Presentation on theme: "Planned Language Approach What Is It? Why Should We Do It?"— Presentation transcript:
1 Planned Language Approach What Is It? Why Should We Do It? WIDA ConferenceOctober 23-24, 2014Joanne Knapp-Philo, Ph.D.Robert Stechuk, Ph.D.
2 PLA IS IS NOT A way to organize and support quality teaching Comprehensive and research-basedFor children learning English and for those also learning other languagesA holistic approach for teachersA curriculumQuick and easy to implementJust for Dual Language Learners
3 Outcomes Participants will: Gather introductory information about the Planned Language Approach, it’s research base, rationale, and key components
4 Diversity: What do we know? The U.S. has been undergoing a profound demographic transitionLast quarter of the 20th century and will continue well into the 21st century
5 “Diversity” includes cultures, languages, and backgrounds EHS/HS programs reflect the range of diversity in the U.S.!
6 Dual Language Learners OHS Definition of Dual Language Learners:Children –Acquire two or more languages simultaneously (i.e., from birth)ORLearn a second language while continuing to develop their first languageSee the ECLKC – DLL Home Page for more information linguistic/Dual%20Language%20Learners
9 What’s poverty got to do with it? Impacts begin during pre-natal periodVisible impacts forinfants, e.g., cognitionlanguageExtended impacts forpreschool-age, especiallyLong-term/cross-generational impactsRefer to handout(s): There is a large research base that examines the influences of poverty on families and child development.This research has expanded since Head Start was founded. Research has continued to expand our scope of understanding. The research give us both a long-term and short-term perspective on the importance of EHS/HS. What we see in the data is that the impact of poverty begins EARLY and then CONTINUES throughout the life span.
10 The problemA synthesis of the evidence, directed by the National Research Council, emphasized the alarmingly high incidence of reading failure in the United States….Approximately seven in ten low-income children do not become successful readers by the end of fourth grade (Snow, Burns, & Griffin, 1998)In brief, poverty and school success are strongly connected; therefore, PLA directly addresses this connectionReading failure, in turn, is at the core of why children drop out of high school, thus perpetuating the achievement gap.The long-term persistence of the achievement gap in the United States is key to understanding why we need to provide a Planned Language Approach for children living in poverty. It is also the foundation of the necessity for a strong and sustained sense of urgency among Head Start program leaders and staff.
12 Home Language: A Key Part of Instructional Design Children’s Home Language is the foundation of their school readiness, including their acquisition of EnglishA child’s Home Language goes deep. When it comes to understanding the importance of a child’s HL:We need both a general appreciation and specific knowledge that links understanding, decision making, and daily practices.
13 Importance of Home Language Children develop their identityChildren learn and develop social skills and emotional intelligenceChildren acquire cultural knowledge and identity
14 Children use their Home Language To understand themselves, their families and othersTo internalize the language they hear when parents and family members talkTo think and reflect on information about themselves, their families, and their communities
15 Importance of Home Language In addition, a wide range of cognitive (thinking) skills are developing within the Home Language, such as:ClassificationCategorizationLogical/cause-and-effect reasoningNarrative abilities (length and complexity)Concepts related to spatial relations/math
16 Importance of Home Language Many studies show that young DLLs transfer their knowledge and skills across languages over timei.e., skills developed in a child’s Home Language support reading in English and school successNOTE: Remind participants of the connections between developmental domains.
17 Importance of Home Language Uninterrupted development of the Home Language during the birth to age five period enables children to continue to develop the knowledge, skills, and attitudes they already haveIn addition, we want to maximize the knowledge and skills that children have as they enter school
18 Importance of Home Language to school success Phonological awareness in Spanish predicted English reading scores (Gottardo et al., 2002)Oral language proficiency in Spanish predicted English reading scores (Miller et al., 2006)See the OHS Multicultural Principles, pages , for a more complete discussion of the research
19 The Benefits of Being Bilingual Shares some reasons bilingualism is an asset to individuals, families and our entire societyHead Start staff can share the benefits of being bilingual with families, find ways to support children’s home languages, and encourage families to keep their language strong
20 The Gift of LanguageWritten for families of dual language learners in an attempt to answer many of their frequently asked questions.
