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Supporting facility & process flow Physical environment where Customer & provider co-production Chap. 5.

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Presentation on theme: "Supporting facility & process flow Physical environment where Customer & provider co-production Chap. 5."— Presentation transcript:

1 Supporting facility & process flow Physical environment where Customer & provider co-production Chap. 5

2 Supporting Facility & Process Flows Creating the Right Environment Chapter 5


4 Home Depot – Aisles are narrow – Ceiling high merchandise – Lighting is industrial – Check out line is long Lowe’s – Copy its rival first – Wide aisles – Bright lighting – Merchandise display encourage browsing Physical Environment shapes customer’s behaviors & perceptions

5 Environmental Orientation Considerations Spatial cues are needed to orient visitors. Orientation aids and signage such as “You Are Here” maps reduce anxiety. – Color-coded subway routes 5-5


7 Environmental Orientation Considerations Formula facilities draw on previous experience. Entrance atrium allows visitors to gain a quick orientation and observe others for behavioral cues. 5-7

8 Servicescapes Designing Physical Surroundings to Affect Employee and Customer Behavior Ambient Conditions: background characteristics such as noise level, music, lighting, temperature, and scent 百貨公司、美食街、夜市、名品店 Spatial Layout and Functionality: reception area, circulation paths of employees and customers, and focal points 大賣場、醫院、主題樂園、學校 Signs, Symbols, and Artifacts: selection, orientation, location, and size of objects 5-8

9 Typology of Servicescapes 5-9


11 Behavior in servicescapes – A building communicates a message to both its customers and employees

12 – Invoke social interaction between and among customers and employees Approach or avoidance behavior

13 Servicescape Elements 5-13

14 – Ambient conditions Temperature, lighting, noise, music, and scent – All of human’s five senses Music tempo – Pace of shopping, length of stay, amount of money spent Convenience store play “elevator music” – Drive away teenager » Loitering teen discourage paying customers from entering Cookie shop – Open doors to emit fragrance of freshly baked

15 – Spatial layout and functionality Arrangement of furniture & equipment – Visual and functional landscape for service delivery Fast food restaurant – Menu are posted over the cash register – Self serve drink between counter and table – Waste containers locate near exits

16 – Signs, symbols, and artifacts Explicit and implicit signals – Explicit – Implicit » Floor covering » Doctors office

17 – Servicescape Visual metaphor for organizational offers – Home Depot » Orange colors, bare floors, industrial lighting, generally cluttered look » Masculine image of construction industry – Lowes » Soft blue, attractively displayed merchandise » Female friendly image for the home improvement

18 Facilitate customer orientation – Way finding techniques » Color coded subway lines » Logical flow planning » Audible assistance » Google maps for store location » Website navigations Encourage social interaction – Waiting areas » with round tables for social interaction » with rows of chairs

19 Focus employee’s behavior

20 Facility design – Directly impact service operations Hospital – Group operating rooms together » Enable surgeons to communicate easily – Provide ample pleasant place to walk » Encourage early ambulation to promote faster recovery – Community dinning rooms » Allow patient to get together » Require walking

21 – Good design and layout enhance service Adequate lighting Fire exits Proper location of dangerous equipment Privacy & security

22 – Factors influence facility design Nature and objectives of service organization Land availability and space requirement Flexibility Security Aesthetic Community and environment

23 – Factors influence facility design Nature and objectives of service organization – Most important parameter – Bank » Spacious and comfortable waiting area » Vaults – Physicians » Privacy for patient » Modern and advance looks – Engender immediate recognition of service » 學校外觀、教堂、廟宇

24 – Factors influence facility design Land availability and space requirement – Costs, zoning requirement, actual area – Urban area » Lot is relatively small » Building expand upward – Suburban & rural » Lands are larger and more affordable » Zoning laws on land usage & exterior appearance – Off-street parking – Future expansion

25 – Factors influence facility design Flexibility – Adapt to change in quantity and nature of demand – Design for the future » Expansion for present service » Accommodate new and different service Walk-in, drive-thru » Significant financial saving in the long run – Airport » Failure to anticipate growth » Security check

26 – Factors influence facility design Security – Airport security after 911 » More sophisticate carry-on scanners » Wipes to detect explosive residue » Profiling (Info technology) – Surveillance camera for buildings » To discourage would-be robbers » To identify violator – Jails, level 4 labs – Department stores: tags on mechandises

27 – Factors influence facility design Aesthetic – Sense of elegance and attention to customer’s needs » Upscale department store » Floor carpet » Complimentary lighting » Well-groomed salesperson » Roomy fitting rooms – Sense of bargain » Outlet stores – Both offer attractive, quality services

28 – Factors influence facility design Community and environment – Traffic congestion due to new stores – Noise and odor of new restaurant – New detention facility – Zoning

29 Process analysis: Types of Services Processes Process Type Service Example CharacteristicManagement Challenge ProjectConsultingOne-of-a-kind engagement Staffing and scheduling Job ShopHospitalMany specialized departments Balancing utilization and scheduling patients BatchAirlineGroup of customers treated simultaneously Pricing of perishable asset (seat inventory) FlowCafeteriaFixed sequence of operations Adjust staffing to demand fluctuations ContinuousElectric Utility Uninterrupted deliveryMaintenance and capacity planning 5-29

30 Process analysis Flowcharting – Identify bottleneck operation – Determine system capacity – Making improvement

31 Swim Lane Flowchart of Graduate School Admissions 5-31


33 In Class exercise – Do your own service flowchart

34 Gantt Chart for Mortgage Service 5-34 Visual presentation of activity-based schedule

35 Process Analysis Terminology Cycle Time is the average time between completions of successive units. Bottleneck is the factor that limits production usually the slowest operation. Capacity is a measure of output per unit time when fully busy. Capacity Utilization is a measure of how much output is actually achieved. Throughput Time is the time to complete a process from time of arrival to time of exit. 5-35

36 Process Analysis Terminology (cont.) Rush Order Flow Time is the time to go through the system without any queue time. Direct Labor Content is the actual amount of work time consumed. Total Direct Labor Content is the sum of all the operations times. Direct Labor Utilization is a measure of the percentage of time that workers are actually contributing value to the service. 5-36

37 Facility Layout Layout – Location arrangement of the service delivery system – Functional layout 人力資源部門、會計部門 Indirect labor (maintenance, management) – Flow process layout Product – Job shop layout Project

38 Flow process layout and work allocation problem – Service with predefined activities that all customers must experience Cafeteria Driver license application – A well-balanced line will have all jobs be of nearly equal duration to avoid bottleneck

39 Example 5.2 – 6 activities process

40 Design #1 – Bottleneck activity #3 – Requires 6 operators – Capacity: 60 application per hour

41 Design #2 – Bottlenecks: on 3 activities – Requires 7 person – Capacity: 120 applications per hour

42 Design #3 – Operator trained to do all activities 1 – 5 – Line is most balanced

43 Job shop process layout – No particular fixed sequence Inter-departmental flow matrix Cost matrix – Traveling distance, – Minimize total cost CRAFT, computerized Relative Allocation of Facilities Technique

44 Job Shop Layout: Ocean World Theme Park 5-44

45 Mini case – Case 5.3 Esquire Department store 找一個當地百貨公司,某個樓層,畫個簡圖,給些 建議 – Case 5.4 Central Market 找一個市場或夜市,畫個簡圖,給些建議

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