Presentation on theme: "Stalin’s Policies towards Religious and Ethnic Minorities Tia Byers Barbara Duker Paloma Figueroa Ana Guerrero."— Presentation transcript:
Stalin’s Policies towards Religious and Ethnic Minorities Tia Byers Barbara Duker Paloma Figueroa Ana Guerrero
Worship in the U.S.S.R Stalin created a “personal cult”. he was worshiped and glorified in art, music, literature, and dominated in many pictures. Stalin would usually be seen in white suits to stand out from his other government officials, because of this he earned the name “Uncle Joe”, an attempt to to create a image of himself as “friendly”, “kind” and “homely” man to be deemed the “father” of all russians. The people of Russia had to read what the state allowed, see what the state allowed and listen to what the state allowed. The state’s control of the media was total. Those who attempted to listen, read etc. anything else were severely punished. Everybody knew of the labour camps and that was enough of a deterrent. Children were expected to join youth organisations such as the Octobrists for 8 to 10 year olds and the Pioneers for the 10 to 16 year olds. From 19 to 23 you were expected to join the Komsomol. Children were taught how to be a good socialist/communist and an emphasis was put on outdoor activities and clean living. There was a marked increase in the attacks on the churches of the USSR throughout the 1930’s. Communism had taught people that religion was "the opium of the masses" (Karl Marx) and church leaders were arrested and churches physically shut down. Stalin could not allow a challenge to his position and anybody who worshipped God was a challenge as the "personality cult" was meant for people to worship Stalin.KarlMarxStalin
Worship in the U.S.S.R Leisure for the average Russian person was based around fitness and sport. Every Russian was entitled to have a holiday each year - this had been unheard of in the tsar’s days. Clubs, sports facilities etc. were provided by the state. The state also controlled the cinema, radio etc. but an emphasis was placed on educating yourself via the media as it was then. Positive: There was a stable government under Stalin. Negative: Millions of people died due to failed collectivization. Positive: Workers who did not offend the state were better off than under the reign of the tsar. Negative: “Land of Snitches”The secret police actively encouraged people to inform on neighbours, work mates etc. and many suffered simply as a result of jealous neighbours/workers.
Great Russian Chauvinism Main goal: Stalin wanted to assimilate the various national groups. Great Russian Chauvinism: This term refers to a form of nationalism associated with Imperial Russia, whereby the non-European parts of the empire were forced to adopt European Russian language and culture. After 1917, Stalin increasingly took this approach- leading to a clash with Lenin over the ‘national question’, shortly before he died. After the 1917 Revolution, the Bolsheviks campaigned against Slav and Great Russian Chauvinism.Native languages were once tolerated and even encouraged through literacy campaigns, and a degree of self-determination was allowed. However, this changed in the 1930’s under Stalin.Once he had decided on his ‘revolution’, Stalin’s desire for central control led to greater assimilation of the various national groups, in order to achieve a ‘Soviet’ identity. Many historians see Stalin’s policies as those of a Great Russian nationalist. For example, Russification of education was accompanied during the 1930s and 40s by a clear policy of equating Soviet patriotism with Great Russian nationalism.
Great Russian Chauvinism Cont. -Bolsheviks saw religion as aspects of a class-divided society -Marx 'religion is the opium of the people' 1928: -Stalin began a vigorous anti-religion campaign -closure and confiscation of places of religious worship -church bells were melted to use in blast furnaces -40,000 churches and 25,000 thousand mosques had been closed down and turned into schools had museums on Atheism 1929: -worship was restricted to registered congregations 1930: -church leaders were banned from conducting religious services -priests were sent to the Gulags or killed -the uninterrupted work week was introduced to interrupt church attendance. 1936: -the constitution made pro-religious propaganda illegal
Jews and Zionism ●Zionism is the social and political movement that supports the reestablishment of a Jewish homeland in Israel ●At the beginning of his career, Stalin supported the idea of a single Jewish state in Palestine. He believed in this state to agitate Great Britain in their duties in the Middle East. ●It was only in his later years that Stalin showed hatred of everything with the idea of Judaism. He ordered the destruction of multiple Jewish institutions. Stalin ordered the arrests of many Jewish creatives including writers and artists.The Jewish people were accused of espionage. ●Stalin’s death prevented a massacre on Soviet Jews that was on par with the Holocaust called the “Doctor’s Plot”