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Debbie Richardson, M.S. Parenting Assistant Extension Specialist Human Development & Family Science Oklahoma State University.

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Presentation on theme: "Debbie Richardson, M.S. Parenting Assistant Extension Specialist Human Development & Family Science Oklahoma State University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Debbie Richardson, M.S. Parenting Assistant Extension Specialist Human Development & Family Science Oklahoma State University

2 Introduction Welcome Centra Instructions Overview of In-service Resource Materials 11/4/2008 Infant-Toddler Dev 2, D. Richardson 2

3 In-Service Objective Extension Educators will be able to describe growth, tasks, behaviors, and abilities of infants from birth through six months including physical, cognitive, sensory, and social development. 11/4/2008 Infant-Toddler Dev 2, D. Richardson 3

4 Infant Development General Areas Sensory (sight, hearing, etc.) Gross motor (head control, sitting, walking) Fine motor (holding a spoon, pincer grasp) Language Social 11/4/20084Infant-Toddler Dev 2, D. Richardson

5 Infant Development Depends on traits he/she was born with (nature) and what he/she experiences (nurture). All areas of development are linked. Each depends on and influences the others. What children experience, including how their parents respond to them, shapes their development as they adapt to the world. Relationships are the foundation of a child’s healthy development. 11/4/20085Infant-Toddler Dev 2, D. Richardson

6 Developmental Growth Sequence Cephalo-caudal: proceeds head to foot Control hands before feet Think before acting Gets teeth before he walks Proximal-distal: proceeds from center outward Trunk, then arms, then hands & feet Large muscles to small muscles Simple to complex: Talks, reads, writes Lifts head, sits up, creep, crawl, walk, run Feed from bottle before eating finger foods 11/4/20086Infant-Toddler Dev 2, D. Richardson

7 Developmental Milestones Physical or behavioral signs of development or maturation of infants and children. General guidelines…every baby’s growth is unique and all grow and develop at different rates. Grow in spurts - a new behavior may appear one day and disappear for several days or weeks. A child may also regress. 11/4/20087Infant-Toddler Dev 2, D. Richardson

8 Sensory Development All senses are developed by 7th month in utero. From birth, an infant learns about people and things through the use of 5 senses: touch, sound, smell, taste, and sight. Responsive to touch, temperature change, and pain. At birth, can identify people by their odor and show responses to pleasant or unpleasant smells. By 2 weeks, can distinguish between sweet and bitter taste; prefers sweet vs. sour. 11/4/2008Infant-Toddler Dev 2, D. Richardson8

9 Hearing Turns eyes and head in general direction of sound as young as 3 days old. Prefers low-frequency, rhythmic sounds and human voice. Selectively listens to higher-pitched voices. By 3 weeks, recognizes voices go with particular people. Vestibular (inner ear; balance) - responds to rocking, changing positions. By 2 months, head turns side to side with sound at ear level. By 3 months, determines where sounds are coming from; turns head to sounds. 11/4/20089Infant-Toddler Dev 2, D. Richardson

10 Vision Newborn sees within range of 8–12”; slightly blurred. Can track an object moving horizontally about 6” above. One eye may wander or both eyes don’t move together smoothly. Unable to perceive depth. Can see light and dark contrasts, but cannot really distinguish color. By 6 weeks, smoothly moves eyes together to follow an object. By 2 months, both eyes can converge on objects up to 24”. tracks moving objects up to 180 o ; prefers faces Differentiates patterned stimuli from plain; discriminate colors. 11/4/200810Infant-Toddler Dev 2, D. Richardson

11 Vision By 3-4 months: distinguishes objects from backgrounds with minimal contrast; gains ability to see detail. accommodates, focuses eyes with changing object distance. By 4-6 months: vision is clearer perceives relative distances color vision develops. turns head toward bright colors and lights. 11/4/2008Infant-Toddler Dev 2, D. Richardson11

12 Reflexes Enable baby to react to environment. Instinctual and serve as protection All infants born with same reflexes but responses are individual. Born with over 70 identified reflex behaviors. Most will disappear between 3 to 6 months. Most important associated with breathing & feeding. Crying often seen as reflex that alerts others of needs. 11/4/200812Infant-Toddler Dev 2, D. Richardson

13 Reflexes Babinski: Toes fan outward when sole of foot is stroked. Palmar grasp: Infant closes hand, "grips" your finger. Rooting and sucking: When cheek, mouth, lips touched, turns head in search of nipple, mouth open, ready to suck. Hand to mouth: When cheek or palm of hand is stroked, mouth roots and arm flexes to suck fist. Blinking: Tightly shuts eyes to bright lights or loud noise. 11/4/200813Infant-Toddler Dev 2, D. Richardson

14 Reflexes Placing: Leg extends (pushes away) when stimulate sole of foot. Stepping: When held upright and feet placed on a surface, lifts one leg then other like walking steps. Moro (startle): Extends arms, legs, & arches back, then bends and pulls them in toward body, with brief cry; triggered by loud sounds, sudden moves. Tonic neck: Arm extends in direction infant gazes, while opposite arm and leg flex inward. Head lift: Lifts & turns head to side when on belly. 11/4/200814Infant-Toddler Dev 2, D. Richardson