21 Language at Home and in the Community for Families Offers eight things families can do every day to help their children learn their family’s language and become successful in school!
22 Language at Home and in the Community for Teachers Ideas to share with families – similar to what is written for families – helps you to see your role in encouraging families to share their language, culture and traditions.Activity (20-minute activity total)3 minutes - InstructionsDetermineEach group will read a different section (4 total; Cognitive, Social-Emotional, Learning, & Global) in the Benefits Handout.Determine important points that will be shared with members of your table.5 minutes – ReadingRead assigned section and determine important points to share with table.3 minutes per group = 12 minutes total - ReportingEach group report to table.1 minute – TransitionAre there 1-2 people who would like to share a thought or idea that was stimulated by this activity, information or handout?Let’s now discuss the overall value of being bilingual.”
25 ReadingReading is at the core of school success and long-term achievementOral language is the foundation for learning to readSpecific “predictors” of reading success are clearSOOOO, ECE should give children the experiences we know they need!
26 ReadingLearning to read is a profound developmental challenge for children (National research Council, 1998)Less than 4 in 10 school children are proficient readers…Important: “Proficient” readers share common characteristics (i.e., skills, knowledge and abilities).
27 ReadingChildren living in poverty are OVER represented in statistics of reading failure, as are children who speak a language other than English….butMost reading failure is preventable (National Research Council, 1998, 1999)
28 The “Big 5” of language and literacy development Background knowledgeOral language and vocabularyPhonological awarenessBook knowledge and print conceptsAlphabet knowledge and early writing
30 Background Knowledge includes All the information that children learn and store in memory about themselves, other people, objects, and the world around themBeliefs, values, rules, and expectations for behavior developed in different cultural settings and environments
31 Background KnowledgeDeveloped through children’s daily interactions and experiences within their family and in their communityDeveloped in one or more languages and can transfer to another languageOrganized in the child’s mind into concepts (schemas) that enable children to connect new information to their existing knowledge beginning at birth
32 Background Knowledge matters for DLLs because They may have different experiences depending on their family’s culture, language/s, social class, religion, emigration experiences, etc.Children are increasingly able to recognize and reflect upon aspects of different environments….this is a great source of conversation, word learning, and reflective thinking
37 Phonological Awareness A key predictor of early readingFor DLL children, must develop competence with 2 sound systemsChildren may be able to transfer skills across language, e.g., segmenting words into syllables
41 When teachers speak the Home Language Activities that promoteChildren’s enriched vocabularyLevels of executive functionSpecific approaches tolearningletter knowledgeprint concepts andphonological awarenessIn the home language
42 When teachers speak the Home Language High-quality adult child interactionsExtended conversations that build vocabulary and elaborate upon ideas and informationDaily book-reading combined with multiple oral language strategies, e.g.Talking about the book before and after the storyExplaining new words during reading, etc.
