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A gastrovascular cavity… Functions in both digestion and distribution of nutrients All of the above Is found in cnidarians and annelids Has a single opening.

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Presentation on theme: "A gastrovascular cavity… Functions in both digestion and distribution of nutrients All of the above Is found in cnidarians and annelids Has a single opening."— Presentation transcript:

1 A gastrovascular cavity… Functions in both digestion and distribution of nutrients All of the above Is found in cnidarians and annelids Has a single opening for ingestion and elimination, but a separate opening for gas exchange

2 Which of the following is NOT a similarity between open and closed circulatory systems? Some of the circulation of blood is a result of movements of the body All tissues come into close contact with the circulating body fluid so that the exchange of nutrients and wastes can take place Some sort of pumping device helps to move blood through the body The blood and interstitial fluid are distinguishable from each other

3 A heartbeat in humans is initiated by the AV node None of the above SA node Superior and inferior vena cavae

4 If all the body’s capillaries were open at one time… Resistance to blood flow would increase The amount of blood returning to the heart would increase Blood pressure would fall dramatically Blood would move too rapidly through the capillary beds

5 Fibrinogen is… A cell fragment involved in the blood clotting mechanism Both B and C A blood protein that escorts lipids through the circulatory system A blood protein that is converted to fibrin to form a blood clot

6 In countercurrent exchange… Oxygen is exchanged for carbon dioxide The capillaries of the lung pick up more oxygen than do tissue capillaries The flow of fluids in opposite directions maintains a favorable diffusion gradient along the length of an exchange surface Double circulation keeps oxygenated and deoxygenated blood separate

7 In which vessel would blood pressure be the highest? Pulmonary vein Aorta Vena cava Right atrium

8 In which vessel would velocity of blood flow be the lowest? Pulmonary capillaries Vena cava Left ventricle Pulmonary vein

9 Of these structures, which would have the thickest muscle layer? Right atrium Vena cava Aorta Left ventricle

10 The nurse tells you that your blood pressure is 112/70. What does the 70 refer to? The velocity of blood during diastole The diastolic pressure from the recoil of the arteries Your heart rate The systolic pressure from ventricular contraction

11 Which of the following is incorrectly paired with its effect? Histamine – Causes blood vessels to dialate Lysozyme – attacks cell walls of bacteria Gastric juice – kills bacteria in the stomach Vaccination – creates passive immunity

12 Antibodies are… Proteins circulating in the blood that tag foreign cells for destruction B and C are both correct Proteins embedded in T-cell membranes Proteins that consist of two light and two heavy polypeptide chains

13 A secondary immune response is more rapid and greater in effect than a primary immune response because… Chemical signals cause the rapid accumulation of phagocytic cells The secondary response is an active immunity, whereas the primary one was a passive immunity Memory cells respond to the pathogen and rapidly clone more effector cells Helper T-cells are available to activate other blood cells

14 A transfusion of type B blood given to a person who has type A blood would result in The recipient’s B antigens reacting with the donated anti-B antibodies No reaction, because B is a universal donor type of blood The recipient's anti-B antibodies reacting with the donated red blood cells The recipient forming both anti- A and anti-B antibodies

15 Which of the following destroys a target cell by phagocytosis? Cytotoxic T-cell Plasma cells Neutrophil Natural Killer cell

16 Clonal selection is responsible for the… Proliferation of clones of effector and memory cells specific for an encountered antigen Formation of cell cultures in the commercial production of monoclonal antibodies Recognition of class I MHC molecules by cytotoxic T-cells Rearrangement of antibody genes for the light and heavy chains

17 All of the following are involved with innate immunity except… Chemicals that attract phagocytes The inflammatory response Plasma cells Antimicrobial proteins such as lysozymes

18 Helper T-cells play which of the following roles in an acquired immune response? Produce interferons and histamines that help initiate a specialized inflammatory response Bind to class I MHC molecules and activate complement proteins to attack and lyse cancer cells Present antigens of an engulfed pathogen in its class II MHC molecules to B-cells, which are then stimulated to develop into a clone of plasma cells. Activate both the humoral and cell-mediated immunities by releasing cytokines after recognizing class II MHC molecule-antigen complexes on an antigen-presenting cell.

19 What accounts for the huge diversity of antigens to which B cells can respond? The rearrangement of the antibody genes during development results in millions of possible combinations of randomly combined light and heavy polypeptide chains B cells have thousands of copies of antibodies bound to their plasma membranes The antibody genes have millions of alleles The antigen-binding sites at the arms of the molecule can assume a huge diversity of shapes in response to the specific antigen encountered

20 A freshwater fish would be expected to… Produce copious quantities of dilute urine Have scales that reduce water loss to the environment Pump salt out through salt glands in the gills Diffuse urea across the epithelium of the gills

21 Which is the correct pathway for the passage of urine in vertebrates? Renal vein—renal ureter— bladder--urethra Cortex—medulla—bladder-- ureter Collecting tubule—Ureter— bladder--urethra Nephron—urethra—bladder-- ureter