15 Newborns-Neonates Ave weight: 5-10 lbs.Ave. length: inches In first few days, lose about 6-10% of weight and regains or surpasses birth weight within days. Head is relatively large, ¼ of total length. Skull bones are separated, not fused: allows bones to slide over each other passing through birth canal accommodates rapid brain growth soft spots on top of head – fontanels All 20 baby teeth and a few permanent teeth are developing below gum. 11/4/200815Infant-Toddler Dev 2, D. Richardson

16 Newborns-Neonates Cannot support head without help; unable to support when pulled to a sitting position. Can slightly lift and turn the head Keeps hands fisted or slightly open, but can’t hold object. Arms and legs are flexed into body, although can move and thrust all limbs. Few expressions when awake. Make cooing, crying and grunting sounds. 11/4/200816Infant-Toddler Dev 2, D. Richardson

17 Newborns-Neonates Tells parent voice from strangers. Makes eye contact. Very brief memory. Experience only emotions of contentment and distress. When talked to by familiar caregiver, an interchange takes place that involves looking, listening, vocalizing, and motor movement. Discovers self-soothing - can calm self by sucking thumb and looking at parents’ face or matching mobile. Gaze aversion – shifts attention away when aroused to point of distress. 11/4/2008Infant-Toddler Dev 2, D. Richardson17

18 Second Month Briefly holds rattle or other object then drops. Roll part way from side to back. Closure of posterior fontanelle (back of head). Stepping and grasp reflexes disappear. Strengthening neck muscles; less head lag. On tummy, able to lift head almost 45 degrees. Less flexing of the arms and legs while on tummy. 11/4/200818Infant-Toddler Dev 2, D. Richardson

19 Second Month Coos and makes small throat sounds like gurgling. Smiles spontaneously; establishes eye contact. Crying becomes differentiated. Recognizes mother. Reacts to sight of breast/bottle. Makes vocal response to familiar voices. Learning to regulate their eating and sleeping patterns, and emotions which helps them feel content, safe and secure. Joy becomes a differentiated emotion. 11/4/200819Infant-Toddler Dev 2, D. Richardson

20 Third Month Stretch arms and legs all the way out. Sits when supported and can hold head steady. Suck fingers & fists; holds up hand & looks at it. Begins to play with hands; reaches for things with both hands and tries to hold them. Holds objects longer. Roll from back to side. Makes crawling movements. Scratches surface with fingers. 11/4/200820Infant-Toddler Dev 2, D. Richardson

21 Third Month Tracks objects in circular path. Glances between 2 objects (bell to rattle). Vocalizes more, cries less, makes louder sounds. Responds to voices; recognizes other familiar adults. Laughs out loud; squeals. Cries differently for different needs. Starts to understand cause and effect (ex. “If I hit the mobile it moves” or smile, coo, babble then pause and wait for a response). Imitation (e.g. sticking out tongue) 11/4/200821Infant-Toddler Dev 2, D. Richardson

22 Fourth Month lbs. and 23-27”; slowing weight gain Reflexes fading - Moro, tonic neck, rooting, grasping Almost no head lag while pulled into sitting position. Sits up straight if propped and supported. Stands with support. Can raise head 90 o when placed on tummy. Rolls from side to side or front to back. 11/4/200822Infant-Toddler Dev 2, D. Richardson

23 Fourth Month Tries to reach objects with hands. Grasp & play with rattle when placed in hands, but can't pick it up. Places and explores objects in mouth. Can hold toy and look at it steadily. Wiggles, kicks arms and legs; plays with fingers, hands, toes. Longer babbling, cooing sounds (aaah, oooh, eeeh). Laughs; Returns a smile. 11/4/200823Infant-Toddler Dev 2, D. Richardson

24 Fourth Month Responds to peek-a-boo games. Begins to show memory. Demands attention by fussing. Recognizes parent voice or touch. Repeats actions for a reaction (e.g. hitting mobile). Blows bubbles with mouth. Teething may begin. 11/4/200824Infant-Toddler Dev 2, D. Richardson

25 Fifth Month Double birth weight. May start to scoot or attempt to crawl. Able to sit alone without support for only moments at first, then up to 30 seconds or more; improving balance. Rolls from back to stomach. On tummy, can push up with arms to raise the shoulders and head above surface and look around or reach for objects. 11/4/200825Infant-Toddler Dev 2, D. Richardson

26 Fifth Month Begins to grasp blocks or cubes using the ulnar- palmar grasp technique (pressing the block into palm of hand while flexing or bending wrist in). Doesn’t use thumb opposition. Bangs with a toy. Begins wanting to explore their food and help feed themselves. Understands own name. Recognizes difference between lower voice of father and higher voice of mother. Turns head toward a voice; responds to voices. Begins to initiate interactions. 11/4/2008Infant-Toddler Dev 2, D. Richardson26