43 When teachers speak English only When teachers do not share the same language as the children they sometimes are “thrown off”Teachers have the ability—not only to communicate—but to have a significant impact upon children’s development and to effectively model EnglishWe want everyone to understand and implement effective models of English for ALL children
44 When teachers speak English only Language acquisition… does not occur in isolation, it involves multiple, simultaneous levels of activityChildren get (and stay) involved in activities (physical level) and…… They process information mentally as the activity continues (cognitive level)…… Over time, children acquire language as part of their involvement in the activity (language level)
46 When teachers speak English only Modeling EnglishGet the child involved in an activity that they enjoy; offer the child choices of activities as needed…As the activity continues, observe the child’s actions…Provide language models related to the child’s ongoing activity (for example, the “self-talk” and “parallel talk” strategies within the CLASS instrument)
47 Other strategies that work Tapes with family members telling/reading favorite storiesCultural artifacts suggested by families to make the environment feel more comfortableA quiet space for timeoutRegular, planned, intentional repetition and practice
48 More strategies that work in Dual Language and English only classrooms Self-TalkParallel TalkOpen-ended questions and propsUsing the L1
49 Proven ways to promote language and literacy development for DLLs When teachers speak English only ScaffoldingPair-Think/BuddiesDialogic ReadingProject ApproachesBooks in Home Language and EnglishPersonalized Oral Language LearningWriting StrategiesAnd Many More
51 Translation/Interpretation Human Resources/ Hiring PracticesClassroom Language ModelsIntentional Ongoing Professional DevelopmentProgram GoalsFocused Monitoring/Record Keeping/Data- Driven Decisions and ActionsLanguage Policies & Practices: Linking individual classrooms to a program-wide approach
52 Program Translation/ Interpretation Policies and Practices Definition:Translation – writtenInterpretation – spoken
53 Program Translation/ Interpretation Policies and Practices HR practices clearly state qualifications for both translators and interpretersSpecific interview questions for ALL staff that assesses an applicant’sKnowledge of L1/L2 andAttitudes about cultural and linguistic diversity
54 Human Resources/ Hiring Practices Clear job descriptions for translators and interpretersSystems to assure and build staff abilities, including:ProfessionalismStrong language models for childrenConnecting with and supporting families
55 Human Resources/ Hiring Practices Job Descriptions that clearly state the expectation that teaching staff are high quality language models in all their languages.Ongoing Professional Development and Coaching that ensures all teaching staff are good language models
56 Human Resources/ Staff Development Practices Evaluation practices that ensure all classroom staff use research-based language and literacy practices that promote children’s learning
57 Classroom Language Models A central, research-based teaching design that takes into account:languages spoken by the childrenlanguages spoken by the teaching staffthe priorities and resources of the district/agency
58 Recommended Classroom Language Models Home LanguageEnglish LanguageDual LanguageEnglish with Home Language Support
59 Language Model Home Language ALL the children speak one home language, (e.g. Spanish)ANDALL the teaching staff speak Spanish well
60 Language Model English Only ALL the children speak only EnglishANDALL the teaching staff speak English well
61 Language Model Dual Language The children speak English and/or another common language (e.g. Mandarin)Teaching staff speak English and that language (e.g. Mandarin)
62 Dual Language Model #1 Alternate days In each language, e.g., over a 2-week cycle throughout the school yearWeek 1MonTueWedThuFriSpanishEnglishWeek 2Wes
63 Dual Language Model #2 Alternate languages For designated, equal times,each day throughout the school yearWeek 1MonTueWedThuFriAMPMHebrewEnglishWeek 2Wes
64 Language Model English with home language support Children speak multiple languagesAll teachers are strong language models in English ( may or may not speak a second language)Instruction takes place in EnglishALL the home languages of the children are supported in the classroom and through engaging families in the effort as well
65 Family EngagementEngage families to promote their child’s ability in their home language throughout the child’s lifeProvide families with the skills to promote language and literacy development in home languageGather feedback from families about the best ways to support them and then follow their suggestions
66 Intentional, ongoing professional development Culture of continuous improvementOn-going mentoring/coaching with the goal of refining teaching practicesProcesses that track and acknowledge teacher progress and change in practice
67 Planned Language Approach A cohesive, program-wide approach that connects contentknowledge,decision making,and practicesacrossProgram levelClassroom LevelAt the management level, the PLA informs EHS/HS Directors how to manage program operations in ways that maximize language and early literacy outcomes for ALL children. This includes informed and intentional management of hiring practices, professional development, classroom monitoring and work with families and community partners. Informs education managers and teachers how to plan and implement language and early literacy strategies to maximize leaning by ALL children.This includes having and developing detailed, specific knowledge3 of research-based strategies and practices, implementing and documenting these strategies and practices, and sharing information with families in collaborative ways.At the classroom level, the PLA guides programs to base daily classroom practices upon the research base. In addition, the approach guides programs to consider specific classroom configurations – i.e., the language(s) of the children enrolled as well the language(s) of their teachers – in order to make informed decisions about the selection and implementation of strategies and practices.
68 Sometimes the questions are COMPLICATED and theanswers areSIMPLE!--Dr. Seuss