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Supporting facility & process flow

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Presentation on theme: "Supporting facility & process flow"— Presentation transcript:

1 Supporting facility & process flow
Physical environment where Customer & provider co-production Chap. 5

2 Supporting Facility & Process Flows
Chapter 5 Creating the Right Environment


4 Home Depot Lowe’s Aisles are narrow Ceiling high merchandise
Lighting is industrial Check out line is long Lowe’s Copy its rival first Wide aisles Bright lighting Merchandise display encourage browsing Physical Environment shapes customer’s behaviors & perceptions

5 Environmental Orientation Considerations
Spatial cues are needed to orient visitors. Orientation aids and signage such as “You Are Here” maps reduce anxiety. Color-coded subway routes 5-5


7 Environmental Orientation Considerations
Formula facilities draw on previous experience. Entrance atrium allows visitors to gain a quick orientation and observe others for behavioral cues. 5-7

8 Servicescapes Designing Physical Surroundings to Affect Employee and Customer Behavior Ambient Conditions: background characteristics such as noise level, music, lighting, temperature, and scent 百貨公司、美食街、夜市、名品店 Spatial Layout and Functionality: reception area, circulation paths of employees and customers, and focal points 大賣場、醫院、主題樂園、學校 Signs, Symbols, and Artifacts: selection, orientation, location, and size of objects 5-8

9 Typology of Servicescapes


11 Behavior in servicescapes
A building communicates a message to both its customers and employees

12 Invoke social interaction between and among customers and employees
Approach or avoidance behavior

13 Servicescape Elements

14 Ambient conditions Temperature, lighting, noise, music, and scent
All of human’s five senses Music tempo Pace of shopping, length of stay, amount of money spent Convenience store play “elevator music” Drive away teenager Loitering teen discourage paying customers from entering Cookie shop Open doors to emit fragrance of freshly baked

15 Spatial layout and functionality
Arrangement of furniture & equipment Visual and functional landscape for service delivery Fast food restaurant Menu are posted over the cash register Self serve drink between counter and table Waste containers locate near exits

16 Signs, symbols, and artifacts
Explicit and implicit signals Explicit Implicit Floor covering Doctors office

17 Servicescape Visual metaphor for organizational offers Home Depot
Orange colors, bare floors, industrial lighting, generally cluttered look Masculine image of construction industry Lowes Soft blue, attractively displayed merchandise Female friendly image for the home improvement

18 Facilitate customer orientation
Way finding techniques Color coded subway lines Logical flow planning Audible assistance Google maps for store location Website navigations Encourage social interaction Waiting areas with round tables for social interaction with rows of chairs

19 Focus employee’s behavior

20 Facility design Directly impact service operations Hospital
Group operating rooms together Enable surgeons to communicate easily Provide ample pleasant place to walk Encourage early ambulation to promote faster recovery Community dinning rooms Allow patient to get together Require walking

21 Good design and layout enhance service
Adequate lighting Fire exits Proper location of dangerous equipment Privacy & security

22 Factors influence facility design
Nature and objectives of service organization Land availability and space requirement Flexibility Security Aesthetic Community and environment

23 Factors influence facility design
Nature and objectives of service organization Most important parameter Bank Spacious and comfortable waiting area Vaults Physicians Privacy for patient Modern and advance looks Engender immediate recognition of service 學校外觀、教堂、廟宇

24 Factors influence facility design
Land availability and space requirement Costs, zoning requirement, actual area Urban area Lot is relatively small Building expand upward Suburban & rural Lands are larger and more affordable Zoning laws on land usage & exterior appearance Off-street parking Future expansion

25 Factors influence facility design
Flexibility Adapt to change in quantity and nature of demand Design for the future Expansion for present service Accommodate new and different service Walk-in, drive-thru Significant financial saving in the long run Airport Failure to anticipate growth Security check

26 Factors influence facility design
Security Airport security after 911 More sophisticate carry-on scanners Wipes to detect explosive residue Profiling (Info technology) Surveillance camera for buildings To discourage would-be robbers To identify violator Jails, level 4 labs Department stores: tags on mechandises

27 Factors influence facility design
Aesthetic Sense of elegance and attention to customer’s needs Upscale department store Floor carpet Complimentary lighting Well-groomed salesperson Roomy fitting rooms Sense of bargain Outlet stores Both offer attractive, quality services

28 Factors influence facility design
Community and environment Traffic congestion due to new stores Noise and odor of new restaurant New detention facility Zoning

29 Process analysis: Types of Services Processes
Process Type Service Example Characteristic Management Challenge Project Consulting One-of-a-kind engagement Staffing and scheduling Job Shop Hospital Many specialized departments Balancing utilization and scheduling patients Batch Airline Group of customers treated simultaneously Pricing of perishable asset (seat inventory) Flow Cafeteria Fixed sequence of operations Adjust staffing to demand fluctuations Continuous Electric Utility Uninterrupted delivery Maintenance and capacity planning 5-29

30 Process analysis Flowcharting Identify bottleneck operation
Determine system capacity Making improvement

31 Swim Lane Flowchart of Graduate School Admissions


33 In Class exercise Do your own service flowchart

34 Gantt Chart for Mortgage Service
Visual presentation of activity-based schedule 5-34

35 Process Analysis Terminology
Cycle Time is the average time between completions of successive units. Bottleneck is the factor that limits production usually the slowest operation. Capacity is a measure of output per unit time when fully busy. Capacity Utilization is a measure of how much output is actually achieved. Throughput Time is the time to complete a process from time of arrival to time of exit. 5-35

36 Process Analysis Terminology (cont.)
Rush Order Flow Time is the time to go through the system without any queue time. Direct Labor Content is the actual amount of work time consumed. Total Direct Labor Content is the sum of all the operations times. Direct Labor Utilization is a measure of the percentage of time that workers are actually contributing value to the service. 5-36

37 Facility Layout Layout
Location arrangement of the service delivery system Functional layout 人力資源部門、會計部門 Indirect labor (maintenance, management) Flow process layout Product Job shop layout Project

38 Flow process layout and work allocation problem
Service with predefined activities that all customers must experience Cafeteria Driver license application A well-balanced line will have all jobs be of nearly equal duration to avoid bottleneck

39 Example 5.2 6 activities process

40 Design #1 Bottleneck activity #3 Requires 6 operators
Capacity: 60 application per hour

41 Design #2 Bottlenecks: on 3 activities Requires 7 person
Capacity: 120 applications per hour

42 Design #3 Operator trained to do all activities 1 – 5
Line is most balanced

43 Job shop process layout
No particular fixed sequence Inter-departmental flow matrix Cost matrix Traveling distance, Minimize total cost CRAFT, computerized Relative Allocation of Facilities Technique

44 Job Shop Layout: Ocean World Theme Park

45 Mini case Case 5.3 Esquire Department store Case 5.4 Central Market
找一個當地百貨公司,某個樓層,畫個簡圖,給些建議 Case 5.4 Central Market 找一個市場或夜市,畫個簡圖,給些建議

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