27 Sixth Month Pulls self up in sitting position. Stands with support and bears almost all weight. Creeps like army crawl on tummy. Able to sit in a high chair with a straight back. Able to hold bottle for short periods. Better at reaching and grasping; can pick up a dropped object; transfers object from one hand to other. Begins to realize that if an object is dropped, it is still there and looks for it (permanence). Plays with toys. 11/4/200827Infant-Toddler Dev 2, D. Richardson

28 Sixth Month Teething; first tooth/teeth may appear. Can locate sounds not made directly at the ear level. Responds and vocalizes to own name. Enjoys hearing own voice and experiments with own sounds; makes sounds (vocalizes) to mirror and toys; Makes consonant sounds and sounds resembling one- syllable words. Shows pleasure/displeasure with sounds; Prefers more complex sound stimulation. 11/4/200828Infant-Toddler Dev 2, D. Richardson

29 Sixth Month Begins to imitate actions and sounds. Laughs and squeals. Recognizes parents; distinguishes mother/father. Can tell when adult is happy or angry by tone of voice. Initiates social contacts by grabbing adult’s hair, face, clothes, glasses. Raises arms to be picked up. Differentiates fear from discontent. Begins to fear strangers (stranger anxiety). 11/4/200829Infant-Toddler Dev 2, D. Richardson

30 Communication Newborns use their gestures, sounds and facial expressions to communicate their feelings and needs from day one. Socializes by watching your face and exchanging looks. Asks for a break by looking away, arching their back, frowning, or crying. 11/4/200830Infant-Toddler Dev 2, D. Richardson

31 Smiling Appears at about 1 week. At 1 month, smiles are directed toward people. By about 3 ½ months, will smile in response to a smile or attention; will smile more to a familiar face than an unfamiliar one. 11/4/2008Infant-Toddler Dev 2, D. Richardson31

32 Crying Vitally important means of communication from birth. Inherent biological response in most humans to crying insures the infant's survival. Do not produce tears at first. Use different cries when hungry, tired, bored, cold, pain, anger, stimulation. At 2 months, will cry when left alone. Amount of crying in the first 3 months varies in a healthy infant, from hours a day. Infants who cry more than 3 hours a day are often described as having colic. Colic is rarely due to a problem with the body. 11/4/200832Infant-Toddler Dev 2, D. Richardson

33 6 States of Consciousness Quiet Sleep: No movements; still & relaxed; slow regular breathing. Active Sleep: REM, eyes move beneath closed lids; twitches, facial expressions, whimpers; brain is very active, irregular breathing. Drowsiness: Between sleep and awake; still, quiet, eyes open and close; can be roused into wakefulness; may be a bit disorganized. Quiet Alert: Quiet and active to stimuli; intensely look at persons & objects; eyes open wide, bright expressions; little body movement; regular breathing. Active Alert: Highly active; bursts of uncoordinated movement; irregular breathing; face may be relaxed or tense; fussiness. Crying: Contorts face, emits distressing sounds; communicating needs; may move limbs. 11/4/200833Infant-Toddler Dev 2, D. Richardson

34 Sleep Most newborns - about hours/day. Older infants - about hours/day. Usually sleep in several periods during day and night ranging from less than an hour to many hours. Periods may be related to eating schedule. Sleep/wake cycles occur in random intervals of minutes at birth and gradually increase as the infant matures. 11/4/200834Infant-Toddler Dev 2, D. Richardson

35 Sleep Newborn babies do not have regular sleep patterns. After a few months, many babies develop a more set schedule. Begin to sleep longer through night, yet still often wake up. By 4 months, most will have one 5-6 hour period of uninterrupted sleep. By 1 year, usually able to sleep through night with morning and/or afternoon nap. 11/4/200835Infant-Toddler Dev 2, D. Richardson

36 Bodily Functions Many are not stable in the first months after birth. Variability is normal and differs from infant to infant. Stress and stimulation can affect: Bowel movements Gagging Hiccupping Skin color Vomiting Yawning Temperature control 11/4/200836Infant-Toddler Dev 2, D. Richardson

37 Bodily Functions Periodic breathing (starts and stops again) is normal and not a sign of SIDS (sudden infant death syndrome). Some will vomit after each feeding, but have nothing physically wrong with them; continues to gain weight and develop normally. Some grunt and groan distressfully while making a bowel movement but produce soft, blood-free stools, and their growth and feeding remain good. This is due to immature abdominal muscles used for pushing and does not require intervention. 11/4/2008Infant-Toddler Dev 2, D. Richardson37

38 Feeding Breast-fed infants will feed about every 2 hours. Formula-fed infants should be able to go 3 hours between feedings. During periods of rapid growth, they may feed more often. An infant who is drinking enough will produce 6-8 wet diapers in a 24-hour period. 11/4/200838Infant-Toddler Dev 2, D. Richardson

39 Wrap-up Questions Discussion In-service evaluation Follow-up Next Session covers 6-18 months: November 13 11/4/2008 Infant-Toddler Dev 2, D. Richardson 39

40 References In addition to the provided resource materials listed on the in-service agenda, various textbooks and other reference materials used for this presentation are available upon request. 11/4/2008Infant-Toddler Dev 2, D. Richardson40


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