. Helium) Friction 1.Lubrication methodoil ↔ dry ↔ graphite 2.Alignment checks

27 Optimization Troubleshooting TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction Fabrication Initial Engine Tests How it Works Refinement Improvements Final Assembly Temp Acquisition Lens Testing Troubleshooting Optimization Budget Conclusions Sponsors Questions MECH 4020 TEAM 04 Test #1 – March 30 th, 2009 Configuration 1.125” stroke length Maximum dead space No lubrication Crude regenerator Results 30 seconds of uninterrupted operation Reading (°C)Static PrimingOperating Hot Air Cold Air Hot Head Hot Cylinder Cold Head Transfer Tube Clamp5356

28 Optimization TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction Fabrication Initial Engine Tests How it Works Refinement Improvements Final Assembly Temp Acquisition Lens Testing Troubleshooting Optimization Budget Conclusions Sponsors Questions MECH 4020 TEAM 04 Test #2 – April 1 st, 2009 Configuration 1.125” stroke length Minimum dead space No lubrication ‘True’ regenerator Results 60 seconds of uninterrupted operation

29 Optimization TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction Fabrication Initial Engine Tests How it Works Refinement Improvements Final Assembly Temp Acquisition Lens Testing Troubleshooting Optimization Budget Conclusions Sponsors Questions MECH 4020 TEAM 04 Test #2 – April 1 st, 2009

30 Optimization TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction Fabrication Initial Engine Tests How it Works Refinement Improvements Final Assembly Temp Acquisition Lens Testing Troubleshooting Optimization Budget Conclusions Sponsors Questions MECH 4020 TEAM 04 Test #3 – Run A – April 4 th, 2009 Configuration Maximum dead space Graphite lubrication Results 11 minutes 12 seconds of uninterrupted operation

31 Optimization TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction Fabrication Initial Engine Tests How it Works Refinement Improvements Final Assembly Temp Acquisition Lens Testing Troubleshooting Optimization Budget Conclusions Sponsors Questions MECH 4020 TEAM 04 Test #3 – Comparison to Theory ParameterTheory - AprilTest 3 - ATest 3 - BTest 3 - C Mean Pressure (psig)5.17< 1 RPM Hot Temp (°C) Cold Temp (°C)01720 Net Power Output (mW) n/a

32 Optimization TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction Fabrication Initial Engine Tests How it Works Refinement Improvements Final Assembly Temp Acquisition Lens Testing Troubleshooting Optimization Budget Conclusions Sponsors Questions MECH 4020 TEAM 04

33 Budget Optimization TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction Fabrication Initial Engine Tests How it Works Refinement Improvements Final Assembly Temp Acquisition Lens Testing Troubleshooting Optimization Budget Conclusions Sponsors Questions MECH 4020 TEAM 04

34 Design Requirements Budget TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction Fabrication Initial Engine Tests How it Works Refinement Improvements Final Assembly Temp Acquisition Lens Testing Troubleshooting Optimization Budget Conclusions Sponsors Questions MECH 4020 TEAM 04

35 Design Requirements TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction Fabrication Initial Engine Tests How it Works Refinement Improvements Final Assembly Temp Acquisition Lens Testing Troubleshooting Optimization Budget Conclusions Sponsors Questions MECH 4020 TEAM 04

36 Final Configuration Design Requirements TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction Fabrication Initial Engine Tests How it Works Refinement Improvements Final Assembly Temp Acquisition Lens Testing Troubleshooting Optimization Budget Conclusions Sponsors Questions MECH 4020 TEAM 04

37 Sponsors and Thanks Final Configuration TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction Fabrication Initial Engine Tests How it Works Refinement Improvements Final Assembly Temp Acquisition Lens Testing Troubleshooting Optimization Budget Conclusions Sponsors Questions MECH 4020 TEAM 04 SponsorsIndividuals Angus MacPherson!! THANKS Albert Murphy Peter Jones Mark MacDonald Dr. Dominic Groulx Dr. Julio Militzer Thank you! Mechanical Engineering Class Notable Recognition Devon Balodis William Easson

38 Questions Sponsors and Thanks TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction Fabrication Initial Engine Tests How it Works Refinement Improvements Final Assembly Temp Acquisition Lens Testing Troubleshooting Optimization Budget Conclusions Sponsors Questions MECH 4020 TEAM 04 NO SQUARE PISTONS!


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