22 The process of reabsorption in the formation of urine ensures that… Drugs and other poisons are removed from the blood Glucose, salts, and water are returned to the blood Excess H+ is removed from the blood Urine is always hyperosmotic to interstitial fluid

23 What is the mechanism for the filtration of blood within the nephron? Both active and passive secretion of ions, toxins, and NH3 into the tubule A lower osmotic pressure in bowman’s capsule compared to that in the glomerulus The active transport of Na+ and glucose, followed by osmosis High hydrostatic pressure of the blood forcing water and small molecules out of the capillary

24 Which of the following hormones is incorrectly paired with its origins? Growth hormone – anterior pituitary TSH - Thyroid Releasing hormones - hypothalamus Progestins - ovary

25 Which of the following is an example of a positive feedback mechanism? The ability of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine to cause skeletal muscle to contract, heart muscle to relax, and cells of the adrenal medulla to secrete epinephrine. The action of secretin on the pancreas, stimulating the release of bicarbonate The liver’s production of insulin- like growth factors in response to growth hormone, which promote skeletal growth Prostaglandins released from placental cells promoting muscle contraction during childbirth, with muscle contractions stimulating more prostaglandin release

26 Ecdysone… Is involved in metamorphosis in amphibians Is secreted by prothoracic glands in insects and triggers molts and development of adult characteristics Is a steroid hormone produced in insects that promotes retention of larval characteristics Is a hormone secreted from specialized neurons that triggers the formation of a pupa

27 The anterior pituitary… Receives releasing and inhibiting hormones from the hypothalamus through portal vessels connecting capillary beds Is responsible for nervous and hormonal stimulation of the adrenal glands Stores oxytocin and ADH produced by the hypothalamus Produces several releasing and inhibiting hormones

28 Which of the following hormones is not involved with increasing the blood glucose concentration? epinephrine insulin glucagon glucocorticoids

29 Which of the following is not true of norephinephrine? It serves as a neurotransmitter All of the above It is secreted by the adrenal medulla It is part of the fight-or-flight response

30 The function of the corpus luteum is to… Produce progesterone and estradiol Maintain pregnancy by production of human gonadotropin Nourish and protect the egg cell Produce estradiol and disintegrate following ovulation

31 Which of the following hormones is incorrectly paired with its function? Oxytocin – stimulates uterine contractions during birth FSH – acts on sertoli cells that nourish sperm, promoting spermatogenesis Androgens – responsible for primary and secondary male sex characteristics Estradiol – responsible for secondary female sex characteristics

32 How does meiosis differ in the production of human sperm and ova? Meiosis occurs in the testes of males but in the oviducts of females Meiosis is an uninterrupted process in males, whereas it resumes when a follicle matures and is only completed in human females when a sperm penetrates the egg cell. Each meiototic division produces four sperm but only two ova Primary oocytes stop dividing by mitosis before birth, whereas male stem cells continue to divide throughout life

33 In what location does fertilization usually take place in a human female? Oviduct Cervix Ovary Uterus

34 Which hormone stimulates ovulation and the development of the corpus luteum? FSH Progesterone LH hCG

35 Which hormone is produced by the developing follicle? Progesterone FSH Estradiol LH

36 Which hormone is produced by by the embryo and is necessary for maintaining a pregnancy? FSH hCG LH Progesterone

37 Which hormone is produced by the corpus luteum and later by the placenta and is responsible for maintaining a pregnancy? progesterone FSH Estradiol LH

38 Which of the following is/are involved in triggering and maintaining labor? Oxytocin produced by fetus and mother, and prostaglandins produced by the placenta Prolactin produced by the fetus and mother hCG produced by the fetus A drop in progesterone caused by the disintegration of the corpus luteum

39 Which of the following is not true of the resting potential of a typical neuron? There are concentration gradients with more sodium outside the cell and a higher potassium concentration inside the cell It results from the combined equilibrium potentials of potassium and sodium. The inside of the cell is more negative than the outside It is formed by the sequential opening of voltage-gated channels

40 After the depolarization of an action potential, the fall in the membrane potential occurs due to the… Closing of potassium and sodium channels Opening of voltage-gated potassium channels and the closing of sodium inactivation gates. Closing of sodium inactivation gates Refractory period in which the membrane is hyperpolarized

41 Which of the following is incorrectly paired with its function? Schwann cells – create myelin sheath around axon Synaptic terminal – receptor that is part of an ion channel that is keyed to a specific neurotransmitter Axon hillock – region of neuron where action potential originates Synapse – space between presynaptic and post-synaptic cell into which neurotransmitter is released

42 How is an increase in the strength of a stimulus communicated by a neuron? The frequency of action potentials generated along the neuron increases All action potentials are the same the nervous system cannot discriminate between different strengths of stimuli. The spike of the action potential reaches a higher voltage The length of an action potential increases

43 Why is signal transmission faster in myelinated axons? These axons use electrical synapses rather than chemical synapses These axons are thicker and provide less resistance to voltage flow. These axons are thinner, and there is less resistance to the voltage flow. The action potential can jump from node to node along the insulating myelin sheath.

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