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Extend of Ownership Enjoyment of Land

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Presentation on theme: "Extend of Ownership Enjoyment of Land"— Presentation transcript:

1 Extend of Ownership Enjoyment of Land

2 ownershippossession Pemunyaan bermakna hak milik – atas harta alih atau hartanah. Pemunya tanah yg sah & berdaftar memiliki tanah melalui pemberimilikan oleh melalui pembelian (pindahmilik) dari individu lain. Umumnya pemunyaan termasuk: a. hak untuk memilikinya / mendudukinya b. hak eksklusif untuk menggunakan sesuatu c. hak untuk melupuskannya d. hak untuk mewariskannya selepas mati Pemunyaan bermakna hak milik – atas harta alih atau hartanah. Pemunya tanah yg sah & berdaftar memiliki tanah melalui pemberimilikan oleh melalui pembelian (pindahmilik) dari individu lain. Umumnya pemunyaan termasuk: a. hak untuk memilikinya / mendudukinya b. hak eksklusif untuk menggunakan sesuatu c. hak untuk melupuskannya d. hak untuk mewariskannya selepas mati Milikan menggambarkan sesuatu yang lebih rendah kepentingannya dari pemunyaan. Milikan bermakna sesuatu yang berada di tangan atau di dalam pemilikan/penguasaan seseorang walaupun ia bukan hak miliknya. Contohnya: penyewa tanah, penerima pajakan dan pemegang lesen pendudukan sementara (LPS). Tidak akan ada hak (c) dan (d) di atas. Milikan menggambarkan sesuatu yang lebih rendah kepentingannya dari pemunyaan. Milikan bermakna sesuatu yang berada di tangan atau di dalam pemilikan/penguasaan seseorang walaupun ia bukan hak miliknya. Contohnya: penyewa tanah, penerima pajakan dan pemegang lesen pendudukan sementara (LPS). Tidak akan ada hak (c) dan (d) di atas. Harta (property): Harta tak alih (immovable) - adalah harta yang tidak boleh dialihkan iaitu tanah dan semua yang melekat padanya. Harta tak alih (immovable) - adalah harta yang tidak boleh dialihkan iaitu tanah dan semua yang melekat padanya. Harta alih (moveable) - adalah harta selain dari hartanah termasuklah barang-barang dan chattel. Lawful Possession Unlawful Possession Tenant, Lease, Charge TOL Squarter Ttrespasser s. 5 – ‘Registered Proprietor’

3 Restrictions on Ownership 1. Natural incident of proprietorship 2. Acquired – easement under s Imposed – LAROW under s Compulsory Acquisition POSITIVE S. 44(1)(a) and(c) NEGATIVE s. 44(1)(b) PRIVATE AGREEMENT By STATE AUTHORITY Concept cujus est solum euis est usque ad coelum et ad inferos AIRSPACE BELOW THE SURFACE Piece of land Corbett v Hill (1870) LR Eq 671 Tam Kam Cheong v Stephen Leong [1980] 1 MLJ 36

4 s. 441(a) – Limb 1The exclusive use and enjoyment of air space Is there any need to balance the rights of proprietor against the rights of people Issues Does air space subject to ownership of the proprietor Woolerton and Wilson v Richard Costain Ltd [1970] 1 WLR 411 Bernstein of Leigh (Baron) v Skyviews & General (1978)QB 479 s. 19 (1) Civil Aviation Act 1969 Does proprietor’s right of enjoyment affected if negligence occur resulting to material loss an damage. Karrupanan v Balakrishnen, Chong Lee Chin & Ors [1994] 3 MLJ 584 s. 19 (2) Civil Aviation Act 1969 Private v Public Issue Common Law DevelopmentNational Land Code 1965 Absolute - No Restriction Not Absolute – 4 considerations s. 44(1) Subject to other provisions of NLC- Subject to any other written law- Reasonable and necessary- Lawful- Subject to other provisions of NLC- Subject to any other written law- Reasonable and necessary- Lawful- Kelsen v Imperial Tobacco Co (1975)2 QB 334 Held: Invasion of the plaintiff’s air space was a trespass and not a mere nuisance. Kelsen v Imperial Tobacco Co (1975)2 QB 334 Held: Invasion of the plaintiff’s air space was a trespass and not a mere nuisance. England: Rosebery Ltd v Rocklee Ltd [2011] All ER 139 Malaysia: Chen Yue Kiew v Angkasamas Sdn Bhd [2003] 4 MLJ 365

5 s. 441(a) – Limb 2The exclusive use and enjoyment of and the land below that surface Common Law Development Absolute - No Restriction Bulli Coal Mining v Osborne (1899) AC 351 Trespass of underground; steal a neighbour’s coal. It may be committed in good faith. Some circumstances would render the wrongdoer liable to a prosecution of felony. National Land Code 1965 Not Absolute – 4 considerations s. 45(2) – minerals, rock material and forest produce are belongs to State Authority. s. 70 – Exception under NLC: permit. Star Energy Weald Basin Ltd v Bocardo SA [2010] UKSC 35 Does drilling the well under Bocardo’s land an actionable trespass? Yes. The owner of the surface is the owner of the strata beneath it, including the minerals that are to be found there. Equity Corporation Sdn Bhd v Thye Sun Quarry Sdn Bhd [2002] 6 MLJ 74 Defendant sought to terminate the lease. Plaintiff seeks specific performance claiming that the defendant had breach the term – failing to obtain the quarry license and other permits in That leads the Authorities refused to issue a quarry license to the plaintiff in 1997.

6 Common Law Principle s. 44(1)(b) Concept National Land Code Dalton v Agus (1881) Yong Joo Lin v Fung Poi Fong (1941) Ohna Mohamed Abu Bakar v Tho Yan Poh (1914) At times be acquired for uninterrupted enjoyment Immediately upon disposal by State Authority Madam Chah Siam v Chop Choy Kong Kongsi (1939) Guan Soon Tin Miing v Ampang Estate Ltd [1973] 1 MLJ 25 Negative Right: does not give a corresponding positive right to support from the adjoining property, but merely gives a right to take action if existing natural support from the adjoining land is lost or interfered with – Ainul Jaria et al, p. 95 Right to the support of land in its NATURAL STATE There is no interference of human activity. If soil erosion as a catastrophic activity, no claim against adjoining landowner. Types Support for adjacent land Support for adjacent slope land Yip Shou Shan v Sin Heap Lee Marubeni Sdn Bhd [2002] 5 MLJ 113

7 Land abuts on the foreshore / river / public placess. 44(1)(c) Concept s. 5 of foreshore (between shoreline and the low water mark) Subject to: Any express provision in IDT, lease or license s. 46(1) – land affected by encroachment by the sea – revert to PBN s. 49 – cease to form part of the land - Government of the State of Penang v BH Oon [1971] 2 MLJ 235 s. 353(2) – re survey of the land having natural boundaries – no compensation payable by PBN - Re Sithambaram Chettiar (1955) MLJ 213 Admiral Cove Development Sdn Bhd v Balakrishnan a/l Devaraj [2011] 5 MLJ 309 Misrepresentation to the physical state of the property – accessibility directly to the beach

8 Thank you


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